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l.ont>fm ;--KBGAN, PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER A €e.. Ld, 
Calcutta :-^THACKE«, SPINK & Co. 

1 8\) 2. 







Pharmacographia Indica. . By W. Dymock, C. J. H. 


Warden, and David Hoopeb, Pabt IV."^ 


The undertaking of tlie anthorS; in the preface of the first volume, 
to supplement the previous work published by Dr. Dymock with 
original investigation concerning the chemical c oiiiposition and 
physiological action of Indian drugs, and to give toxicological 
statistics relating to the more important drugs^ has been most 
conscientiously carried out. Consequently the present part, which 
completes the second volume, does not extend fuilher than Nicotiana 
Tabacum, and the two volumes ah'eady published contain, as nearly 
as possible, twice as much matter as can be foimd in the ' Materia 
Medica of Western India,' up to the same point. Yet there still 
remains enough matter to be treated of to fill at least one more 
volume. Several new alkaloids have been discovered dm'ing the 
chemical examination to which some of the hitherto unexamined 
articles of materia medica have been subjected. Of these some have 
received a name, but of others only sufficient has been obtained to 
indicate their presence. Of those which have received a name may 
be mentioned — Bahmanine from red behen root ; Nyctanthine from 
Nyctanthes arbor trhtis ; Jasminine ixom. Jasmmuni yrandijlomm ; 
Salvadoiine from Salvadora persica ; Tylophorine from Tylophora 
asthmatica : Dsemine from Dtcmta extensa; and Cuscutine from a 
species of Cuscuta. A new glucoside, to which the name of Dregein 
has been given, has been discovered in Dregea volubilis^ an asclepia- 
,i..^.„_ plant, and another, viz., gymnemic acid, in Gymnema 



Toxicological statistics form a marked feature in the present 
volume, the recorded cases of poisoning by Plumbago roseuy Nerium 



appear to be the poisons most conun 

pages in the case of nux vomica and thirty-two in that of 




• London 
pp. 305-644. 

Tieuch, Tnibner and Co. 1891. Demy 8yo, 

• « 

Luted concerning plants that are common in this countiy, but of 
which the- medicinal properties are almost unknown here. Thus 
Au'jgalUs arve?isis is said to be used in India as a fish poison and to 
kill leeches, and Orfila's statement to the effect that three drachms 
of an extract of the plant proved fatal to a dog, and M. Gronier's 
that the plant has a poisonous effect on hares is probably known to 
but few. SoncJiUs oleraceiis^ a common w^eed in this country, is 
mentioned as possessing active hydrogogue properties and being 
likely to be useful in ascites and hydrothorax. * Pharmacographica 
ludica' thus forms a work, the usefulness of which is by no means 
confined to India. Being brought quite up to date, it will be found 
very valuable for purposes of reference on materia medica generally. 
Here and there throughout the volume interesting- historical notes 

appear. In one of these, nepenthe is identified wi 

Hammer Purgstall's observation to this effect being quoted. 
*'Bondj;' the plural of which in Coptic is **nibendjV' is without 
doubt the same plant as nepenthe, which has so much perplexed the 
commentators of Homer. Helen evidently brought the nepenthe 
from Egypt, and bendj is there still reputed to posses^ all the 
wonderful qualities which Homer attributes to it. 

' Pharmacographia Indica,' like its namesake, is a work of reference 
that no student of materia medica can afiord to be without, and 
which is not only valuable for the accuracy of its statements, but so 
far as \U historical matter concerns cannot fail to prove most 
interesting to the student of Eastern languages, almost as much so 


as to the student of materia medica. The articles on poisons also 
should prove of great value to medical jmists, more particularly in 
India. Even the indefatigable searcher for new remedies will pi-o- 
bably find scope for his energies in the long list of articles of 
materia medica as yet untried in this country. One of the most 




bark of which, in doses of five grains, has been found by the 
authors to be '' a most efficient cholagogue, without pui'gative effect, 
but restoring the natural colour of the stools after the usual reme- 



ttoii.J in despair." With these few exracts, the reader may be 

^ "ft to dive ft>r In'm^AH inf^ -i-i.c^ i. i « -r-i , , - 


ii.._.u.. {Pharmaceutical Journal. July 11th 1891.) 

PHiLi Origiu met with in British India. WiUiam Dymock, 

* t • 


G.J. H, Warden; David Hooper, authors.' Part IV, pages 305 
642, with Index to second yolume^ - 

In noticing preceding numbers of this work which have come to 


hand we have remarked that these authors are doing work for the 
materia medica of India, which for completeness, value and interest 
entitled it to compare with the work done by Fliickiger and Han- 
bury in their famous Pharmacographia. 

In the present number we have in the pages before us an account 
of about 100 drugs, which represent the following orders: Com- 
positto, Campanulaceee, Ericacese, Plumbagineaa, Primulacese, Myr- 
siuefe, Sapotaceae, Ebenaceae, Styracese, Oleaceae, Salvadoracese, 
Apocynacea3, Asclepiadese, Loganiacese, Gentianaceee, Boragine^e, 
Convolvulaceee, Solanacese. 

The excellence of the contributions will receive the acknowledge 
ment of all botanists, and the reliability of the material is assured 
from the names of the authors, hence the work may be regarded as 
having all the information at present known of the respective drugs 
mentioned. The contributions to science by these gentlemen entitle 
them to warm praise, {Pkarm, Record. July 30th, 1891.) 

Pharmacographia Indica. — A History of the principal Drugs of 
Vegetable Origin met with in India. By Wm. Dymock, Brigade - 
Surgeon, retired, etc.; C. J. H, Warden, Surgeon -Major, Bengal 
Army, etc.; and D. Hooper, Quinologist, etc. London: Kegaa 
Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. 1891. 

Part IV. of this work, now before us, completes its second volume, 
and besides several orders of minor importance treats of the drugs 
procured from the orders of Sapotaceae, Styracese, Apocynacese, 
Asclepiadeee, Loganiacese, Gentianaceae, Convolvulaceae, and Solan- 
aceae. This part is characterized by all the excellencies upon which 
we have commented in connection with the preceding parts on their 
publication. Among the plants a nimiber are noticed which are 
either indigenous or spontaneous in North Ameiica, like chicory, 

Anasallis arvensis, dulcamara, stra- 
others are cultivated either for ornament or 



er purposes, like Tagetes erecta, calendula, jessami 
>m8Ba Bona-nox, capsicum, toba^nn nn.l /^fi.^*.o "Po^ 




of Pharmacy. August 



will be ready at Midsumm 


Index of more than 100 

donble-column pages^ is tinder preparation; and will be piiblished as 
soon as the work is completed. 




Vlg.-^Eng. Bot. mi., t. 549; Woodv. Med. BoL, i, 125. 
Great Mullein {Eng.)^ Bouillon blanc, Molene [Fr.]. 

Hab. — Temperate Himalaya. Westwards to Britain. 
The root, leaves, and flowers. 

Vernacular, — PMlla, Ban-tambaku {Rind.), 

History, Uses, &C. — The Hindi names for this plant 

^^ 4 

are well chosen: PliuUa signifies *' covered with flowers '' and 
Ban-tambaku "wild tobacco," As far as we know it is not 



it under tlie names of Adan-ed-dubb, " bear Vear/' and Mahizab- 


lock, " and in modern Arabic, Labidat-el-baida, '** wbite felt 
plant, '^ and Busir. 

Mabizabreb and Busir are Persian names for Mullein, wbich 
is described very exactly by Haji Zein in the Ikbtidrat. 

Mahometan physicians consider it to be hot and dry in ti 
third degree, and prescribe it in gout and rheumatism in com- 
bination with aperients. They identify it with the ^Xo>os- or 
^Xo/xfv of the Greeks of which several kinds are described by 
Dioscorides as useful in diarrhoea and cough, and externally 
as an emollient ; one kind, (f>\ofiU Xvxvirtv^ was used for making 
lamp wicks. The narcotic action of Mullein on fish appears to 



he well known to the Arabs and Persians. According to 
Dr. Stewart, the roots are used in Northern India as a 

In Europe Mullein Las long had a reputation in 
monary diseases of cattle, on wMcli account it bears ■ 

the pul- 

of Coiv's Lungwort. In Germany tbe plant is placed in grana- 
ries to drive away mice. The stalks covered with pitch were 
formerly used as flambeaux, from this practice the plant derived 
its names of Oierae de Notre-Dame and Fleur de qrand Chandelier 


The leaves and flowers 

are considered to be demulcent, diuretic, anodyne, and anti- 
spasmodic;^ and have long been in use in diarrhoea and pulmonary 
affections. An infusion of the flowers is used in France as a 
diuretic, and a cataplasm of the leaves as an emollient. The 
seeds are said to be narcotic, and to have been used in asthma 



Med. Jouni.) drew attention to the popular use of the leaves 
boiled in milk as a remedy for phthisical cough and diarrhoea in 
Ireland, and stated that the plant was cultivated in gardens on 
rather an extensive scale. He claims for it weight-increasing 
and curative powers similar to those possessed by cod liver oil- 


from 6 
8 being 



soft, whitish, stellate hairs. They have a mucilaginous some- 
what bitter taste, and a disagreeable odour when fresh, which is 

lost on drying. 

The flowers form a spike 6 to 10 inches in length, the corolla 

only is collected. It is from ^ to I inch in diameter 

yellow, 5-lobed, smooth above, and stellately tomentose 
beneath; attached to the tnbn hta f.TiA atamPTis. of 


which the 
orer and smooth. 
The taste is mucilaginous and somewhat bitter. The plant 
described by Haji Zein appears to be V. Blattaria, as he says 
that the flowers have a purple eye. The 'odour of the flowers 

been compared with 

orns root. 


Tlie seeds are about ^V ^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ lengtli, cone-sliaped, 
finely pitted, very tougli and difficult to powder, nearly 
inodorous^ and have a somewhat acrid taste. 

Chemical composition. — Morin {Journ. Chim. Mecl ii,y p. 223) 
obtained from the flowers a yellow volatile oil, a fatty acid, free 
malic and phosphoric acids, malate and phosphate of lime. 

um, chlorophyll 



found the constituents to be 0'80 per cent, of a crystalline wax, 
a trace of volatile oil, 078 per cent, of resin soluble in ether, 
1"00 per cent, of resin insoluble in ether, but soluble in absolute 
alcohol, a small quantity of tannin, a bitter principle, sugar, 
mucilage, &c. The moisture in the air-dried sample amounted 
to 5-90 per cent., and the ash to 12'60 per cent. He concludes 
that the plant contains many of the usual constituents, and a 
bitter principle which may be prepared by exhausting the drug 
with alcohol, dissolving the alcoholic extract in water and 
agitating with ether or chloroform. Several trials failed to 
secure this substance in a crystalline condition. It was found 
to be soluble in water, ether, alcohol, and chloroform, and to 
possess a decidedly bitter taste. It responded to none of the 
tests for a glucoside or alkaloid- {Am, Journ. Pharm., 
Feb. 1890. E. L, Janson (1890) found that petroleum ether and 
stronger ether used successively, extracted from the flowers 
about J per cent, in each case. "A decided change in the colour 
of the drug was noticed after the extraction with ether, which 
removed the yellow colour, leaving the residue of a dark green. 
The yellow colouring matter was either a part of, or else it was 
retained by, the resin dissolved by ether, and it was not found 
possible to separate it in the pure state'. The drug after 
exhaustion with ether yielded 10*06 per cent, to absolute alcohol. 
A considerable portion of this alcoholic extract Was soluble in 
water acidified with hydrochloric acid. When agitated with 
petroleum ether the acid solution yielded some colour to it, and 
this latter solvent on evaporation left a greenish- brown 
crystalline mass of a strong disagreeable odour and a^ sweet taste, 
which proved to be an easily decomposable glucoside. Another 


crystallme extractive was obtained by making tbe above acid 
solution of the alcoKolic extract alkaline and agitating with 
etber ; wbile cbloroforni subsequently extracted a red-brown 
amorphous mass. 


Botb of tbese extractives reduced Febling's solution, and many 
changes in colour were noticed, indicating that these substances 




per cent, of glucose, 1'29 percent, of saccharose, 16*76 per cent. 
of moisture, 4*11 per cent, of ash, and 32'75 per cent, of 
cellulose and lignin» No reaction indicating tannin was 
obtained with iron salts, but an aqueous solution of the alcoholic 
extract yielded a slight precipitate with gelatin. The seeds 
yielded to petroleum ether 20*75 per cent, of a bright green fixed 
oil. The acrid principle was obtained from the alcoholic extract 
soluble in water by agitating with petroleum ether. The mois- 
ture was 10*86 per cent., and the ash 3-90 per cent. (A?ner. 
Journ. Pharm,,J)BO, 1890.) 

Celsia coromandeliana, VahL, WigJd Ic, t. 1406, is 

an annual plant having the characters of Verbascum, w^hich is 
common in many parts of India -in the cold weather, usually 
appearing in fields or in the beds of rivers. It has much the 
same medicinal properties as Verbascum T/iapsus, and has been 
brought to notice by Dr. B. M. Chatterjee as a sedative and 
astringent in diarrhoea, {Phai\ of Ind.y p. 161.) The plant is 

in m 

The natives usually 


cooling medicine in fever, skin eruptions, dysentery, and such 
diseases as they consider to be due to heat of blood. 

The plant is herbaceous, pubescent, and viscid ; lower leaves 
lyrate, floral cordate, stem clasping ; peduncles longer than the 
calyx ; calycine segments ovate, slightly toothed, or oblong- 



Kukshima, and 

Kuldhala ; in Bensral it i^ known as 



A. Bratin^ 
Yig.—Burm. FL Ind., t. 39,/. 2; Wight Zc, t. 1459. 
Hab. — Sind, BilucliistaD, Afghanistan. The lierb in fruit. 

Vernacular. — Sannipat (Incl, Bazars). 

History, Uses, &C. — In Hindu medical literature and 
in popular use, San-nij^uta is a term wLicli signifies a combined 
derangement of the three humors, Vata, Pitta, and Kafa (air, 
bile, and phlegm), which is supposed to produce Sannipata-jmray 
or fever with typhoid symptoms. The remedy for this condition 
is said to be a plant called Sannipata-nud, " driving away sanni- 
pat," and Nepala- nimba, "Kepal !N"eem '^ or ^^ Nepal bitter/' 
At the present time the drug sold in the shops is ^S^. ^phiMrocarpa^ 
but whether it is the original Nepal Neem is difficult to decide, 
as at present we do not even know whether this plant is found 
in Nepal. In typhoid conditions the drug is considered to act 
as a tonic, to promote diuresis, subdue fever, and remove the 
derangement of the humors. AVe are not aware of any experi- 
ments having been made with it by European physicians in 
India, though its near relationship with the Antirrhinums, 
which contain glucosides similar to those of Digitalis, would, we 
should have thought, have excited curiosity in regard to its 
physiological action. 

Description. — The drug consists of the plant in fruit, 
broken up into small pieces. The fruit is a globular dry papery 
mucronate capsule, firmly attached to the calyx ; the upper part 
of the capsule to which the placenta is attached is double ; the 
placenta, which is large and oblong, is supported upon a thick 
peduncle, and occupies the centre of the capsule; to it are 
attached numerous straight 5-angled wedge-shaped seeds, 
which are packed closely together and fill the remaining space. 
The calyx is 5-partite, the upper segment very large and extend' 
ing over the fruit Like a hood. Leaves ovate, leathery, about 
1 inch long with short blunt hairs ; margin much lighter in colour 
than the rest of the leaf; seed straight, wedge-shaped^ with six 


promineiit longitudinal ridges ; testa tubercular, each, tubercle 
minutely granular. Tbe portions of stem^ wbicb are numerous, 
are woody and covered by a tbin grey bark ; tbe central pitb is 
very large. Tbe drug bas a sligbtly bitter somewbat tea-like 


Chemical composition. — The powdered drug treated with ether 
yielded a dark olive-green extract, consisting of chlorophyll 
and uncrystallizable fatty matter. Subsequent percolation 
with alcohol removed a deep brown extract, from which 
cubical crystals of alkaline chlorides separated on cvajjoration. 
An aqueous solution of this extract had a saltish taste and gave 
distinct precipitates with alkaloidal tests. The alkaloid was 
removed by ether in an amorphous condition, and gave no well- 
marked colour reactions with the strong mineral acids. By 
continuing the exhaustion of the powdered drug with water, a 
deep reddish brown extract was obtained havinj? a bitterish and 
nauseous taste, and containing saccharine and other matters 
which readily fermented. In order to ascertain if the drug 
contained a substance similar to digitalin, a fresh decoction of 
the powder was filtered and precipitated by tannin, the preci- 
pitate washed, mixed with an excess of alkali, and shaken with 
ether. The result was the separation of an alkaloid similar to 
that previously found. As more recent investigators prepare 

digitalin by exhausting with alcohol after treatment of the drug 
with water, this process was adopted with Schiceinfurthia. 
The resinous matter collected had an acrid taste, but no principle 
could be obtained possessing the properties of digitalin, 
digitomn or digitoxin, to which, according to Schmiedeberg, the 

poisonous quahties of digitalis are due. Besides the alkaloid, 
which we consider to be the active principle, the drug yielded 


Hook. IC. PI; 

Lindenbergia urtic^folia, Lehm., ^.... ... . .., 

It haa a faint aromatic odour anrl . «l,-I.i„ 1 



Marathi name in tlie neighbourliood of Bombay is JDhoL Box* 
burgli, under tbe name of Stemodia ruderaliSj gives the following 
description of it : — " i2ot> ^ramous^ seems perennial. Stems many, 
ascending, ramous, herbaceous, woody, somewhat viscous, the 
whole plant about 12 or 18 inches high. Leaves opposite, 
petioled, ovate, deeply serrate, soft, a little hairy; about an inch 
long. Petioles shorter than the leaves, channelled. Stipules none. 
Flowers axillary, subsessile, solitary, opposite, small, yellow. 
Calyx 10-furrowed, 5 -toothed, permanent. CoroZ personate; tube 
the length of the calyx ; both lips projecting, and shut ; apex of 
the under lip broad, depending, 3-toothed, of the upper one very 
narrow, bifid ; inside of both hairy, and beautifully marked with 
small purple dots. Filaments and anthers as in the genus. 
Stigma slightly 2-lobed.'' {Flora Indioa, III., 94.) 


w " 

Fig. — Pheedey Hort. MaL ix., t. 85, and xii,^ t. 36. 


Hab. — Throughout India, in swamps. The plant. 

Vernacular. — Kuttra {Hind.), Karpur {Beng.),Amh\A\{Mar.), 
Manga-nch'i {MaL). 

History, Uses, &C. — This small aquatic plant, in Sans- 
krit Ambu-ja, *^ water born,'^ and Amra-gandhaka, having an 
odour of mangoes," is considered to be antiseptic by the Hindus, 
and its juice is rubbed over the body in pestilent fevers. 
Rheede notices its use for this purpose, and also internally in 
dysentery combined with ginger, cumin, and other aromatics. 
He also states that a liniment is made from the plant with 
cocoanut oil which is used in elephantiasis. Roxburgh, under 
the name of Oolumnea halsamea, describes the plant and notices 
its grateful odour and aromatic taste. The Bengal name signifies 
" camphor." The odour of the fresh plant is remarkably refresh- 
ing and agreeable and calls to mind that of camphor and oil of 

L. gratissima, Ehecde, Hort. Mai X., 6, has similar pro- 
perties find hears t"he same vernacular names : it is also naedl 





Description. — In its most common form a simple or 

branched plant 4—8 in. liigli, witli wliorled pinnatifid leaves 
4 — I ill- long, wliicli, in wetter places, appears to acquire a few 
emerscd, opposite, entire leaves at the top of the stem, and 
nnmerons capillaceo-multifid ones at its base. The stems are 
stout or slender. Very small specimens from Roliilkund 
(Kuttra, Edgeworth) have very wiry simple stems 3 in. higH, 
and capillary peduncles tkree times as long as tlie leaves; 
otliers liaye stout stems and peduncles, the latter shorter than 
the leaves. Calyx |— ^ in. long, rarely larger. Corolla ^ in., 
blue. (^FL Br, Ind.) 


Fig. — Bot. Mag 



Hab. — Throughout India, in marshy ground. The 

Vernacular.— Suf ed-chamni, Barambhi {Rind. ) , Dhop-chamni, 
Brihmi-sak {Beng.), Nir-brami, Bamba {Mar.), Nir-brami 
{Tani.), Sambr»ni-aku, Sambrgni-chettu {Tel.). 

History, Uses, &C.— Dutt states that this plant is 

of the native physicians of Calcutta, where it is 
considered to be a nervine tonic useful in insanity, epilepsy, 
fever, &c. It is certainly not the Brahmi of the Nighantas, but 
would appear to be the plant called Jala-brahmi or ''Water 
Brahmi" by Sanskrit writers. Owing to a similarity in the 
names it has frequently been confounded y^iih Hydrocotyk 
asiatica, which is the Brahmi or Brahmi-manduka of the 



Soutliern India the Gratiola Man 

ennsidpr.a diuretic and aperient, and useful in that sort of 


stoppage of urine wliicli is accompanied witli obstinate costiveness. 
Roxburgh, mentions the use of the juice mixed with petroleum 
as an external remedy in rheumatism. These accounts do not 
agree with the jjroperties ascribed toBralimi by Sanskrit writers. 
Rheede says of it: — '^Ex frcqucnti hujus plantae usu, vaccarum 
ubera lacte turgent ; sit et dccoctura ex ilia in lacte vaccino et 
recenti butyro, contra delirium temporibus inunguendum ; 
Pipere, Oalamo aromatico, Myrobalanis et aqua oryzse trita et 
assumpta, vocem reddit sonomm/' In Pondicherry it is considered 
to be aphrodisiac, and in Ceylon, under the name of Loonoo^ 
tceehj it is prescribed in fevers. 

Description, — Stems several, annual, cn^ping, round, 

jointed, smooth, succulent; leax^es opposite, sessile, obovate, 
wedge-shaped, or oblong, smootb, entire, obtuse, fleshy, dotted 
with, minute spots ; peduncles axillary, alternate, solitary, round, 
smooth, shorter than the leaves, one-flowered ; flowers blue ; bracts 
2-awled, pressing on the calyx laterally; calyx 5 -leaved, the 
exterior three leaflets largo, oblong, the two interior small, linear, 
all are concave, smooth, pointed and permanent, corol campanu- 
late, border 5 -partite, nearly equal; anthers 2'cleft at the base, 
bbie; stigmo large, soniewljat 2-lobed ; capsule ovate, 2-ceUed, 

2-valved; ^eeds very numerous. {Roxh^^ Flora Ih(L, L, p. IIL) 

Chemkal composUmK — For Uie analysis the whole plant was 
used, dried at a low temperature and cxliaustod wath 80 2>ercent, 
alcohoh The alcohol freed extractive was then agitated with 
petroleuui ether ; ether from an acid solution, and again with 
ether from an alkaline solution, and /5nally with chloroform from 
an alkaline solution. Operating in this manner, a trace of oily 
matter wa.s obtained, sohible in alcoliol with acid reaction; two 
resins, one easily soluble in ether, the other soluble with difficulty, 
but both soluble in alkaline solutions and re2)recipitated by acids ; ^ 
an organic acid, and a tannin aflordinn^ a screen coloration with 

O "" o 

ferric chloride. An alkaloidal principal was also isolated, soluble 
in ether and m chloroform, and affording a cherry red colora- 
tion m the culd with Frohde^s reagent. Ko other reuctioni 
were noted. 




Flg,-^Eoylc III., L 71. 

Hab, — Alpine Himalaya; from Cashmere to Sikkim. 
The root. 

Vernacular.— Katki, Kutki [Hhul, Beng,), Katuku-rogani 
(Tam\ Katuku-roni [Tel), Bal-kadu {Mar\ Kutaki {Quz,). 

History, Uses, &C. — This well-known drug is tlie 
Kutaki of Sanskrit writers, who speak of it as Dhanvantari- 
grasta, " the plant eaten by Dhanvantari," the physician of the 



a cup of amn'ta in his hands; he was the author of the 
Ayurveda. In the Nighantas it bears the following synonyms : 
Eohini, Katu- rohini, Vakragra, Matsya-pitta, Matsya-vinna, 
Kanda-ruha, Krishna-bhedi, Dvijangika, Asoka- rohini, Saku- 
Iddani and Chakranga. It is described as digestive, bitter, 
pungent, dry, aperient, light and cold ; and is recommended 
-as a r-emedy for worms, asthma, bile, phlegm, and fever. 



given daily in decoctio 


boiled down to one-fourth. In dyspepsia and dysentery it is 
combined with aromatica and is given in doses of ten to 
twenty grains. 

be specially indicated 


secretions are 

olten proscribed for children _„ _ 

Marathi name ErilnL-nrln t<«v;ij »_ • 

scanty and the bowels costive, and is 


root gueu with sugar and warm water act as a gentle aperient. 
Mahometan writers give Kutki or Kutki as an Indian synonj-m 


and Its mediornal properties. This has misled most 
European wnt«s upon Indian drugs, but Ainslie, though he the drug m his article upon hluck HeUcbore 


{Mat, Ind. , I . , p. 1 64 )., has the following remarks : — "I have given 
the names Kadagoroganie and Kali'lcootkie as the Tamool and 
Dukhanie appellations of the black Hellebore, as the root 
procured in the Indian bazars is commonly said to be so ; but 
I have great doubts of it^ and I here ofier a caution respect- 
ing it,> as ifi hj no moans agrees in appearance with the black 
Hellebore of the European shops/* 


Royle {IlL e., p. 291) notices that the root of P. Kurrooa 
possesses much bitterness and m employed medicinally by the 
natives. Irvine {Mat. Med.^ p. 58) mentions the use of Kutki 
as a tonic, but owing to a general impression that the bazar 
drug was Hellebore root, European medical men appear to have 
generally avoided making experiments with it. Mr.. Moodin 
Sheriff was the first modern writer to clearly demonstrate that 
the bazar drug has no dangerous properties,, but is a valuable 
tonic and antiperiodic. He also identified it with the 
P. Kurrooa of Hoyle, an identification which we are now able to 
confirm through the kindness of Mr. J. F. Duthie who has 
supplied us with a specimen of the plant collected in Kumaon. 

As re2:ards the medicinal 


given by Sanskrit writers appear to be correct. Mr..M. Sheriff 
speaks favourably of it as a powerful bitter tonic and anti- 
periodic. Other medical men in India have expressed a similar 
opinion, and we can state from personal observation that it is 
used successfully as an anti'periodic in native practice ; its slight 
laxative action is rather beneficial than otherwise. The dose 
as a tonic is from 10 to 20 grains, as an antiperiodic from 40 to 
50 grains ; it is best administered in combination with aromatics. 

Description. — The drug consists of a. rEfzome, generally 
about tKe size of a goose-quill, but often no larger tlian a crow- 
quill, the lower portion of which is cohered by a shrivelled, 
greyish-brown', corky bark,, and marked by prx)minent scars, 
the remains of rootlets ; towards the upper end it becomes 
larger {{ inch in d iameter) „ and is thickly set with dark greyish- 
brown scales^ and terminates in a scaly leaf-bud or stem. ITie 
rhizome is generally broken into short pieces, from 1 to 2 


inclies long ; the fracture is short, the root very fragile and 
light, and black internally ; it has no odour, and a very bitter 

Microscopic stmctt^re. — Tlie corky bark is made up of niraier- 
ous rows of empty brick-shaped cells ; within this is a cellular 
parenchyma of oblong brown cells, containing a little granular 
matter"; next a dark brown line composed of wood cells^, form- 
ing the boundary of the inner column of the root ; within this 
several yery large bundles of dotted vessels arranged so as to 
form a broken ring, which surrounds a central cellular paren- 

Chemical composition. — A proximate analyas of this drug 
showed the following percentage composition : — 



Bitter principle (Picrorhizin) , 14"96 

Picrorhizetin 3"85 

Organic acid ppt. by lead 3-54 

Glucose 11-53 

Cathartic acid, &e. (water extract) ... 9-33 

Substances dissolved by NaHO ...... 7*62 

Arabin bodies from crude fibre ...... 14'56 

Fibre 2400 

Moisture 5-73 


The bitter principle is a erlucoside Picrorh 


ater and alcohol, but almost insoluble in pure ether. It is 
in reaction, is not precipitated from solution by lead salts 


is absorbed by animal charcoal together with 
matter that is present. It is best obtained by 
exhausting the powdered drug with crude ether, and is left, 
after the evaporation of the ether, in brown resinoid drops 
which form^ ramified ciystals on standing. It is difficult to 

picrorhizin in a crystalline condition after heating 

lution in water. Any wax remoTcd by the crude 

ether can be separated from the dry extract by petroleum spirit, 

which has no solvent action on the bitter principle, 'i^he 






picrorliizin is decomposed by liydrolizing it with a boiling 

1 per cent, solution of hydrochloric acid for three hours, and a 

decomposition product, which we have named TicrorJnzetin, 

is formed together with glucose. In obtaining 0'7 gram of 

picrorhizetin '368 gram separated during the first hour, '219 

gram in the second hour, -113 gram in the third hour, and none 

in the fourth. Weighed quantities of the picrorhizin, after 

drying at lOO^C, afforded, on hydrolysis, 62-48 and 6279 per 

cent, of picrorhizetin, as the result of two experiments. The 

glucose obtained from the decomposition was inactiA^e towards 

polarized light. An infusion or tincture of the root boiled with 

diluted acid gradually loses its bitterness, and a large increase 

in the sugar is detected by Fehling's solution. Picrorhizetin 

is a red-brown, brittle, resinous, tasteless body soluble in 

aqueous alkalies. It is insoluble in water, and its solution in 

alcohol is precipitated by ether. By heating with strong 

sulphuric acid or when being burnt it evolves an odour of 


The wax after bleacting, and purifying by recrystallization 
from hot alcohol, had a melting point of 51°C. The organic 
acid separated by lead was red-coloured and gave a greenish 
colour with ferric salts. No tannic acid was present. Some 
picrorhizetin was naturally formed in the drug, and existed 
in a much smaller proportion in the freshly dried rhizome. 
After removing the bitter principle by continued percolation 
with alcohol, the marc was dried and exhausted with water, 
the dark red-brown solution was evaporated to dryness, and 
•2 gram of the residue was foimd to act as a decided purn-e. 
The aqueous extract treated with four volumes of alcohol 
afPorded precipitates containing 14'5 and 15-3 per cent, of 
mineral matter, and with six volumes a precipitate was obtain- 
ed with 10-8 per cent, of ash. We rely upon the physiological 
action of this extract in considering cathartic acid to be a 

Commerce. ^Yuhxoy Rs. 9 per maund of 37i lbs. Kumaon 





Plants of minor importance belonging to tHa order, wliich 
have a certain amount of medicinal reputation, are : 

Torenia asiatica, Linn., Rheede, Hort. Mai. ?^., t- 53, 

tlie juice of whicli is given on tlie Malabar Coast for 

gonor rboca . 

Vandellia erecta, Benth., BJmde, Hort. Mai. ix., t. 57, 

called VaJca-jmshpi, or " crane flower," in Maratlii, is also used 
in a gbrita as a remedy for gonorrbcea, and tbe Juice is given 
cbildren who pass green- coloured stools. V. pedunculata, 
Benth. Griff. Ic. PI. As., t. 418, /. 2, in Maratbi Gadagvel, is 
considered to bave similar properties. 

Veronica Beccabunga, Lmn, Meichh. Ic Fl. Germ., 

t. 1701, is used in Nortbern India under tbe name of Tezah, 
** cress," as a diuretic and antiscorbutic. It is tbe Bacbbunge 
of tbe Germans, Cressonee of tbe Frencb, and Brooklime of 
tbe Engbsb, V. Anagallis, Linn. Reichh. Ic. Fl. Germ., 

i. 1762, wbicb has similar properties, takes its place in other 
parts of India. 

Sopubia delphinifolia, G. Don, Roxh. Cor, PI. i-, 

t. 90, is an elegant annual, common in wet fields in tbe rainy 
season. The juice is applied by field labourers to their feet to 
heal sores caused by exposure to wet ; it is astringent and 


The plant 
was formerly named Gerardia, after John Gerarde, our old 

English botanist, and author of the "Herbal,'' published in 
1597. ^ 

Pedicularis pectinata 

arc use 


name of Mishran on 

Biai^'ONIACEJIjJ. 15 



Fig. — Wi(jM Ic, t, 1337; Bureau Monogr, Bi(jn., t. 9; 
Uheede, Hort. Mai, e., t, 43. 

Hab. — Throughout India. The root-bark. 

Vernacular. — Arlu, Phalphala, Sona {Hind.), TsTasona, Sona 
(Beng.)y Mulln, Tdlpalang, Miringa {PunJ.), Tetu, Jagclala 
{Mar.), Tei\i[Guz.), Vanga adanthay (Ta?».), Tigdu-mara, Sone- 
patta (Ca;^.), Pamania, Dundillam (TeL)y Peiani {MaL). 

History, Uses, &C. — -Tliis is a small tree, remarkable 

for its terminal spikes of large flesliy lurid flowers, wHcli 
appear at tlie commencement of the rainy season, and are follow- 
ed by very large, retrofracted, transvei^sely compressed, some- 
what curved pods, with the convexity upwards. The seeds are 
numerous, membranaceous, surrounded with a large, delicate, 
membranaceous wing. The leaves are supra-decompound, and 
from four to six feet long., The root-bark is of considerable 
importance in Hindu medicine, as it is an ingredient of the 
Dasamula (see Trihalus terrestris) ; it is considered to be astrin- 
gent, tonic, and useful in diarrhoea and dysentery. Saran- 
gadhara recommends the juice of Syonaka expressed from the 
roasted bark in combination with Mocharas (sec Bomhax mala- 
baricum) as a remedy in diarrhoea and dysentery. He also says 
that the root-bark boiled in Sesamum oil is a good application in 
otorrhcca. In the Nighantas the tree bears many synonyms, 
amongst which may be mentioned Prathu-simbih, " having broad 
j)ods," Si1ka-nasa, ^^ having a nose like a paiTot's beak,'* in 
allusion to the flower buds, Aralu^ and Bhalluka-prlya, "dear to 
bears." It is described as digestive, appetising, bitter^ 
astringent, cold, pungent ; a remedy for wind, phlegm, bile, and 
cough. The bark is much used by the agricultural classes as an 
application to the sore-backs of draught cattle. It is ground to 
a paste with water and an equal proportion of turmeric, and 
rubbed on the part. Rheede notices the use of the bark as an 






application to wounds, fractures, &g., and of the root : 
in dropsy. 

Dr. B. Evers.statos that the Gonds call the tree 
and that they employ a decoction of the bark as a discutieut 
application to rheumatic swellings. He says:— "I have made 
a trial of the powder and an infusion of the bark, and have 
found it to bo most powerfully diaphoretic; the drug has slight 
anodyne properties; also a bath, prepared with the bark, I 
have frequently employed in rheumatism. Twenty-eight cases 
of acute rheumatism were treated with this drug, and in all the 
results have been most satisfactory. The dose °of the powder 

s, thrice daily ; of the infusion ( 1 ounce 
of boiling water) an omice three times a 
^ Combined with opium it forms a much more powerful 
sudorific than the compound powder of ipecacuanha. The drug 
does not. possess any febrifuge properties.''— /;?(?w>i 3Iedical 
Gazette, February and March, 1875. 

Description. — The bark of the root is brown externally, 
yellow internally, thick, breaking with a short fracture. That 
of the stem is soft and spongy externally, and of a pale brown 
colour, furrowed longitudinally ; the internal surface is fibrous 
and greenish yellow. The minute structure does not call for 
remark, but upon idacing a section of the fresh bark under the 
microscope in a little water the whole field is seen to be filled 
with- delicate needle-shaped crystals which have escaped from 
the cut cells of the parenchyma; in entire cells the crystnls, 
which are of an inorganic nature, can be seen in situ. The bark 
IS faintly bitter and a little acrid; it has no particular odour. 

Chemical composiiion,~T\o bark lias been examined by W. A- 
IL Naylor and E. ^I. Chaplin with the foUowin- results: 



to fine powder was per 

la tea to exhaustion with cold petroleum ether. The ether 


uc, which weighed about 1*8 errui", 

r--s,„l tl,e cluuac- n-s of a so£t grcenish-brov™ fat, h°vmg 
a.. ;.c„l ,., .„„„ ,„a a di^Ktly .cdd taatc. It was treu. J 
""'• "•'" '"''' >=tl"-T, auJ pr„.f spirit ; the former rgmovcd 


vegetable was, wliich waa subsequently identified as such after 
re-solution in limited quantities of ether andi separation there - 
from. The latter on evaporation gave a brownish-yellow residue 
small in quantity and crystalline. When further purified by 
extraction with ether and the ethereal residue by benzol it was 
golden yellow, unctuous to the touch, and pronouncedly acrid. 
Under the microscope it presented the appearance of long, wavy, 
branching crystals, which dissolved readily in alcohol, chloro- 
form ether, petroleum ether, and benzol, 

B, Tlie marc was next percolated with cold ether. After 
distilling off the greater portion of the ether, and allowing the 
remainder to evaporate spontaneously, a yellow mass studded 
with minute interlacing crystals was obtained, which when air- 
dried weighed about 4 grams. This product was treated with 
boiling proof spirit and filtered while hot ; on cooling small 
yellow crystals fell out of solution. When quite cold the crop 
of crystals was collected and subjected to the action of boiling 
petroleum ether until freed from every trace of fat. It was 
then cystallized from boiling proof spirit until it had a con- 
stant melting point, and was no longer contaminated with un- 
crystallizable matter. The resulting crystals were dried under 
the receiver of an air-pump, and when constant weighed 9 
gram. They were of a lemon yellow colour, about I inch in 
length, and melted at 228 •5<'— 229° C. Alcohol, ether, glacial 
acetic acid, and hot benzol dissolved them readily, but they were 
practically insoluble in water hot or cold. The following 
reactions in connection with this interesting body have 1 
noted, of which the most striking is its behaviour with the 
caustic alkalies. A minute quantity brought into contact with 
one drop of a weak solution of sodium potassium or ammonium 
hydrates causes it to assume immediately a cherry-red colour. 




crystals in water a proof 

spirit solution was used in applying the following tests: 

1. A solution of silver nitrate in proof spirit produced a 




for a few minutes bbck particles of reduced silver were preci- 

2, A solution of neutral acetate of lead in proof spirit gave a 
light-red bulky precipitate insoluble in boiling acetic acid. 

3* Lime water imparted an orange colour, wbicli quickly 
clianged to olive- green, followed by a precipitate of tbe same 


4. An aqueous solution of sulphate of copper gave a golden 
yellow colour, quickly followed by a dirty brown precipitate, 
the supernatant liquid being distinctly greenish. 

5. Solution of ferric chloride (acid) produced a brownish-red 
colour, which, in a few minutes, turned smoke-colour. 

• ■ 

6. Solation of subacetate of lead gave a golden yellow precipi- 

7. An aqueous solution of mercuric chloride produced a white 

8. An aqueous solution of permanganate of potash, acidified 
with sulphuric acid, was indantly decolorized. 

9. A solution of the crystals in proof spirit did not reduce 


.The authors say: — "We have attempted to hydrolyse this 
body, by subjecting a. strong alcoholic solution to the prolonged 
action of 10 per cent, solution of sulphuric acid at a boiling 


centesimal com- 
sufficientlv con- 


position, but the results so far obtained are 
elusive to be incorporated in this paper. "VVe hope to be able 
to publisli shortly a supplementary note dealing with points 
in process of investigation. Meanwhile, we propose that this 
interesting principle be designated Oroxylhi. 

C. The marc left after exhaustion with petroleum spirit and 

ether was percolated with cold absolute alcohol. The residue 

resulting from the distillation of the spirit was treated with coW 

proof spirit, which took up the greater part of it. The 

insoluble portion dissolved readily in boiling proof spirit, and, on 


examination^ proved to be largely composed of the yellow 
crystalline body oroxylin. The cold proof spirit solution of the 
alcoholic residue was evaporated to dryness and the extract 
treated with water and filtered. The filtrate was treated 
successively with neutral and basic acetate of Icad^ and the 
precipitates after washing were su.spended in water, decom- 
posed by a current of sulphuretted hydrogen and the resultant 
plumbic sulphide removed by filtration. Sulphuretted hydrogen 
was also passed through the filtrate from the basic or plumbic 
acetate and the precipitated lead sulphide removed by filtration, 

The three liquids thus obtained, which for convenience may 
be denominated i., ii., iii., were then evaporated down and the 
respective residues examined. 

(i.) It was dissolved in the smallest quantity possible of cold 
water and diluted with many times its volume of alcohol. After 
setting aside for twenty-four hours a precipitate, fell, giving the 
general characters of parapectin. The supernatant liquid on 
evaporation left a scaly residue, astringent to the taste, and 
perfectly soluble in water. Its aqueous solution reduced Feh- 
ling and gave a copious bluish black precipitate with ferric 
chloride. Lime-water produced a bright golden-yellow colour, 
followed by a reddish-brown precipitate. From the tannins 
proper it differed in that it was not precipitated by solution of 

(ii.) This residue apparently consisted of pectin intermixed 
wdth small portions of No. iii. 

(iii.) This was a dark uncrystallixable treacly -looking resi- 
due, which imparted to the palate a feeble sensation of sweet- 
ness. It was veiy soluble in water and reduced Fehling^s 
solution abundantly. A strong aqueous solution was precipi- 
tated by absolute alcohol. 

D. Tlie marc from the alcoholic extraction was finally perco- 
lated to exhaustion with cold water. The liquor was evaporat- 
ed down and the extract obtained taken up with hot water, A 
considerable amcutit of albuminous matter, which remained 
insoluble, was removed bv filtrntion. The filtrate was treated 

20 BIG^'ONIAC'E.t. 

successively willi neutral and subaeetate of lead and tlie preci- 
pitates decomposed in the same manner as described under G. 
The three liquids obtained, i., ii., iii., were evaporated down. 

(i.) This residue was the smallest of the three. After stand- 
ing for a considerable time some crystals were deposited, which 
on examination proved to be citric acid. 

■ I r 

(ii.) Nothing of a crystalline nature was found in this resi- 
due. It appeared to consist chiefly of extractive matter. 

(iii.) This residue after treatment with alcohol had the same 
characters and possessed the same properties as C- iii. It was 
not further examined. 

The result of our examination of this bark may be summariz- 
ed by stating the different principles which we have found 
(1) crystalline fat; (2) wax; (3) acrid principle; (4) oroxylin; 
(5) chlorophyll; (6) pectinous substances; (7) Fehling- reduc- 
ing principle; (8) astringent principle; (9) citric acid; (10) 
extractive matter, — Pharm. Jouni.^ Sept» 27, 1890. 


Fig.— T^V*^ 7c., t 1342. 


Hab- — Throughout the moister parts of India. The root- 
bark and flowers. 


Vernaciila7\ — Pad, Paral, Kushta-patali {Hind.), Pariil 

\y Kalgori, Padri {Mt 

Hudai, Padri-gida ( 
L Madana-kama-nu ( 


History, Uses, &C.— This tree is the Patala or Patali 

of Sanskrit writers, the flo 
to so intoxicate the bee tl 
flower from another. The 
Siva. In the Nicrhantaa ii 

said by the poets 

guish one 


of Kfima-duti " Cupid's me««.enger," Madhu-duti " messenger of 


«d." P^ala also Hignifiea "light red " or " rose-coloured." B 



is described as cooling, sAveet, diuretic, and tonic, and is recom- 
mended in dyspepsia, dropsy, cough, and heat of blood. 

P. S. Mootoosawmy says that in Tan j ore the flowers are 
taken in the form of a confection as an aphrodisiac. The flowers 
pounded with honey are said to stop troublesome hiccough, and 
-the ashes of the bark are used in preparing alkaline ley and 
caustic pastes. The bark is in use throughout India from its 
being one of the ingredients in the Dasamula or "ten barks." 
(See Trihulus terrestris.) In parts of India where this tree is not 
found, various substitutes are allowed to be used. In Malaba 
and in the Concan 8. chelonoidcs, DC, is used as Padri. (See 
Meede, Jlort. Mai u,, t. 25 ; Ainslie, Mai. Ind. li., p. 272.) 

Description.— TriTnk tolerably erect, though not straight. 
Bark ash-coloured, and somewhat scabrous. Leaves opposite, 
pinnate, with an odd one, from 1 2 to 24 inches long. Leaflets 
opposite, from two to four pairs, oval, with long bluntish, narrow 
points slightly serrate, having both sides downy while young, 
and when full grown not downy and feeling harsh ; the exterior 
pair and odd one about six inches long, by three or four broad; 
the inferior pair, or pairs, smaller. Petioles swelled at the base, 
roundish, when old scabrous. Panicles terminal, composed of a 
few spreading branchlets; the first and second pairs thereof 
opposite ; the superior dichotomous, with a solitary pedicelled 
flower in the forks; all are downy, and somewhat \'iscid. 
Flowers large, of a dark, duU crimson colour, exquisitely fra- 
grant. Calyx campanulate. Border 4-cleft ; upper divisions 
with two minute points, outside a little villous. Oorol, throat 
ample, woolly, convex above, flat and plaited beneath. Bord 



and projecting, with the margins of all much curled. Filaments 
4, fertile, and between them a small sterile one. Anthers twin 
Germ oblong, elevated on a glandular receptacle. Stio-ma* 
2-lobed. [Roxburgh.) Sir W. Jones gives the f oUowing descrip:. 
tion of the flowers : -CoroUa externally light purple above 
brownish purple below, hairy at its convexity ; internally dark 
yellow below, amethystine above, exquisitelv fragrant ; preferred 


by bees to all otter flowers, and compared by tbe poets to tlte 
quiver of Kamadeva (tlie Indian Capid). 

Chemical composifion.—An infusion of tlic dried flowers con- 
tained saccbarine, mucilaginous and albuminous matters, but no 
alkaloid could be detected in eitber tbe aqueous or alcobolic 
extract. Ether removed a small quantity of a wax-like solid 
from tbe powdered corollas. 



Fig.— Wighf Ic, L 1341; Bedd. FL Sylc, t. 72; Rheede, 

Hort. Mai vL, 26. Favas da Cobre {Fori.), Adderboneu 

Hab.— Tliroughout the moister parts of India. The 
flowers, leaves, and root. 

Fmiac«/«r.-Pader, Pddri {Hind.), Dbarmara (Beng.), 
Padal {Mar.), Padri {Tarn., MaL), Tagada {Tel), Padrigida 

History, Uses, &C.— In tbe Concan and Malabar, 
wbere 8. smveolens is not found, tbis tree is used as tbe Patala 
of tbe Nigbantas. Pbeede says of it :— " Viscerum rigorem 
mtolerabilom dispellit foliorum decoctum. Limonis bujusque 

"-- succi medentur manioe, Corticis vero succus, cum 


xiuccui-ersesuDactus, imraodicum inbibet fluxum 
Radicis cutis cum Calamo aromatico, zinzibcre coi 
rumque Padri succo admixta exbibetur morsis h r 
colubro, Malabaribus Polenga dicto." AinsHe (ii., i ., «.,«.- 
Ibxs pleasant tasted root, as well as tbe fragrant flowers of the 
tree, tbe ^ ytians prescribe in infusion as a cooling drink 

a---— ^^ 

Tbe tender fruit and flowers nf ^ .f..7 •, j 

™..f„w.„ t,„ XT .. ^"^^^ers ot ^. chelonoides are used a» 



uf^s. Bark thi 

. .*^v-A, oi;aurous, brown "Ri-^x^.v 

.h.. i..r.ri„r b„ri„.,„,j HhoV. ;^ ,,.„^;°«^- very numerous 

. firranuan\ beconimg more ami 



more erect to the lop ; leaves opposite, pinnate, -with an "odd one)' 
about twenty inches long ; leaflets opposite, short petioled, gener- 
ally lour pair, the inferior smallest, obliquely oval, pointed. 


sometimes slightly notched about the 

downy, afterwards smooth, about 4 inches long by two broad ; 

petioles about 9 inches long, channelled, smooth ; stipules none ; 

panicles terminal, the larger ramifications decussate, the smaller 


cles and pedicels round, . covered with oblong grey scabrous 
specks; bmcts small, caducous; flowers pretty large, yellow, 
veiy fragrant ; calyx 5-notched ; nectary, a yellow fleshy ring 
surrounding the base of the germ; filaments, there is a fifth 
sterile one between the lower pair ; anthers double ; stigma 
2-cleft; silique very long, slender, twisted; receptacle of the 
seeds spongy, white, with alternate notches on the sides for the 
seeds to lodge in. {Roxh.^ FL IncL^ IIL, 106.) 


Fig.-^Wtghi Tc, L 1335-6 ; Bedd. FL 8ylv., t 70. 

Hab. — Beccan Peninsula. The wood and tar. 
Vernacular, — Kharsing [Mar.), Ghansing {Can.). 

History, Uses, &C. — This tree is a native of the forests 

of Western India from Khandesh to Malabar. It was introduced 
by Dr. Andrew Berry into the Botanic Garden at Calcutta, and 
is minutely described by Roxburgh. 

The natives by a rough process of the same nature as that by 
which tar is obtained from Pine wood, extract from the wood a 
thick fluid of the colour and consistence of Stockholm tar, which- 

for scaly eruptions on the skin. Two 


globular earthen pots are used, the upper contains the wood in 



^ _ 

cover, and is luted to the mouth of the lower pot. Cowdung 
cakes are then piled up round the two pots and set fire to. 
Dr. Gibson appears to have been thp firsf fn Avon, ^+^'^r.^^;^.r^ frw 

the use of this substance by the natives. From some trials 


24 B[GXOKIACi:.E, 

■which we have made with it, we conclude that its properties 
are similar to those of Pine tar. 

Description.^Tho wood is hard, but easily split ; when 
sawn across it presents a yellow resinous surface ; sections 
examined with the microscope show that the yellow colour is 
due to a solid resinous deposit in the pitted vascular system. 
The tar has exactly the odour, colour, and consistence of 
Stockholm tar. 

Heterophragma Rdxburghii, DC, Roxb. Cor. Pi- 

it., f. 145, yields a similar product. Its vernacular names are 
Waras {Mar.), Baro-kala-goru {Tarn.), Bondagu (Tel). 

DoHchandrone Rheedii, Seem., is the Nir-pongelion 
of Rheedc (vi., 29), who states that the seeds with ginger and 
Pavetta root are administered in spasmodic affections, and that 
in Malabar a decoction of the bark is used for preserving 
fishing nets. He gives Cornos das Diabos as the Portuguese 
name and Eocks hoorn as the Dutch. 


DoHchandrone falcata, Scetn. Bedd. Fl. Syiv., 

<. 71, a native of Oudh, Rajputana, Central and South India, 
has the reputation of being used to procure abortion, and the 
bark is, it is stated, used as a fish poison. 

Dr. Lyon, Chemical Analyser to the Government of Bombay, 
found, however, no ill effects to follow the administration of a 
considerable quantity of a decoction of the bark to a small dog. 
i^fed. Juris, for India, p. 216.) It is possible that the woody 
capsules, which are about a foot in length by | of an inch in 

diameter, and somewhat curved, may be used as abortion 



Fig.— Jarq. Atnb., t. Ill ; Flumb. Gen., t 109. Calabash 
tree {Eng.), Calebassier (/>.). 

Hab.^ South America. Cultivated in India. The fruit. 
IV»a^<^;-._Kalab"sh [Ajrira). 


History, Uses, &C. — The Cakbash tree - introduced 
from South America is now pretty -well known in India, and 
latterly we have observed the fruit being offered for sale by the 
herbalists for use as a pectoral in the form of a poultice of the 
pulp applied to the chest. In the West Indies a syrup is made 
frop the pulp, which is much iised in dysentery and as a 
pectoral. The tree has oblong cuncate, often obovate, entire, 
shining leaves, and flowcrs^ variegated with green, purjple, 
red and yellow. The fruit is large, gourd-like and green ; it 
varies much in size, being from 2 inches to a foot in diameter. 

Dr. Peckolt, of Rio Janeiro, states that an alcoholic extract of 
the not quite ripe fruit in doses of 010 gram, acts as a mild 
aperient, and thut 0-5 gram, proves strongly drastic, without 
griping or iU eficcts. As an. application against erysipelas, the 
fresh pulp is boiled with, water until it forms a black paste, to 
which vinegar is added and. the wliole boiled together and 
spread upoa linen. 

anne state that in Weste 


the seeds are eaten roasted. The pulp of the fruit macerated 
in water is considered to be depurative, cooling, and febrifuge ; 
it is appKed to the head in Leadache caused by insolation and 
to burns: roasted in ashes it is mildly purgative and diuretic, 
according to P. Labat ; in. the Antilles,. Chevalior has recom- 
mended it in dropsies. 

Description.- — Fruit ovoid or nearly round, with a hard, 
green, w^oody shell; very variable in size. It is filled with a 
white, slightly acid pulp, in which are contained the jflattened, 

somewhat cordiform seeds. 

Chemical composition. 



yielded a new organic 

been given. It was 

obtained by exhausting with, water an alcoholic extract r>f 
the pulp, treating the aqueous solution With lead acetafe, 




removing the lead, then evaporating to a syrupy consistence and 
leaving it to crystallize in a cool place. Besides crescentic acid, 
there were found tartaric, citric and tannic acids^ two resins, a 
bitter and an aromatic extractive substance, and a colouring 
matter that appeared to resemble indigo. {Peckolt, Pharm. 

Rundschau, Aug. 1884; Year Book of Pharm., 1885, p. 168.) 



¥\g.— Wight III., t. 163; Bot. Mag., t. 1688; Bentl and 
Trim., t. 198. Sesame {Eng.), Sdsame de I'lnde {Fr.). 


Hab. — Throughout the warmer parts of India, cultivated. 
The leaves, seeds, and oil. 


Vernacular.— Til {Hind., Beng.), EUu {Tarn.), Nuvvulu 
{Tel), EUu, K^reUu {Mai.), YeUu {Can.), MothetH {Mar.), Tal 


History, Uses, &c.— In Hindu mvtKoloffv Sesamum 




prolonged penance. The Grihyasutra of Asvaldyana directs 
that m funeral ceremonies in honour of the dead, Sesamum 


grass and holy water, with the foUowing prayer :" O Tila, 
sacred to Soma, created by the gods during the Gosava (the 
cow-sacnhce not now permitted), used by the ancients in 

^^rlJ"^ vi ^^"^t^^ boneyare used in preparing the funereal 
tZf^^ ^^"^^^' "^^^^ -^ offered to the Manes in the 
deceatd . '"'''^"''^ ^^ *^' ^^^'""^^^ "^^ relations" of the 

On certain 


'ormed with Sesamu© 


Hindus liope to obtain delivery from sin, poverty, and otlier 
evils, and secure a place in Indra's heaven. These acts are, 
tilodvarth " batliino: in water containing the seeds" ; tUasnayi, 

"anointing the body with the pounded seeds'^; tjlahomi, ''making 
a burnt off ering of the seeds" ; tilapmda, ''offering the seeds to 
thedead''; tilahhnj, ''eating the seeds*'; and tilmapiy ^'throwing 
out the seeds/^ Water and Sesamum seeds are offered to the 
Manes of the deceased. In the first act of Sakuntala this prac- 
tice (called Til-anjU) is alluded to by the anchorite's daughter 
in love with King Dushyanta, when she tells her companions 
that if they do not give their assistance, they will soon have to 
offer her water and Sesamum seeds. [De Guhernatis.) In 
proverbial language a grain of Sesamum signifies the least quan- 
tity of anything — Til ckor so hajjar chor, *'who steals a grain 
will steal a sack" j Til til ka hisab, ^'to exact the uttermost 

A worthless person is compared to wild Sesamum { Jartila, 
Sans.) which yields no oil — In tilon men tel nakin, "there is no 
good in him." Dutt remarks: — " The word Taila, the Sanskrit 
for oil, is derived from Tila ; it woxild therefore seem that Sesa- 
mum oil was one of the first, if not the first oil manufactured 


from oil-seeds by the ancient Hindus. The Bhavaprakasa 
describes three varieties of Til seeds, namely, black, white, and 
red. Of these the black is regarded as the best suited for 
medicinal use ; it yields also the largest quantity of oil. White 
Til is of intermediate quality. Til of red or other colours is said 
to be inferior and unfit for medicinal use. Sesamum seeds are 
used as an article of diet, being made into confectionery with 
sugar or ground into meal. Sesamum oil forms the basis of most 
of the fragrant or scented oils used by the natives for inunction 
before bathing, and of the medicated oils prepared with various 
vegetable drugs. It is preferred for these purposes from the 
circumstance of its being little liable to turn rancid or thick, and 
from its possessing no strong taste or odour of its own. Sesa- 
mum seeds are considered emollient, nourishing, tonic, diuretic, 
and lactagogue. They are said to be especially serviceable m 
piks, by regulating the bowels and removing constipation. A 

2^ l'EhALINE2E. 



and the oil are used as demulcents in dysentery and urinary 

combination with other medicines 
{Mat. Med. of the Hindus, p. 216.) 

Mahometan writers describe the seed under the Arabic name 
of Simsim. In Africa it is called Juljuldn,* and in Persia Kun- 
jad. The Mahometan bakers always sprinkle the seeds upon 
thoir bread, the sweetmeat-makers mix them with their sweets. 
The following Delhi street-cry indicates the properties attribut- 
ed to them by the latter class of people : 

" Til, tiklmr, tisi, dana, 
Ghi, shakkar men sana, 
Khae biuldha, boe javana," 

" Scsamum, tiklmr, and linseed. 
Butter and sugar, poppy seed. 
Old men it makes quite young with speed." {Fallon?} 

The oil, which is called in Arabic Duhn-el-hal, is used for the 
same purpose as olive oil is in Europe. Sesamum is considered 
fattening, emollient, and laxative. In decoction it is said to 
be emmenagoguo ; the sam'e preparation sweetened with sugar 
IS prescribed in cough ; a compound decoction with linseed 

of the ground seeds 


from the leaves | 


IS used as a hair- wash, and is supposed to promote the growt 
of the hair and make it black; a decoction of the root is said 
to have the same properties; a powder made from the 

C2«^)-The fr„i. of o„,Ia„J„. (giMh, Mughrib. KSmus.) 

Sesame in its h„sk b<»fnr. U ■ "'■— , iuugi.rxu, iiy-ci-x.^"-v 

(Kamd..) •' '■^''P^'^- ^^^''^1^0 The gr«in of Sesame. 

. : ., . "°''~ '" ''»■ pi-'-"' <Iay to S. indicm. U.,. r„™»rlv siirni- 

lieii the 

^^^ """ 1"*^ "\v to .\ indicum, but formerly SJg"'- 

' , "^ """'''*•'• »''«"* called by tbe Persians Jilbahang and 





^ - 


. J' 

I ' 



Anvali-i-Kunjad in Persian ; it is used as an emollient, both 

externally and internally. 

Sesamum (0-7/0-0/^ ov) is frequently mentioned by Greek and 
Latin autbors. Lucian (P/sc. 41) speaks of a aria-afxatos liKaxovsi 
this was probably similar to the til ka laddu of India. 

Sesame oil was an export from Sind to Europe, by way of tbe 
Red Sea, in tbe days of Pliny. In tbe Middle Ages tbe plant 
was known as Suseman or Sempsen, a corruption of tbe Arabic 
Simsin or Samsim. It is now called by Europeans, both in 
India and Europe, Jinjili, Jugeolme^ Gigeri, GengeK, or QingeUy^ 
which appear to be corruptions of tbeword Juljulan. The oil i& 
one of the most valuable of Indian vegetable oils; it keeps for 
a long time without becoming rancid, and is produced in large 
quantities in almost every part of the Peninsula. The following 
mode of preparation is described in the Jury reports of the 
Madras Exhibition: — ^^The method sometimes adopted is that 
of throwing the fresh seeds, without any cleansing process, 
into the common mill, and expressing in the usual way. The 
oil thus becomes mixed with a large portion of the colouring 
matter of the epidermis of the seed, and is neither so pleasant to 
the eye nor so agreeable to the taste as that obtained by first 
repeatedly washing the seeds in cold water, or by boiling them 
for a short time, until the whole of the reddish-brown colour- 
ing matter is removed and the seeds have become perfectly 
white. They are then dried in the sun, and the oil expressed 
as usual. The process yields from 40 to 44 per cent, of a very 
pale straw-coloured sweet-smelling oil, an excellent substitute 
for olive oil/' 

Hydraulic presses are now in use in the more civilized parts 
of India for extracting the oil, but have as yet by no means 
superseded the native oil mill. 

Sesamum oil may be used for plaster-making, but it takes 
more oxide of lead than groundnut oil, and does not make so 
light-coloured or so hard a plaster. After a prolonged trial at 
the Government Medical Store Department in Bombay, its use 
was abandoned in favour of the latter oil ior the followin 



reasons : — The rolls of Sesame oil plaster soften in hot weather. 
The plaster has a disagreeable odour. It darkens in colour 
when kept for any time. For liniments and ointments, except 
Ung. Hydr. Nitratis, it appears to be a perfectly satisfactory 
substitute for olive oil. F. H. Alcock {Pharm.. Jotirn. [3], xv., 
282) recommends its use in making Lin. Ammonite B. P. Sesame 
or Benne leaves, preferably in the fresh state, are much used 
in America as a demulcent in disorders of the bowels ; they 
yield an abundant mucilage. 

Description.' — Annual, 2 to 3 feet; leaves opposite or 
upper ones alternate, ovate, oblong or lanceolate, the lower odos 
often 3-lobed, or 3 -divided, feather-nerved ; at the base of the 
peduncles are remarkable yellow glands ; flowers solitary in the 
axils, resembling those of the fox-glove, from dirty white to 
rose-coloured, capsule velvetty and pubescent, mucronate, at 
first 2-celled, afterwards 4-celled; seeds numerous, without 

wings, ovoid, flat, white, brown, or black, rather smaller than 

Chemical composition. —The following table shows the relative 
composition of the brown or Levantine, and yellowish or Indian, 
seeds : — 

Levantine. Indian. 

Oil , 55-63 50-84 

Organic matter 30-95 35-25 

Ash 7*52 6-85 

Water 3.9O 706 

the albuminoids being equal to 21-42 and 22-30 per cent, 
respectively in the two varieties. 

In the manufacture of the oil the seeds are generally 
pressed three times: twice cold and the third time warm. In 
Calcutta, where the seeds are only pressed twice, the average 

yield is 

Ut pressing of fine oil 36 per cent. 

2iid. ^ /, ordinary oil H 



Ihe oil-cake has tlie following composition : 

Water 825 

Fat 7-63 

Non-nitrogenous matter 40-90 

Albumenoids containing 5 '25 

per cent, nitrogen ......... 32"82 

Ash 10-40 {BramiL) 

For further information on Sesame oil we would refer 
the reader to Vol. II. of Allen's Commercial Organic Analysis, 
and to Branut's work on Oils and Fats. The authors of the 
PharmacograpMa say :— " The oil is a mixture of olein, stearin 
and other compounds of glycerin with acids of the fatty series! 
We prepared with it in the usual way a lead plaster, and treated 
the latter with ether in order to remove the oleate of lead. 
The solution was then decomposed by sulphuretted hydrogen 
evaporated and exposed to hyponitrlc vapours. By this process 
we obtained 72-6 per cent, of Elaidic acid. The specimen of 

iequently, contained 76-6 
per cent, of olein, inasmuch as it must be supposed to be present 
in the form of triolein. In commercial oils the amount of 
olein is certainly not constant. 

" As to the solid part of the oil, we succeeded in removing 
faty acids, freely melting after repeated crystallizations at 
67 a, which may consist of stearic acid mixed with one or 




more ol the allied homologous acids as Dalmi 
By precipitating 

Heintzj we final!" 

stearic acids. 

"The smaU proportion of solid matter which separates from 
the oil on congelation cannot be removed by pressure, for even 
at many degrees below the freezing point it remains as a soft 
magma; m this respect Sesame oil differs Ur.r^ ^\.., .* .i- ._ 




may be obtained in solution by repeatedly shaking £ve volumes 


of the oil with one of glacial acetic acid. If a cold mixture 
of equal weights of sulphuric and nitric acids is added in like 
volume, the acetic solution acquires a greenish yellow hue. 
The same experiment being made with spirit of wine substi- 
tuted for acetic acid, the mixture assumes a blue colour, quickly 
changing to greenish yellow* The oil itself being gently 
shaken with sulphuric and nitric acids takes a fine green hue, 
as shown in 1852 by Behrens, who at the same time pointed 
out that no other oil exhibits this reaction. It takes place 
even with the bleached and perfectly colourless oil. Sesame oil 
added to other oils, if to a larger extent than 10 per cent., may 
be recognised by this test. The reaction ought to be observed 
with small quantities, say 1 gram, of the oil and 1 gram, of 
the acid mixture previously cooled.'* 

J, F. Tocher recommends the use of hydrochloric acid with a 
little pyrogallol for detecting the presence of Sesame oil; 
14 parts of the acid and 1 part of pyrogallol are to be placed 
with an equal proportion of the oil to be tested in a test tube, 
which is corked and well shaken. The tube is then to be allowed 
to stand for five minutes, when, the upper layer of oil having 
been removed by a pipette, the acid solution is boiled for five 
minutes. If Sesame oil is present, it will show a purple colour 
when viewed by transmitted Kght, and a blue colour by reflect- 
ed light ; the latter colour is best observed when the fluid is 
poured into a porcelain capsule. After a time a slight blue 
precij)itate is thrown down. Olive oil tested with this re-agent 
afforded a faint yellowish colour, almond, groundnut and rape 
oils no colour, and cotton-seed oil a very pale red. An admix- 
ture of 1 to 2 per cent, of Sesame oil with olive oil may thus be 

The substance obtained bv FliinkiVpr mi rTimV^io- Spsame oil 


to be 

volumes of oil. Aft^r removal 

gelatinous r^^idue was left, which, upon agitation with weak 

►task sol 

which, after being well washed with distilled 

twelve hours, afforded a deposit, 


with hydrocliloric acid, collected on a filter, tliorouglily washed 
to free it from acid^ and dried over a water bath. It was then 
soluble in alcohol and crystallized on cooling from its alcoholic 
solution in long needles melting at 117 — 118^ 0. The needles 
were soluble in benzene, oil of turpentine, bisulphide of carbon, 
chloroform^ and glacial acetic acid, but insoluble in water^ alka- 
line solutions, and hydrochloric acid. They were neutral to 
test paper, and gave no colour reaction with the hydrochloric 
acid and pyrogallol solution, showing that this reaction is due 
to another principle in the oil which has not yet been isolated . 
{P/iarm. Joiirn.^ Jan. 24th, 1891,) 

Sesame oil extracted by ether has a sp. gr. of 0*919 at 23*^ C. 

Commerce. — Sesamura is commonly cultivated in India; there 
are two varieties, the black-seeded and the white-seeded; the 
former being generally known as til, and the latter as tili. 
Til ripens rather later than tiU, and is more commonly grown, 
mixed with high crops, such as Sorghum vulgare^ while tili does 
best when mixed with cotton. Tili oil is preferred of the two 
for human consumption, {Buthie arid Fuller.) 

The quantity of seed shipped from British India in the year 
1871-72 was 565,854 cwts., of which France took no less than 
495,414 cwts. In 1881-82, the exports from Bombay alone 
were 994,120 cwts., valued at Es. 64,84,475. France continued 
to take about 4-6tlis of the total exports. Besides this, 105,344 
gals, of oil, value Rs. 1,12,122, were exported to Eastern ports. 
In 1884-85, the exports from the whole of India were 2,654 
thousand cwts., and in 1887-88, 137 thousand tons, but in 
1888-89 the exports fell to 77 thousand tons. This fall was 
probably due to an unfavourable season. No statistics of the 
consumption of the oil in India are available. It must be 
enormous, as Sesame oil is the food oil of all who can afford it. 



/. 2 ; Gartn: Fnict. ^., t. 58 ; 

WigJd Ic, t. 1615; Eheedc Hort. Mai. x,, 72. 


Hab. — Deccan Peninsula, Ceylon. The leaves and fruit 



Vernacular, — Bara-gokliru {Rind., Beng), Peru-nerunji 
[Tarn), Pedda-palleru {Tel), Kattu-nerinnil {Mai), Anne- 
galu-gida [Gan.), Kadva-gokhru ((t?/2.), Karonta, Ublia-gokliru, 
Malvi-gokliru [Mar.). 

History, Uses, &C.— -This plant does not appear to 

Lave been used medicinally by tbe ancient Hindus, nor do 
we know of any Sanskrit name for it. It is supposed by 
Dr. Moodin Sheriff to be the Farid-butJ (herb Farld), the plant 
upon which Shaik Farfd-ed-din Shakar Ganj,* a Mahometan 
ascetic and poet, sustained life while he acquired the everlasting 
treasure of knowledge (Granj-i-la-yazal-i-raaarif ). The follow- 
ing quatrain is attributed to him : 

Shabnisfc keh khun-i-dil-i-ghamnak narikht. | 

Ruzi neh keh abru-i-man pak narikht, || 
Yak sharbat-i-ab-i'khush nakhurdam hameh 'umr. | 

Kan niz z'rah-i-dideh bar khak narikht. 1| 

By night I am consumed with grief, 
By day I am overwhelmed with shame. 

No drop of sweet water passes my lips, 
But it pours in tears from my eyes. 


powdered leaves are given in two- drachm doses with milk and 
sugar in gonorrhoea and gonorrhoeal rheumatism. The fresh 
plant agitated in water or milk renders it gelatinous without 
materially altering its taste, colour or odour. This thickening 
disappears after some hours. A watery infusion of this kind 
sweetened with sugar is a favourite and excellent demulcent in 
acute gonorrhoea. The dried fruit is the Bara-gokhru or 
"great Gokhru" of the shops, and a decoction of it is used 
when the fresh plant is not obtainable. In the Concan a 
Paushtik, or _^stre_ngthening medicine," is made of the 

* Shakarganj or " sugTT^e." Poison in his mouth became sagai^ 

y^j' C^j^j,j .-. iyiojf^Jjl^^^ j^ Jt 


Hu shrine is at Pak-pattau, or the Ferry of the Pure ; be died A. H. 664, 
nmety-five years of age. Pak-pattan is in the Panj^b, between Bah^valpir 
aad Firuzpur, m the Sutlej Valley. ■" i 


powdered fruit with ghi, sugar, and spices; it is taken with 

Dr. Emerson has observed that the juice is used as a local 
application to aphthae. 

P. Miirex must not be confounded with the great Gokhru or 
Hasak of Mahometan medical writers, which is Xanthium 


European writers upon Indian drugs bear evidence to the 
correctness of the native estimate of the medicinal value of 
Gokhru, and it has lately been introduced into European practice 
as a remedy for nocturnal seminal emissions, incontinence of 
urine and impotence. {Praclifmie>\ XVII., 381.) It has been 
given in an infusion of 1 oz. of the fruit to 1 pint of boiling 
distilled water^ this quantity being taken daily, 

ption. — A spreading, low succulent plant with oval, 
dentate, obtusely pointed leaves; pedicels axillary, 1 -flowered, 
shorter than the petiole, 1 to 2, or more dark -brown glandular 
bodies situated near the axils; flowers yellow ; tube of corolla 
about 1 inch long ; fruit pendulous^ about ^ an inch long, and 
i inch in diameter at the base, 4-angled, with a straight 
spine at the base of each angular ridge ; above the spines is a 
narrow portion which is inserted into the 5-clawed calyx ; 
when dry the fruit is corky, it is divided into two cells ; the 
seeds are elongated, narrow, and four in number. The young 
branches, petioles, under- surface of leaves and immature cap- 
sules have a frosted appearance, which is due to the presence of 
numerous small, sessile, brilliant, crystalline, 4 to 5 -partite 
glands. The substance o£ the fruit consists, in great part, of 
dense fibro-vascular tissue, forming a kind of 4-winged nut ■ 
the corky part consists of delicate cellular tissue ; when fresh 

it is green and succulent. 


agreeable musky odour. Simple agitation of the young 
branches in water, without any crushing, produces a viscid 
muciloge like white of egg. We find from experiment that 
the glandular crystalline bodies described a^bove are the source 
of the mucilage ; if they are gently scraped from the under- 


surface of the leaf and mixed witli water, tlie viscidity is at 
once produced. Tke mucilage Ims a faint peculiar taste, but is 
not disagreeable. - 

Chemical composition. —The fruits contain a greenish-coloured 
fat, a small quantity of resin, and an alkaloid in the alcoholic 
extract. The mucilage separated by water is precipitated by 
acetate of lead solution and alcohol, and in these respects 
resembles the mucilage of gum arable. The ash of the air- 
dried fruit amounts to 5-4r3 per cent. 

Martynia diandra, gIox. Bot. Rep. 575, '^tiger's claw 

or '^devil's claw," is a native of Mexico, but has become quite 
naturalized in India, .making its appearance on waste ground 
during the rainy season. 


some flowers like those of Sesame. The fruit is a green fleshy 
capsule which contains a hard, black, woody, wrinkled nut 
with two anterior hooks, having something the appearance of a 
beetle. The natives liken it to a scorpion, hence the names 
Vtnchu and VichMdci ; they suppose it to have a curative effect 
upon the sting of that reptile, the nut being rubbed down with 
water and applied to the injured part. It is sold in the shops. 




Fig._JF,V,/,i Ic, t. 449; Rheede, Horf. MaL ii., l. 45. 
Hab.-Throughout India, The plant and seeds. 

History, Uses &c -^tv,- ^ 

oftkshura.K^huiu kX. ^^^P^^^^bear. the Sanskrit names 

• '''' '^'^'*^^gandha, and KokiMksha, ''having 


eyes like the Kokila, or Indian Cuckoo/' The blue flowers are 
used in the Lakholi ceremony, which is an offering to Mahadeva 
of a lakh each (100,000) of the five grains ( ^'^^^ ), and a lakh 
each of a number of different flowers. Counting these occupies 
the women of the house for about a month. As a medicine the 
Hindus consider H. sjjinosa to be cooling, diuretic, and strengthen- 
ino- ; the root, seeds, and ashes of the plant are in general use, 
and are prescribed in hepatic obstruction with dropsy, rheuma- 
tism, and urinary affections. The seeds are one of the PancJia- 
rija, or "five seeds," the others being those of Celastrus, Fenu- 
greek, Ajwan, and Ciimin. There are, however, several other 
sets of five seeds. Mahometan writers mention the use of the 
plant for the same purposes, and also its external application in 
rheumatism, but they notice more especially the use of the seeds 
as an aphrodisiac given either with sugar, milk or wine in doses 
of from one to three dirhems, Ainslie, speaking of this plant, 


Tamool name 

near water, is supposed to have virtues similar to those of the 
Moollie-vayr [Solanum indicitm^ Linn.) already mentioned. The 
plant is the Bahel'SchuUi of Rheede, who tells us that on the 
Malabar Coast a decoction of the root is considered as diuretic 
and given in dropsical cases and gravelish affections ; the dose 
is about half a teacupful twice daily. The species in ques- 
tion is a native of the "Western Coast of India, whence the 
root is brought across the peninsula to the medicine bazars of 
the Carnatic. Our article is called Katu-irki by the Cingalese." 



European contributors bear testimony to the diuretic properties 


seeds as 

an aphrodisiac and diuretic. In Bombay they are very gener- 
ally used and are to be found in every druo-gist's shop. 



ous roo 

lets; stems herbaceous, ascending or erect, ramous, 
jointed, a little flattened, hairy, from 2 to 3 feet high ; branches 

the stem 

opposite, sessile pair at eacK joint, within tKese and subaltemate 
with the spines, several small ones in a verticel : all are linear- 

38 AC AN TEA CE^. 

lanceolate, margins often re volute, hairy, almost bristly, size 
various ; spines 6 in each verticel, between the leaves and flowers, 
awl-shaped, spreading and a Httle recurved ; flowers verticelled, 
numerous, sessile, large, of a bright blue ; bracts lanceolate, 
margins and outside bristly ; calyx of two pairs of nearly equal 
leaflets, clothed with soft hair; corol 2-lipped, lips nearly equal; 
upper 2-parted, with the division emarginate, the under one 
3-parted, with the division also emarginate, in the under a 
coloured body like a large oblong anther ; filaments connected 
at the base, second pair larger than usual in the genus ; anthers 
sagittate ; stigma subulate, involute, with a fissure on the upper 
side. [Roxh.) The seeds are small and flattish, of irregular form 
and brown colour, the largest J^ of an inch long and pV ^road. 
When placed in the mouth they immediately become coated 
with a large quantity of extremely tenacious mucilage, which 
adheres to the tongue and palate and is of rather agreeable 

Microscopic structure, — When 



the mucus may be observed. It appears to spring in filaments 
from the columnar cells of the testa ; these spread rapidly in 
every direction and form a network which rftsftmhlfts tbp o-rowth 

of some of the lower forms of algfe ; it does not dissolve when 
much water is added. 

Chemical composition. —The roots with the lower portion of 
the stems were air-dried, contused, and exhausted with 80 per 
cent, alcohol. On concentrating the tincture, white cauliflower- 
like masses separated. After the whole of the alcohol had been 
evaporated off, the extract, which had a very strong acid 
reaction, was mixed with water and agitated with petroleum 
ether, then with ether, and finally, after having been 
rendered alkalme, re-agitated with ether. The petroleum ether 


crystalline residue, partly m 

.xxe lorm oi white cauHflower-Hke nodules, and a crystalHne 
deposit on the sides of the dish. Examined microscopicaUy, 
both the nodules and the deposit were seen to consist of 
rod-shaped crystals. After repeated crystaUizution from 


alcoliol^ and pressing the crystals "between blotting paper, by 

^ matt 

the residue, which, was nearly white, possessed the following 
properties:— On being heated between watch-glasses it melted 
into an amber-coloured fluid, and after the lapse of 


the glasses were filled with a white, wool-like sublimate. In 
water the principle was insoluble, and it was not acted upon by 
ammonia or dilute sodium hydrate. In concentrated sulphuric 
acid it dissolved with a yellow coloration, and on dilution the 
solution became milky. On gently heating the sulphuric acid 



resulted; when chloroform was agitated with this fluid it 
became coloured either pink, violet, greenish or even blue, the 
tint appearing to depend on the degree of heat applied to the acid 
solution before dilution with water. The principle dissolved 
in chloroform, and the solution when agitated with an equal 
volume of concentrated sulphuric acid, failed to give the colour 
reaction in the chloroform layer for cholesterin, but the sulphuric 
acid stratum exhibited a very marked green fluorescence. 

Evaporated to dryness with nitric acid a yellow residue was 
left, which, on the addition of ammonia, became of an orange- 
yellow colour, but without any trace of redness. When the 
solid principle was evaporated to dryness with HCl and ferric 
chloride, it was difficult to say what colour the residue 
The test, however, applied as described by G. Forti (5%. 8pe'rim. 
AgrL Ital 18, 580), by first dissolving the principle in chloro- 
form, adding a little strong ferric chloride and concentrated 
hydrochloric acid, and evaporating to dryness, left a dark- 
coloured residue; this, when dry and cold, was treated with 
chloroform and gently warmed, when a fine violet-coloured 
solution was ^ afforded. The acid ethereal extract contained 
yellow colouring matter and possessed an aromatic odour. 




a marked degree alkaloidal reactions, but we failed to obtain 
any special colour tests. 

The seed, are glutinous besides being mucilaginous. TW 



per cent, of albuminoids, traces of an alkaloid^ and 23 per cent. 
of a yellow fixed oil. The mucilage is not affected by ferric 
chloi'ide, plumbic acetate^ or by two volumes of alcobol. 

Commerce. —The seeds are kept by all druggists. Value Rs. o 
per maund of 37^ lbs. The root is an article of commerce la 
Soutliera India ; elsewhere it is generally supplied by the 

Several species of Strobilanthes yield stems as thick as a 
walking-stick and quite straight, which are used, like bamboos, 
in the construction of mud walls and fences. The aromatic 
flower spikes of some of these plants are used as a rustic 
medicine b}^ the natives. The bark of 8. callositSy Nees, with an 
equal quantity of Undi bark {CalophyUnm imyjyhyUum) , is used 

Western India as a fomentation in tenesmus 


with an equal quantity of Mdka- juice {Edipta alba), boiled to 
one-half, is mixed with old Sesamum oil, a few peppercorns 
and ginger, heated and applied in parotitis ; equal parts of the 
juice of the flowers and of those of Randia ditmetorum are used 
as an application to bruises. 

in shape and 

size, and are covered with a A'iscid resinous exudation called Md. 



Y\g,—Bunn. FL Ind., t. 42; Delile Fl jEg., t. 33,/. 3. 

Hab. — Punjabj Sind, Persia. The seeds. 
Veniaciilar. — Utanjau {Ind. Bazars). 

History, Uses, &C. — ruder the local name of Utanjaii 
and the Persian name Anjurah, an Acanthaceous seed is sold in 
the Indian bazars. From an examination of the capsules 
which are sometimes found mixed with the seeds, there would 
appear to be little doubt that they are those of the plant placed 
at the head of this article. Utanjan is a standard native remedy 
and is universuUy kept in the druggists' shops. The author of 



the Makhzan-eUAclwiya (article Anjurah) gives us the follow- 
ing account of it, from Ayhich it would appear that the true 
Anjurah is the Urtica prima of Matthiolus {U, jnkiUfera, 
Linn. ),* and that the seeds now in use in India have somehow 
come to take the place of the genuine article. He says ; 
'' Anjurah is a Persian word ; it is the Kariz of the Arabs^ the 
Kurnah of Shiraz, the Kajit of the Turks, the Utanjan of the 
Indians, the Urtikparira of Latin writers, and the Harkitah of 
Gilan. The plant has numerous serrate leaves, which are armed 
with prickles, the stem is still more prickly ; when it comes in 
contact with the body it causes redness, burningr* and itchinsr. 
The flowers are yellow. The seeds smooth and shining, fl.attened, 
of a brownish colour, larger than those of Sesamum, and alto- 
gether not unlike linseed. They are the officinal part, and if 
good shoidd be heavy and of a brown colour.'^ Medicinally 
they are considered to be attenuant, resolvent, diuretic, aphro- 
disiac, expectorant, and deobstruent.f 

Description. — The Utanjan of the Indian shops consists 

of the seeds mixed with a variable proportion of broken pieces 

capsule and a few entire fruits. The latter are mitre- 

of the caj)sule and a few entire 
shaped, about y% of an inch long and /^ broad, laterally 
compressed, sides farrowed, surface polished, of a chestnut 
colour; capsule 2-celled, 2-seeded; seeds heart-shaped, flat, 
covered with long, coarse hairs ; when soaked in water the hairs 
disintegrate and produce a large quantity of viscid mucilage. 

Microscojnc sfrucfure. — Each hair is made up of several 
colimmar cells, each of which contains a spiral fibre, which 
upon the solution of the cell wall uncoils and imparts an 



Chemical comjmsition. 
white ciystalline body soluble in water, amylic and ethylic 
alcohol, but insoluble in ether and petroleum ether. It gives 

* The Roruan Nettle, TJriica prima, Matth. Valgr. s. 2, 469. It has 
browu polished seeds. 

tCoiif. DIos. iv., 89- TTf^l aKa\v(f>r},, also Galen; Ihev recommend it as 
»ii expectorant. 


a redJisli colour with sulphuric acid, green at the margin u 
impure, and is best distiuguished by the fine violet colovu' its 
solutions impart when brought into contact with ferric salts. 
With H^SO* and K^CR^O^ an agreeable odour of salicylous 
acid is evolved. It is associated with, a substance whicii 
reduces Fehling's solution. Another white crystalline principle 
is present in the seeds which is not bitter, and does not give 
colour reactions with sulphuric acid and ferric salts. Tlie 
latter crystals melted on the surface of heated mercury at 22o . 
The aqueous extract of the seeds contained much mucilage and 
vegetable albumen. The ash amounted to 7'1 per cent. 

Commerce. — Utanjan is imported into Bombay from Egypt- 
Value Es. H per lb. In Sind and Northern India it is collected 


Vlg.— 'B.Jieede, Hori. Mai. ii., f. 48. Holly-leaved A 



bunds. The plant and root. 

Harkdchkanta {Hmd., Beng.), MirAndi {Mar.)^ 
Moranna {Goa.), Paina-schulli {MaL). 

History, Uses, &C. — Roxburgb states that the Sanskrit 
name of this plant is Harikasa, but w^e cannot find any plant 
bearing tliis name mentioned bv Hindu medical writers. 



ground small and soaked in water as an application to snake- 
bites. Bontius commends its expectorant qualities. It is ^ 
plant in great request among tlie Siamese and Cochin- Chinese, 
and is called by the latter Cay-o-ro, who consider the roots to be 
cordial and attenuaut, and useful in paralysis and asthiBa. 



In the Concan a decoc 

tion of the plant with sugar-candy and cumin is given i» 
dysprpsia with acid crurfations. In Goa the leaves which 



alDoiind in mucilage, are used as an emollient fomentation in 
rheumatism and neuralgia. 

Description. — A common sliruL in and on tlie edges of 
salt or brackish lakes, marshes^ &o. Roots ramousj stems many, 
erect; branches few, bark smooth; prickles stipulary, four-fold, 
shortj but very sharp. Leaves opposite, short-petioled, oblong, 
scolloped, waved, spinous^ dentate, polished on both sides, 
of a firm texture, from four to six inches long, and about two 
broad- Spikes generally terminal, sometimes axillary, erect. 
Flowers solitary, opposite, large, blue, inodorous. Capsule 
oblong, ovate, smooth, size of an acorn, 2-celled, 2-valved. 
Seeds two in each cell, obliqviely cordate, compressed. 

Chemical composition. — The powdered leaves yielded to ether 
a quantity of fatty matter coloured strongly with chlorophyll 
and some soft resins. Alcohol removed more resin, an organic 

acid, and a bitter alkaloid. The alkaloid gave a reddish-brown 
colour with sulphuric acid, and was precipitated from its 
solutions by the usual reagents, including the volatile and fixed 
alkalies. Some soluble saline matter was present in the 
extracts of the leaves, and contributed largely to the IC'4 per 
cent, of total ash obtained from the air- dried leaves. 


Fig. — Jiheede, Hort. Mai. ix,, t. 41 ; Wight Ic, 452 ; Rumph. 
Herb, AmK vil.^ 13. 


Hab, — Tropical India. The plant. 

Vernacular. — Jhinti, Katsareya' {ZT^mc/.), Kantajati {Beng.)y 
Vajradanti, Kalsunda, Pivala-koranta {2lar.\ Shemmulli, Vara- 
mulli (Tf/m.), Mdlu-govinda ( Tel), Kanta-shelio ( Guz.\ Goratige, 
Gorati f^Can.). 

History, Uses, &C,— This small shrub is the Kuranta, 
Kuruvaka or Kuravaka of the Hindu poets, who compare its 
yellow flowers to a flash of lightning. In the Gita Govinda the 


jealous Eadha pictures to herself tlie absent Hari binding ihem 
in the floating locks of the Gopis. Other Sanskrit names are 
Amlana, Pitajhinta, Mahasaha, and Kuruntaka. Though not 
mentioned in the Nighantas, its medicinal properties appear to 
be very generally known; it is the Coletta Fee^k of Rheede,. 
and the Hysirix fmtex of Eumphius. 

The natives apply the juice of the leaves to their feet in the 
rainy season to harden them, and thus prevent the maceracioi> 
and cracking of the sale which would otherwise occur. Ainshe 
says that the juice of the leaves, which is slightly bitter ana 
acid, is a favourite medicine of the Hindus of Lower India m 
those catarrhal affections of children which are accompanied 
with fever and much phlegm ; it is generally administered ma 
little honey or sugar and water in the quantity of two table- 
spoonfuls twice daily. {Materia ladica, II., p. 376.) 

In the Concan the dried bark i.^ given in whooping cougfe, 
and 2 tolas of the juice of the fresh bark with milk in anasarca- 
Dr. Bidie observes that it aetsas a diaphoretic and expect- 
orant - 

A paste is made of the root which is applied to disperse boils 
and glandular swellings, and a medicated oil, made by boiling 
the leaves and stems with sweet oil until all the water has been 
driven off, is used as a cleansing application to wounds. 

Description. — stem sbort, erect; branches numerous, 
opposite, erect, round, smooth ; the whole plant two or three 
leet high. Thorns axillary, generally about four, straight, 
slender, sharp. Leaves opposite, decussate, short-petioled, 
oblong, somewhat waved, mucronate, smooth. Flowers axillary, 
generally solitary, sessile, large, yellow. Capsule conical, 
2-seeded, one seed in each cell. Root woody, perennial, with 
numerous lateral rigid rootlets. 

Chmirnl composithu. —y^iih the exception of the large amount 
of a neutral and acid resin soluble in light petroleimi ether, 
nothing of special interest was detected : there was no trace of 
any aikaloidal principle. 


Barleria noctiflora, Linn. Dr. Mootooswamy says 
that in Tanjore a decoction of this plant is a good adjunct to 

and substitute for human milk. 

The following plant is classed by the natives along with the 
Barlerias, of which B. cristaia and several other species appear 
to be included by the Sanskrit names Kuruntaka, Kuruvaka, 
and Artagala. In Hindi Jhinti is a kind of general name 
for these plants, and in Marathi Koranta and Aboli. 

Crossandra undulaefol 


Mag. 2186: 


Deccan Peninsula and Ceylon, and is much cultivated about 

temples in other parts of India, probably on account 
of the colour of the flowers, which is like that of the dress of the 
Bhikshu or penitent. Tbe plant bears the s^ 



darsba, "pleasant to look at," and the flowers are much 
by Brahmin women in the hair. The capsules, which resemble 
grains of barley, are described in the 3Ial-hzan-el-Adtdya under 
the Arabic name of Asaba-el-usul as highly aphrodisiac ; they 


suddenly bursting with a crack when moistened and projectin o 

their seeds. 

Daedalacanthus roseus, T. And, a native of Western 
India, has tuberous, spindle-shaped roots, usually ten in 
number, as thick as a quill, several inches in length and covered 
by a dark-brown bark; leaves elliptic, glabrous, scabrous 

on the \ 


bracts oval, somewhat wedge-shaped, acute, ciliated, with lono- 
hairs, reticulately veined ; tube of corolla very long and slender^- 
flowers deep blue, turning bright red as they fade. The root 
boiled in milk is a popular remedy for leucorrhcea ; dose ^^^ 
drachm. In the Southern Concan it is given to preglaant cattle 
" Z^ ^ " _ th of the foetus. The Marathi name is 

Dasamuli. " bavins' ten roots.** 



Neuracanthus sphaerostachyus, Bah. Hook. ic. 

PL, t. 83o, IS a native ol Western India. It is powdered and 


made into a paste wbicli is used to cure ringworm, and the roots 
are administered in that form of indigestion in whicli fatty or 
saponaceous grape-like masses are observed in the stools. Iney 
resemble Serpentaria in appearance, but may be distinguished 
by the thick covering of white, silky hairs upon the root stock. 

The roots have hardly any taste. The Marathi name is 



Fig. — BentL and Trim., t 197 ; Wight Tc, t. 518; Uheedc, 
Kort. MaL ix.^ t. 56. 

Hab. — Throughout India, wild or cultivated. The herb. 

Vermmlar.— 'KiYYdX {HincL), Olen-kiraita [Mar.), Kalmeg 
{Beng.\ Shirat-kuchchi^ Nila-vembu {Tam.)y Nela-vemu [Tel), 
Nila-veppa [Mai.), Nela-beviuagida (Can.), Kiryato (6^^^^.)• 

History, Uses, &C. — Cooicerning this plant, Dutt 
XHindn Mat. Med., p. 216) s.tates that there is some doubt 
regax^ding its Sanskrit name. He says: — "A plant callea 
Yavatikt^, with synonyms of Mahatikta^ Sankhini, &c., is said 
by some to mean this herb, but the term Mahatikta, when 

prescriptions, is usually interpreted as 

occurring in Sanskrit 
Melia semmrmrens^ Sw, 

as having occurred in any prescription, so that I am inclined to 
ihin^ And rographis paniculata \^as not used in Sanskrit medi- 



called A 

larity of tte bowels, and loss of appetite." It is prepared 
in the following manner ; — Take equal parts of cumin j 
randhani (fruit of Canim Roxhurghianum) , aniseed, cloves, 
capsules of greater cardamoms, and pound them thoroughly with 
the expressed juice of the leaves of the Kalmeg. The mass thus 
prepared is divided into small pills and dried in the sun. The 
dose is one pill rubbed down in bnmpn milt 

* M. Azedarach, Linn. 


Both Hindu and Mahometan medical writers would appear 
"to have confouuded this drug with chiretta.* According to 
Forskahl, it is common in Arabia, and is there called JFtzr. 
{Forsk. Flor. Aeg. Ar., CII.) 

Moodin Sheriff points out that Cara Caniram^ the name given 
to this plant by Hheede, signifies "Black Strychnos ;'' he there- 
fore thinks it must be incorrect. 

Ainslie speaks of the plant as having been brought to the 
southern parts of the Indian Peninsula from the Isle of 

Fliickiger and Hai^bury in their PharinacograpJiia point out 
that it has been wrongly supposed to be a constituent of the 
famous bitter tincture called by the Portuguese of India Droga 
amara. In the JPharinacopceia of India it has been made official, 
and directions for making a compound infusion and compound 
tincture are given. Quite recently, under the name of Salviva, 
which appears to be a corruption of the Bengali word alni or 
alvh a preparation of the drug has been advertised in England 
as a substitute for quinine. The herb is very common in shady 
situations as a weed of cultivation, and is much used by the natives 
as a domestic remedy for fever in combination with aromatics, 
especially with lemon-grass. The dose of tbe dried leaves is 
about ten grains combined with twenty grains of black pepper. 
In the Concan, Kirait, Ginger, and Dikamali are given in fever, 
and the fresh juice with black pepper, rock salt^ and Asafoetida 
in colic. In the cbronic febrile condition known as Bariktdp^ 
Kirait, Ginger, Picrorhiza root, wild dates, and Conessi bark are 
infused and given with honey every morning. A. echioides 
Nees^ is said to have similar medicinal properties ; it is the 
Peetumha of Rheede (ix., 46), who says that .the juice is 

given in fever. Haplanthus verticillaris, iV^^s, and 

H. tentaculatus, Nees, bear the name of Kala-kirait 
in Western India, and are used medicinally. The Hindi 
name for these two plants is Kastula and the Marathi 

Jhdnkara, - 

♦ The name Kiryat is loosely applied to many bitter drugs. 


Description. — Annual, 1 to 3 feet ; stem quadrangular, 
pointeclj smootli; leaves opposite, on short petioles, lanceolate, 
entire upper svirface dark-green and shining, under surface paler 
and finely granular : they vary much in size^ but the larger are 
usually about 3 inches in length and 1 inch in breadth ; calyx 
deeply 5-eleft ; corolla bilabiate ; lips linear, reflected, upper 
one 3-toothed, loAver one 2-toothed; flowers remote, alternate, 
on long petioles, downy, rose-coloured, or white streaked with 
purple ; capsules erect, somewhat cylindrical ; seeds 3 to 4 m 
each; root fusiform, simple, woody, with numerous fine 

Chemical composition. — According to the authors of the 
Pharmacograjyhia : — ^^ The aqueous infusion of the herb exhibits 
a slight acid reaction and has an intensely bitter taste, which 
appears due to an indifferent, non-basic principle, for the usual 
reagents do not indicate the presence of an alkaloid. Tannic 
acid, on the other hand, produces an abundant precipitate, a 
compound of itself with the bitter principle. The infusion is 
but little altered by the salts of iron ; it contains a considerable 
quantity of chloride of sodium/' 

Commerce.— 'A. paniculata is not an article of commerce, hut 
the fresh plant is sold by the herbalists and j^ardeners. 


Several species of Justicia are reputed to be medicinal amongst 
the peasantry. 

Justicia Gendarussa, Linn.y /, is the Vedakodi of 

Rheede {Ilort. 3IaL ix., t 42), who says that the juice with 
mustard is used as an emetic in asthma, and a bath of the leaves 
in rheumatism. According to Louvet, it is emetic and very 
efficient in the colic of children. In Reunion it is called 
** Gtterit petit coUque.^^ 






form, as it is kept closely cut ; the young shoots have a smooth 


green or purple bark ; from the joints, wliich are somewhat 
tumid, spring secondary shoots. The leaves are opposite, short- 
petioled, lanceolar, obtuse, frequently a little scolloped, smooth; 
nerve and veins purple, or green ,^ according to the variety, from 
3 to 6 inches long, and i to 1 inch broad; spikes terminal^ erect; 
flowery dirty white, spotted with purple. The odour of the 

■ B 

plant when crushed is ferny, the taste peculiar, and not dis- 
agreeable. ' ■ 

Justicia procumbens, Linn, Wight. /<?., t 1539, a 

v^e of the South Deccan and Ceylon. [ Veni. — Ghati-pitpapra 


)] is a small plant, very abundant 

in the rainy season. The whole herb is gathered when in flower 

and dried. 


as a substitute for Fumaria, the true Pit-p5pra. According to 
Ainslie the juice of the leaves is squeezed into the eye in cases of 
ophthalmia (II. 246). 

Description. — Stem procumbent, diffuse; leaves lanceo- 
late-elliptic or rounded, glabrous or sparingly hairy; spikes 
compressed, slender ; calycine segments lanceolate, membranous 
on the margin, minutely ciliated ; bracts of the same shape and 
shorter than the calyx ; flowers small, pale purple ; root slender, 
long, woody, straight, with numerous slender stems spreading 

from the crown. The bitterness of \he plant is due to an 

Justicia picta, Rozb. Bheede, Ilort: Mai. ru, t. 60; Bot. 
Mag,, t. 1870, a well-known garden shrub, is used medicinally 
in the same manner as Adhatoda Vasica. The variegated variety 
is called 'White Adulsa,' and the dark-leaved kind 'Black 
Adulsa'; the first is, according to Rumphius (vi., 35), used 
pounded with the milk of the cocoanut to reduce swelHngs 
Loureiro states that the leaves are emollient and resolvent, and 



Justicia Ecbolium, now Ecbolium Linneanum 

Kurz, Wall. PI As. Rar. in,, 1. 108; EotMag., t 1 847, is a small 

III.— 7 


Blxrub, the roots of which have a repi^tatlon in the Concan m 
jaundice and menorrhagia, Rheede {Hort. MaL ii.y 20) notices 


Description . — Stems several, straight, jointed^ and 
swelled above the Joints; woody and round below, quadrangular 
and tender above; leaves elliptic-oblong, attenuated at both 

ends, pubescent^ oi 
oval, quite entire^ 




•Fig.-_L«w^. in., t 12,/. 1 ; BoL Mag., t 861 ; Grif. Ic. n 
As., t 424 ; Meeck Ilort. Mai ix., t. 43. Malabar nut tree [Eng] 

Hab. — India, from tlie Punjab and Assam to Ceylon. The 
leaves, root, and flowers. 

Vernacular. — Arusa, Rils, Bansa {Hind.), Adulsa [Mar.], 
Bakas {Beng:), Adulso, Bansa [Giiz.], Adatodai {Tarn.), Addas- 
aram {Tel.), Ata-lotakam (J/«/.), Ad6sala, Ad-usoge [Can.]. 

History, Uses., &C. — This sbrub has a considerable repu- 
tation all over India as an expectorant and antispasmodic, ^nd 
is largely prescribed in consumption and other cbest affections 
attended witb cough and hectic fever. Sanskrit writers call 
it Vasaka, Yansa, Vrisha, Sinha-mukhi "lion -mouthed" Sinha- 
parui "lion-leaved/' and Atarusha, Atarusha or Atardshaka, 
and direct the fresh juice of the leaves to be given in doses of one 
toU (180 grs.), with the addition of honey and long pepper, iii 
cough. Dutt, in his Flindu Materia Medica, gives several com- 
pound preparations of the dru* extracted from Sarangadhara 

Q v.^^u^«.v.uv.»* ^..v^^x^ ^^ o 

and the Bhavaprakasa, and remarks that there is a saying that 
no man suffering from phthisis need despair ag long as the 
Vasaka plant exists. In the Nighantas it is described as 
removing phlegm, bile, and impurities of the blood, a remedy foi^ 
asthma, cough, fever, vomiting, gonorrhosa, leprosy, afi^ 
phthisis. Persian writers upon Indian Materia Medica notice 
the ph...t under its Hindustani name of Ardsa. The author of 


the Makhzan-el-Adiciya describes it correctly, and says that the 
wood is used to make toothpicks and gunpowder. Medicinally 
the flowers are useful in hectic^ heat of blood, and gonorrhoea, 
the root in cough, asthma, febrile disturbances, and gonorrha3a; 
the fruit is sometimes hung round the necks of children to 
keep them from catching cold. Ainslie states that '' In 
Ceylon, the Malabar nut tree is said to grow to the height of 
fourteen or fifteen feet, and is there called Wanapala. The 
flowers, leaves, and root, but especially the first, are supposed to 
possess antispasmodic qualities;, and are prescribed in certain 
cases of asthma, and to prevent the return of rigor in intermit- 
tent fever ; they are bitterish and sub-aromatic, and are adminis- 
tered in infusion and electuary. In the last mentioned form 
the flowers are- given to the quantity of about a teaspoonful 
twice daily /^ {Mat. IncLyW.y p. 3.). Roxburgh remarks that 
the wood is well fitted for making charcoal for gunpowder. 
Strong testimony in favour of the remedial properties of the 
drug was furnished to the authors of the P/mrmacoj)ceia of India 
by Drs. Jackson and Dutt, who employed it with marked 

+ ^ 

success in chronic bronchitis, asthma, and other pulmonary 
and catarrhal affections. Cases illustrative of its effects in 


catarrh, bronchitis, and phthisis have been published by Mr. O. 
C. Dutt. {Tndimi Annals of Med. ScL, 1865, Vol. X., p. 156.) 
In Bengal the leaves are smoked in asthma; good evidence of 
their value when thus used has been collected by Dr. G. Watt 
in the "Diet, of the Ecowmic Products of IMiaJ' Dr. Watt has 
also brought to notice the use of Adhatoda leaves in rice cul- 
tivation in the Sutlej Valley. The fresh leaves are scattered 
over recently flooded fields prepared for the rice crop, and the 
native cultivators say that they not only act as a manure, but 
also as a poison to kill the aquatic weeds that otherwise would 
injure the rice. Experiments conducted by us show that the 
infusion acts upon the cells of these plants m the same manner 
as certain chemical reagents, by contracting their contents and 
causing their disintegration ; it also proves poisonous to any 
animalcules, frogs, leeches, &c., present in the water; on the 
higher animals the leaves do not have this effect. 


Description. — A small tree or large slirub, flowering 
in the cold season ; trunk straight ; bark pretty smooth, ash- 
coloured ; branches sub-erect, with bark like that of the trunk, 
but smoother ; leaves opposite, short petioled, broad lanceolar, 
long, taper-pointed, smooth on both sides, about 5 to 6 inches 
long and 1| broad; spikes from the exterior axils, solitary, 
long-peduncled, the whole end of the branchlet forming a leafy 
panicle, floTrer-bearing portion short, and covered with large 
bracts; flowers opposite, large, white, with small ferruginous 
dots, the lower part of both lips streaked with purple ; bracts 
3-fold, opposite, 1-flowered, exterior one of the three, large, 
dvate, obscurely 5 -nerved interior pair much smaller, end sub- 
lanceolate, all are permanent ; calyx 5 -parted to the base, divi- 
. sions nearly equal ; corolla ringent, tube short, throat ample, 
tipper lip vaulted, eiriarginate, lower lip broad and deeply 
3-parted, both streaked "with purple; filaments long, resting 
tinder the vault of the upper lip; anthers twin. (Roxh.) 

Chemical composition. — The powdered leaA^es have a light 
green colour with a strong peculiar odour and a bitter taste. 
One of us has published the following report of a chemical 
examination: ** Soaked in water and then boiled, the powder 
afforded 34 per cent, of a reddish-brown extract having the 
characteristic properties of the leaves. Incinerated at a low red 
heat 17 per cent- of ash was left. A remarkable alkalinity per- 
vaded the drug, which was noticeable in the cold aqueous infu- 
sion, in the distillate obtained by boiling with water, and in the 
fumes given off when burning ; the leaves when smoked in a 
pipe produced no narcotic effect; the chief result of the smoking 
was the evolution of much ammonlacal vapour among other 
products of combustion, and to the inhalation of this vapour is 
probably due the efiicacy of the leaves in the relief of asthma. 
A well-defined alkaloid appears to be the most important con- 
gtituent; it constitutes the bitter principle, and to all intents 
and purposes is the active principle. It occurs in white trans- 
parent crystals belonging to the square prismatic system,with- 
out any odour, but with a decidedly bitter taste. It is soluble 
in water with an alkaline reaction, and in ether, but more so io 


alcoliol. It readily forms salts witli sulphuric, hydrocliloric, 
nitric, and acetic acids ; these salts are crystalline, and their 
solutions may be evaporated without apparent decomposition. It 
is precipitated by potassio-mercuric iodide, iodine in potassium 
iodide, tannin, and Nessler's reagents. A solution of the sul- 
phate, observed in a Laurent's polariscope, possessed a slight 
right-handed rotation. Heated on platinum foil it fused to a 
yellowish and then to a fine red mass, which afterwards black- 
ened and decomposed. Distilled with strong potash it yielded 
an oily body resembling chinoline, together with ammonia and 

other volatile bases. 


after the Sanskrit name of the plant. In a proximate analysis 
of the leaves, petroleum ether was first used to remove the 
volatile oil, or stearopten, which formed one of the odorous 
principles. Ether was then employed to extract chlorophyll^ 
wax, resins, and a small quantity of alkaloid. The alcoholic 
extract was the most interesting, as it contained most of the 
alkaloid in neutral combination with an organic acid. This 
extract was of a reddish colour when concentrated, and some soft 
resin was separated by treatment with wafer; the aqueous solu- 
tion evaporated spontaneously fell into a mass of crystals exhi- 
biting right-angled ramifications. On adding neutral acetate 
of lead to some of the solution, nearly all the colouring matter 
was removed as an orange precipitate, and an almost pure solu- 
tion of the acetate of the alkaloid was left in the filtrate. 

The organic acid, presumably the colouring agent of th 



drogen, liad an acid reaction, was soluble in water and spirit 
and gave a dark olive-green colour with ferric chloride. The 
colouring matter was intensified by the addition of the fixed and 
volatile alkalies, and was not immediately precipitated by the 
mineral acids. Its lead salt after gentle ignition left 28-3 per 
cent, of oxide. I would suggest for this organic body the name 
of "AdhatocUc Acid," after the South Indian name of the plant. 
The occurrence of this organic acid and the alkaloid in the 




of vasicine has scientific claims to be regarded as tlie active 
principle of the leaves of A. Vasica. The analysis of the leaves 
reveals certain principles resembling those found in tobacco, aa, 
for instance, an odorous volatile principle, an alkaloid, but not 
volatile like nicotine, one or more organic acids, sugar, mucilage, 
and a large percentage of mineral salts. The leaves of 
Adhatoda submitted to dry distillation evolved substances similar 
to tobacco under the same conditions. At first water condensed, 
and an intolerable odour arose from a yellow oily liquid which 
followed. Then a brown oily substance came over, associated 
with the pungent vapour of ammonia ; and finally a thick brown 
semi-crystalline solid was driven from the retort to the con- 
densor. These products were all strongly alkaline. The follow- 
ing table gives the results of the proximate analysis of the 
leaves : — 

Volatile odorous principle 0-20 

ChlorophyU, fat, resins, and alkaloid ex- ) « o^ 
tracted by ether J '^''^^ 

Adhatodate of vasicine, resin, and sugar") ^r. tn 
extracted by alcohol .?...i^^"^^ 




Colouring matter, precipitated by lead . . . 4-83 

Other organic matters and salts extracted ) m oq 
by water j- 10-38 

Extracted by soda solution 4-72 

Besidue organic 40"71 

„ morgaiuc 


Moisture and loss 10-00 

1 he ash was constituted as follows :— 

Soluble in water 23*38 


Soluble in acid 75. 



The portion soluble m water wa- alkaline, and conUiined 
chlorides and sulphates. iPhann, Jouy., April 7th, 1888.) 


Commerce. — The tliied flowering branches 
shops. Value, Rs. 3| per maund of 37i lbs. 



Fig.—Bot. Mag., t. 325; Rheede, Eort. Mai. ix., t. 69. 
Hab. — Deccan Peninsula, Ceylon. Cultivated throughout 

India. The leaves and root. 



malli [Tarn.), Nagamalle {Tel), Puzhuk-koUi, 


History, Uses, &C. — Indian works on Materia Medica 


and the root bark of this plant as a remedy for the afPection 
of the skin known to Europeans in India as Dhobie's itch, 
Malabar itch, &c. {Tinea circinata tropica.) Whichever part 



several suc- 

cessive days to the affected place. Native testimon^ 

its efficacy is very strong. (Confer. Makhzan-el-Adwiija, article 
"Palak-JuM.") Ainslie, speaking of the Justicia nasuta, Linn., 
says:— "This root fresh, when bruised and mixed with Hme' 
juice, is considered as a sovereign application for ringworms 
and other cutaneous affections ; the leaves are also employed 
for the same pui-poses. The plant is the Pukolli, also Feolcolli 
of the Hart. Mai. (IX., p. 135, t. 69). I have taken the liberty 
of giving it the EngUsh name of Nagamullie, by which it is 
universaUy known in Lower India." {Mat. Ind II p 216 ) 
Roxburgh in his Flora Indica (I., p. 121) states" that be- 
sides Its use as a remedy for ringworm, milk boiled on the 

roots 18 reckoned 
roots, he also says 


of poisonous snakes, 

the Cobra-di-capello. E. communis is yery common in gardens 
and grows wild upon the Western Ghauts. Roxburgh gives 
Yfithikaparni as the Sanskrit name, bnt ihU «or«„ ;„ „f^i.- ^^ x._ 


Hindu writers to a kind of Jasmine. Latterly, under the name 
of Tong-jmng-chony^ Rliinacantlius lias found considerable favour 
in Europe as a remedy for chronic eczema and some other stan 
affections of a similar character. An extract of the plant 
appears to be the best preparation. 

Description. — A thin shrub, about 5 feet in height. 
Root woody, ramous ; stems many, erect, ramous, the old woody 
parts round, and covered with pretty smooth, ash- coloured bark, 
the tender branches and young shoots jointed, smooth, and 
obscurely 6-sided ; leaves opposite, petioled, broad-lanceolate, 
point obtuse, above smooth, below a little downy, entire, from 
2 to 4 inches long and from 1 to 2 broad ; panicles corymbiform 

axillary, and terminal, always 3-clef t, as also the sub-divisions ; 
peduncles and pedicels short, round, a little downy ; bracts 
minute ; flowers small, white ; corol with a long, slender com- 
pressed tube, under lip broad, 3-cleftj upper lip erect, linear 
sides reflected, apex bifid ; nectary, a fleshy ring surrounding 
the base of the germ; anthers without the tube, twin. [Boxo.) 
The leaves when chewed have a pungent taste something like 
cassia bark ; their odour when crushed is disagreeable. 

Chemical composition. — Liborlus has analysed the root m ta© 
Dorpat Laboratory, finding in it 13'51 per cent, of ash and Vol 
per cent, of Rhinacanthin, a quinone-like body, besides the 
ordinary constituents of plants. 

. Rhinacanthin is a dull cherry-red resinous substance, whicfl 
contains no nitrogen, and does not reduce copper solution, 
seems to be related to chrysophanic and frangulic acids. Two 
idtimate analyses gave a mean of carbon 67' 5 5 per cent., hydro- 
gen 7-36 per cent. The formula C**H'^0* corresponds with 
67-20 C and 7-20 H. Its presence in the plant is said to be 
limited to certain intercellular spaces occurring in the bark, 
the cellular tissue of this part appearing to be filled with an 
intensely red substance, supposed to consist of a compound of 
rhinacanthin with an alkali. It is obtained by exhaustion of the 
powdered root fibres with absolute alcohol. Rhinacanthin has 
the peculiarity of forming with bases beautiful red compounds 


that are easily decomposed by certain neutral solvents, such as 
petroleum spirit, which dissolves the rhiuacanthin and assumes 
a yellow colour. {Pharm. Zeitch. f. RmsL, Feb. 1881 ; Year 
Book of Pharm., 1881, p. 197.) 



Flg.— Wlght III, f. 173 b,fg. 2, and Ic.J. Um]; Slhth. Fl. 
Gr., t. 553; Lam. III., t. 17. 

Hab. — Throughout India and Ceylon. The herb. 

Venwcular.—^xxU^^n {Hind.), Bhui-okra [Beng.], Ratolia, 

Vakkau {3Iar.), Ratavalio [Guz.), Podutalai {Tom.), Bokenaku 

History, Uses, &c. — According to Ainslie, the Sanskrit 
name is Vasira, but the Nighantas do not mention any plant 
bearing this name. ^^K, with the synonym of Vasuka occurs, 
however, in Sanskrit literature, as the name of a plant. L. 
difiora is considered by the Hindus to be febrifuge and 

diuretic, and is administered in gonorrhoea combined with 

cumin seed. Locally it is applied in the form of paste to 
promote suppuration. The author of the Mahhzan-el-Adwiya 
describes it under the name of Bukkan as hot and dry; he states 
that an infusion is useful in the febrile stage of colds, and 
that it is diuretic and useful in lithiasis. A poultice composed 
of the fresh plant is a good maturant for boils. 

Ainslie has the following notice of it : " The tender stalks 
and leaves, which are In a slight degree bitter, the native practi- 
tioners prescribe, when toasted, in infusion, in cases of children's 
indigestions, to the extent of two ounces twice daily ; it is also 



plant Is a native of Southern Italy and Sicily, as well as India, 
and has at different times had very different appellations bestowed 

XII.— 8 



on it, it 

nodi fit 

Gcertner, the Zapania 

nodiflora of Lamarck, and the Vervena cajntata of For- 
skahl. The stem is herbaceous, creeping, from 3 inches to a 
foot in length, sub-divided, rounded, marked with lines, and 
smooth. The spike is terminating, roundish, composed of small 


disli , 

whitish or rose-coloured flowers ; it has two seeds, 

flatter on one side than the other." {Materia Indica, Vol. lU 
p. 313.) 


Fig.— Ilai/ne PI. Of. 5, t. 42; Sweet Brit. FL Gard. Hi'. 
t. 202. Vervain (Enff.), Verveine, Ilerbe sacre'e (Fy.). 

H a b.— Himalaya, Bengal Plain, and Persia. The herb. 

{Ind. Bazars) 

Pamukh [Bind.), Fs^ristariun or Baristariun 

History, U 


Vervain is the tvepia-Tfpfm' or 

»r.ptcrr.>or of the Greeks ; the word signifies "a dovecote. 



the plant was so named because doves were supposed to be 
particularly fond of it. It was also called hpot3ordyr, or "holy 
wort, " because it was used in sacrifices, purifications, and as an 
amulet. Dioscorides states that the leaves of the Verbena 
have a reputation as a local sedative and vulnerary. Pliay 
(25, .59) says :^" Among the Romans there is no plant that 
enjoys a more extended renown than Ilierahotano, known to 
some persons as Feristerion, and among us more generally as 

f^TZ'^'\ ^* '^ ^^'^ P^^^''* *^^^^ "^"^ ^^^^ ''^l^'-^'^^y mentioned 

•fl *v ^ ^""^ ^''^^ "' *^^ ^'^°<^^ ^f envoys when treating 

with the enemy, with this that the temple of Jupiter is cleansed, 

with this that houses are purified and due expiation made. 
i here are two varieties of it : the one, that is thickly covered 
wl h :r/I::??r^ L^ ^^^^^^^ *^ ^ ^^^ female plant; that 


the ndiculous superstition, gf the Mao^i 
plant, and remarlcs that tl.. ,.l..... i,„_^v 

in reference to thf^ 



a remedy for the stings of serpents. De Gubernatis states 



Romans as Kusa grass and the Tulasi plant among the Hindus. 
It bore numerous synonyms, such as Tears of Isis, Tears of 
Juno, Mercury's Blood, Demetria, Cerealis, &c. In the Middle 
A "'es Verbena was held in high estimation by the Christian 
priesthood. Piperno ( De Marjicis Affedibas, Napoli, 1635 ) 
states, on the authority of Savonarola, that *^ Verbena manducata 
non permittit per scptem dies coitum '^ It was considered 
to be a purifying herb which enforced chastity. In Sicily 
it is used as a charm to cure diseases at the present day along 
with feuneL The following is the prayer used in curing 
pol^'pus with it: 

Zitfu, Lncia, noii lacrimari, 

Scinui iti hi tne orta (come into tny Q:arde!i'\ 

Scippa painpiiii di brivina e fiiiocchiu 

(Gather the leaves of Verbena and fennel) 

Ceil U to mauo U chiauiasti (thou hast planted it), 

Ccnli to pe.ll la scarpisast (flioii liast trodden upon it); 

La testa <li hi purpu (poly|)iis) cci scacciasti, 

S'iddu e snngu sfissirA (will melt away) 
S'iddu e purpu a nioii va. 


The exorciser then makes three sigus of the cross oa the 
polypus with a elove of garlic. In some parts of Piedmont 
the people believe that riibbiug the palm of the hand at sunset 
with Verbena Avill ensure the goodwill of the first person whose 
hand they grasp. 

In England Vervain (ferfaen) was used by the Druids in 
their sacred rites, and was gathered by them with much the 

tletoe. In Egypt it was sacred to 
Isis. In Europe it has been extolled as a remedy for most 
diseases, but is now generally considered to have only slighc 
febrifuge and astringent properties. Quite recently G. llicci 
{Lo SpenmentaUy 1890, VoL LXVI., p. 483) has again drawn 
attention to the plant, which he states has febrifuge properties* 


evil by the peasantry • 

as a necklace 


Mahometan physicians describe Verbena under the Arabic 
nameof Rai-el-haraam(|*Ua:^lt^c^ ) or as F^ristariun or Biiris- 
tariun corruptions of the Greek Trfpiarepiov. They state that it 
is tonic and astringent, useful in paralysis and amenorrhoea, 
and that a plaster of the leaves promotes the healing of wounds. 
An ointment is recommended for swellings of the womb, and a 
vinegar in skin diseases. In Persia it is called Gao^mashaug 
and Div-mashang " fairies pea." According to Stewart, it is 
used as a tonic and febrifuge in the Punjab. In Cochin-China 
it is known as Co-roi-ngtia, and is considered useful in nervous 

complaints and as a deobstruent in dropsy. [Loitreiro, Flor. 
Coch. Chin. /., p. 27.) 


Callicarpa lanata, linn., Bedd. Anal. Pi. 21, f. 6; 

Wight III., t. 173 b, f. 5, and 7c., t. 1480 : Wieede, Hod. Mai 
iv., t. 60, IS a tree of the Deccau Peninsula, the Circars, and 
Ceylon, which, though not noticed by Sanskrit medical writers, 
has a popular reputation on account of its mucilaginous and 
emollient properties. It is also subaromatic and bitter. Rheede 
states that the leaves boiled in milk are used as a wash for 
aphthae ^ of the mouth, and that the bark and root boiled in 
water yield a decoction which is used to lessen febrile heat and 
remove hepatic obstruction and herpetic eruptions. AiusHe 
records the use of the plant as an emollient by the Javanese and 
as a diuretic by the Malays. Dr. G. Watt {Diet. Econ. Prod. 
Lul.) on the authority of Dr. Tiimen, states that the leaves, 
roots, and bark are used by the natives of Ceylon in skin 
C. hrata IS from 20 to 40 feet in height, the young branches are 
cmna,noneous, shaggy and woolly, the leaves 4 to 8 inches long, 
ovate lanceolate, stellately tomentose beneath ; if the tomenfum is 

arfTiftlvT"T "^ ^^'^^^^ '-^^'^ -'-^1- Both leaves and bark 
aief.aatly aromatic and bitterish, andafford much mucilagewhcn 

r^^h T^^ ^-["'-^cular names are Bastra {Hind.), Masandari 
\\ ')^ Tonl t ^''""•^' ^^^^-' ^^^--> roLdi-karavati 

r..rt ■g.-.^c call tl,; 1 J 5^'; • ?''^'''« "«"" "•»' *t' 




Fig. — ^xh. Cor. PL 1, 10, t. 6; Brand For. FL, 354, 

t. 44; Bedd. Fl. Si/h\, t. 250; Bheede Ilort. Mai. tx., t. 27. 
Teak tree [Erig.). 

Hab.— W. Deccan Peninsula, Central India, Biirmah. 
The wood, fruit, and tar. 

Vernacular.— ^3i^(\n [Hind.), Segun {Beng.), S4g, Sagwan 
{Mar.), Tekku-marara {Tarn.}, Teku-manu [Tel.], Tegu (Can.), 

Sagach (^Guz.). 

History, Uses, &C.— The teak tree is the S^ka o£ 
Sanskrit writers and the Saj of Arabic and Persian books on 
Indian Materia Medica. The natives recommend a plaster of 
the powdered wood in bilious headaches and for the dispersion 
of inflammatory swellings ; taken internally in doses of 90 to 
200 grains it is said to be beneficial in dyspepsia with burnino- 
pain in the stomach arising from an overflow of bile, also as a 
vermifuge. The charred wood quenched in Poppy juice 
and reduced to a smooth paste is applied to swellino-s of the 
eyelids, and is thought to strengthen the sight. The bark is 
used as an astringent, and the oil of the nuts, which is thick 
and has an agreeable odour, is used for making the hair 
grow and removing itchiness of the skin. ( Makhzan-el-Adiciya, 
article "Saj.") Rheede states that from the young leaves a 
purple dye is prepared. This colour is due to the reaction of 
alkalies upon a crimson body, soluble in ether, which is contained 
in the leaves ; it forms soluble compounds with lead and baryta. 
Endlicher states that the flowers are diuretic ; this is confirmed 
by Gibson, who says that the seeds have a similar property ; in 



to the pubes. In the Fharrnaeopma 

* The word used in the Makhzan ig Mimithn nn~A Z- I T 

by Arabic and rersinn writers— one with vcA a .i , °"C5i.iiu«u 

ir f n - -...o ^7,C. '^^'' '^^'^ers, the other with yellow 

(Conf. Digs. 11., 168,169.) In India y<r/,*».„„- • ' •• y«'J"w. 

„....„ ' ^ *" ^""'« Argemone mexicana is used for 



of India a paste made from the powdered wood is said to allay 



Col. Burney [Journ. Asiat. Soc. of Bengal, Yol. I., p. 170) has 
published some interesting remarks on its use. A tar is 
extracted from the wood, which is used as an application to tlie 
sores of draught cattle to prevent maggots breeding. As a rule 
white ants will not touch teak wood, and the use of teakwood 
tar has been suggested as a remedy against these destructive 
pests. The wood is also not easily affected when exposed to 
damp weather, and baskets for holding orchids are commonly 
made of teak in Burmah ; while orchids are also preferably 
mounted on teak blocks. 

At a meeting of the Nilgiri Natural History Society in 1 887, 
Mr. Lawson showed a specimen of a whitish mineral substance 
found in a teak tree growing in the Government Plantation at 
Nilambur. This peculiar secretion is not altogether unknown 
to officers in the Forest Department, and its composition has on 
more than one occasion been investigated by chemists. 

In 1870 the fact of calcareous masses occurring in timber 
was brought to the notice of the Asiatic Society of Bengal by 
Mr. R. V. Stoney, who stated {ride P. A. S. B., May 1870, 
p. 135) that many trees in Orissa had pieces of limestone or cal- 
careous tufa in their fissures, but principally Asan [TerminaUa 
tomenfosa, W. and A.), Sw^vm {Zizyphus rugosa, Lam.), Sissu 
{Dalbergta Sissii, Eoxb.), and Abnus (Diospuros mclanoxylon, 

Koxb.). * ^^ 

p , ' • -"'i^ij lu maianga geological survey lu luc 

central Provinces, met with this concretion, and thus alludes to 
. '"^ ^'^ ' J^o^gle Life in India"; " Some white marks on the cut 
stumps of an Asan tree caught my eye, and these on examiua- 
non proved to be sections or lamina of calcareous matter which 

abo ™ wet"'*^'^' ''^^°^'-y ""^« ^^ ^--clT growth. The rocks 
rbTl- r ^°''''^' ^^^ ''^''^'' ^"^ I ^o^^^d discover nothing in 


account for the peculiarity. In some cases irregi Jarly 
f es seven inches long by two inches thick were 


met in tlie trunks at a height of about six feet from the ground. 
By the natives the lime is burnt and used for chewing v^^ith. pan. 
On examination it was foimd there was no structure in these 
masses, which would justify a conclusion that they had been 
formed by insects. Some included portions of decayed wood 
and seemed to be cemented together by the lime." 

Major-G-eneral Morgan, late Deputy Conservator of Forests, 
Madras, speaks of it in the following terms in his " Forestry of 
Southern India " ; " It is a curious fact that in the Wjoiaad 
though there is no free lime in the soil, yet Teak [Tectona gran- 
dls) and Blackwood {Dalbergia latifoUa), if wounded near the 
.ground, contrive to absorb large quantities of lime. It may be 
seen encrusting the tree on the surface as far as four feet in 
height,^ from three inches to a foot in width, and two or three 
inches in thickness. The lime is so hard that it destroys cir- 
cular saws, and the Carumburs use it for chewing with betel." 

Desciiption. — Trunk erect, growing to an immense size; 
bark ash-coloured and scaly; branches numerous, spreading; 
young shoots 4-sided, sides channelled ; leaves opposite, petioled, 
spreading, oval, a little scalloped, above scabrous, below covered 
with whitish rather soft down, they are larger at a distance 
from the flowers, and on young trees, viz., from 12 to 24 inches 
long and from 8 to 16 broad; petioles short, thick, laterally 
compressed ; panicles terminal, very large, cross-armed, divisions 
di chotomous, with a sessile 'fertile flower in each cleft, the whole 
covered with a hoary, farinaceous substance; peduncles common, 
quadrangular, sides deeply channelled, angles obtuse; bracts 
opposite, lanceolate, two at each sub-division; floAvers small 
white, very numerous; calyx and corolla oftener six than five 
cleft ; nectary very small, frequently wanting, stamens often 
SIX ; germ superior, round, hairy, 4-celled, with one ovule in 
each attached to the axis; stigma 2-cleft, divided, obtuse, spread- 
ing ; drupe within the enlarged, inflated, dry calyx obtusely 
4-sided, woolly, spongy dry ; nut exceedingly hard, 4-celled. 
(Roxh.) The wood has a peculiar aromatic odour. The tar 
obtamed from it is black and opaque when properly made, but 


when prepared froDi partly dried wood it is mixed witli tLe sap 
and forms a greyish brown emulsion. The seeds are of the 
size and shape of Sesamiim seeds; they are veiy oily, but the 
difficulty of extracting them from the nuts would make the oil 
very expensive ; it is a bland, fatty oil, free from any peculiar 

Chemical composition. — Abel in 1854 showed that the wood oi 
teak freq^uently exhibits cracks and cavities of considerable 
extent lined with a white crystalline deposit consisting chiefly 
of hydrocalcic orthophosphate, Ca H PO*, H^O, with about 11'4 
per cent, aramouio-magnesium phosphate. {C/iem, 8oc. Qii. J- ^^''^ 

This white deposit in the wood of teak has also been examined 
by Thorns, who found it to consist of monocalcic orthophosphate 
CaHPO* {Landw. Vemtchs, St xxii., 68 ; xxiii., 413.) More 
recently still Professor Judd has found in teak a specimen oi 
crystalline apatite, a well-known mineral containing a large 
proportion of calcium phosphate. 

'' The formation of this deposit indicates that the wood itself 
must contain a considerable quantity of phosphoric acid, and 
the analysis shows this is really the c?ise, as the ash of teak wood 
is composed as follows : 

CaO MgO FeO K^O Na'O SiO' SO* P^O' CO^ CI 
31-35 9-74 0*80 1-47 0-04 2i-98 222 29-69 O'Ol 01 


The percentage of carbon and hydrogen are higher than iQ 
most woods, and this, together with the richness in calcium 
phosphate and silica, may perhaps account for the great hardness 
of teak." {WatW Diet. CImnistry, Srd Suppl, p. 1894.) 

Mr. D. Hooper says :— *' The sample from Nilambur was in 
tbe form of a rounded flattened cake about ten inches in diame- 
ter and two or three inches in thickness ; dirty white in colour, 
with a rough gritty surface . A sample was made for analysis 
by breaking off portions from different parts of the cake and 
reducing the whole to a fine powder. The powder examined 
under the microscope was mainly in an amorphous condition 


similar to prepared chalk, with a dark-coloured gummy matter, 
and a small quantity of crystalline quartz sand. The following 

is the composition : 

Calcium carbonate 


Tricalcic orthophosphate 
Quartz sand 
Organic matter 


« « * * » 

ft A i 

• * • 

• • • 





carbonate, and the concretion approaches nearer the chalk or 
limestone formation than that of the apatite or phosphatic found 
by other investigators. An examination of deposits from other 
trees might show greater differences than these, but it seems 
enough has been done to prove that the calcium element forms 
the base. 

The sand, probably blown up as dust and made to adhere by 
the organic matter, is a mechanical ingredient. The deposit 
contained no salts of sodium or calcium soluble in water, nor any 
ammoniacal compounds ; this would stand to reason, as the heavy 
rains to which this district is subjected would scarcely leave 
anything soluble on the trees. 

The scanty amount of lime present in the soil, and the large 
amount f oimd in the tree, show what an enormous quantity must 
have been taken up bv the sap. I have shown elsewhere that 
a full-sized cinchona tree contains about 10 ounces of lime (as 
slaked lime), not concentrated by abnormal development in one 

place, but 


A teak tree from 


size and ash contents would hare a mucli larger supply titan a 
cincliona, and yet, it seems, is able to excrete it in some abun- 
dance. In wbat manner tkis takes place is not easy to 
determine. The calcium enters the plant in a soluble fo 
sulphate. The calcium unites with oxalic and other acids and is 
precipitated, while the sulphuric acid parts with its sulphur to 

form organic compounds. A wound in the tree is liable to 

III.— 9 




render these processes abnormal by causing the vegetable acids 
to ferment by exposure to the air and to yield carbonic acid as 


lending sap exuding from the wound might convert it into 
insoluble calcium carbonate which would harden in the 



Meeting of the Nilgiri Natural History Society, Ootacamuiid, 


^ Teak wood yields on distillation with water an opalescent 
distillate impregnated with resinous matter, but no trace of 
essential oil could be obtained when operating with 126 lbs. 
of fresh sawdust from Indian teak. For the extraction of the 
tar two earthen pots were used luted together ; the upper with 
a perforated bottom contained the wood in chips ; the product 
was a rathef liquid black tar having much the odour of coal 
tar. ^ One pound of the sawdust exhausted with alcohol yielded 
a resinous extract, which, after having been well washed with 
hot water, weighed half an ounce ; the resin is black, and has 
the peculiar odour of the wood. 

The late R. Romanis IJn. Chem. Sac, 3-11-87^ found that 



he also found to be present in considerable quantity in the 
tar resulting from the destructive distiUation of teak. The 
analyses which he has made of the crystals point to the empirical 
formula C^ H^^ O; on oxidation with nitric acid they yield 
what appears to be a quiuone of the formula C^sHisO^. 



-Fig.-^Wight Ic, t, 1469 ; Rumph. Herb. Amh. in., t. 

Hab.^Coaat8 of India from Bombay to Malacca, Sil 
Ceylon. The leaves and root. 





History, Uses, &C. — This shrub, in Sanskrit Arani, 

Harimantha, Agni-mantha, and Vahnimantha^ ''producii 
by friction/' is so named on account of its wood being one of 
those used to obtain the sacred fire. Gamble states that in 
Sikkim the hill tribes habitually make use of the wood of 
P. latifoUa and P. mucronata for obtaining fire. Of the two 
pieces of wood used by the Hindus for this purpose^ the lower or 
soft wood is called in Sanskrit Adhararani, and the upper or hard 
wood, with which friction is made, is called the Pramantha ; 
they are considered to be symbolical of the Yoni and Upastha 
(organs of generation). 

In the Nighantas Arani is described as hot, an expellant of 
phlegm and wind. 

Its root is one of the ingredients of the Dasamula, and the 
leaves are a popular remedy m the exanthematous fevers. 
Ainslie states that the root has a warm bitter taste and agreeable 
smell, and is prescribed in decoction as a gentle cordial and 
stomachic in fevers. Rheede calls the plant Appel^ and notices 
the use of a decoction of the leaves for flatulence. Ainslie also 
remarks that it is the Folium hirci of Rumphius and that 
Burman calls it Cornutia corymhosa and Herman Sambiicus 
odorata aromatica. In Ceylon it is known as Maha-midi ov Midi- 
gass. Atkinson states that the leaves rubbed with pepper are 
administered in colds and fevers, and that externally a decoctioD 
of the whole plant is used in rheumatism and neuralgia. 


in the rainy season. Trunk 



site, petiole d, cordate, 

margins, acute 

pointed, smooth on both sides, from 1 to 6 inches long and from 
1 to 3 inches broad ; flowers in corymbs^ terminal or between 
two branchlets, primary divisions opposite, the last 2 -forked, 
flowers minute, numerous, of a pale greenish- white ; berries 
black, the size of a pea. The plant has an agreeable aromatic 
odour and an acidulous and astringent taste. 



Chemical comjmsition. — The root-bark of this plant aiforded a 
yellowish-brown powder giving an orangc-broAvn tincture with 
alcohol. The tincture when evaporated left a reddish- coloured 
tasteless resin and some extractive matter. The resin was solu- 
ble in ether and in alkaline liquors ; from the latter solution it 


precipitated in greyish-brown flocks by acids. Warmed 
with soda, the resin evolved an odour of lemon similar to that 
of Kamala resin ; heated with sulphuric acid a transient purple 
colour was developed and a fragrant odour evolved. It showed 
no disposition to crystallize. The watery solution of the 
alcoholic extract had a sweetish taste in small quantities and was 
nauseous in larger quantities. It contained a bitterish amor- 
phous alkaloid^ a substance reducing Fehling's solution, and an 
astringent body, striking a green colour with ferric chloride, 
but giving no precipitates with gelatine. The alkaloid gave no 
distinct colour reactions with the strong mineral acids. 



Griff. Ic, t. 447, loicer figure ; Ferguson, Famphl 

Colombo, 1887. 

Hab.— Sub-tropical Himalaya and South Deccan Penin- 
sula. Tbe root. 

Femac«Zar.— Bharangi {Hind.), Bamanhati {Beng,), Shirutck 

{.Tarn.), Gandu-barangi [Tel), Bliaranga-mula {Mar.), Gantu- 

bbarangi, Nayityaga {Can), Kanta-bbaranni {Mai), Barang 

History, Uses, &c.~This plant is frequently con- 
founded with Ckrodendron serratian, Sprcng., the roots and 

sold under the name of Bharangi. I" 


bears the names of Bhargi, Brahmaya 



, punge 

juice of the root is given with the juice 

and rheumatism- The 

of ginirer and 



^arai water in asthma, and it enters into tlie composition of 
several compound decoctions for diseases of the lungs. A 
confection called Bhargi-guda is prepared with a decoction 
of the root, and the ten drugs called Dasamuhy chebulic 
myrobalans, treacle, and aromatics. An oil prepared with the 
root is recommended for external application in the marasmus 
of children. {Chakradatta.) 

The properties of P. herbacea agree much more nearly with 
those attributed to Bhdrangi in the Nighantas, than do those 
of Olerodendron serratu?n, although the latter plant is at the 
present time in use as Bhurangi throughout the greater part of 
India. Dutt attributes the drug to C. Siphon ant hits, but the 
samples Ave obtained from Bengal consisted €>i the stems of 
0. serratum. Bombay was formerly supplied from the Circars 
with P. herbacea, but now uses Q. serratum. Although the root 
of P. herbacea has been known from ancient times, it is only 
within the last few years that its botanical origin has been 
identified. It was exhibited at the Madras Exhibition of 1855, 
under the name of Gantu Bharangi, among several chemical 
and pharmaceutical products. It is mentioned in Sir Walter 
Elliot's Flora Andhricay published in 1859, and referred to an 
unknown species of Cleroden<Jron, which, he says, might be 
called acatdis ; the plant is there said to grow about Lammasingi 
to the west of Vizagapatam^ whence it is exported to Madras 
and Bombay to the amount of several thousand rupees yearly. 

W. Ferguson in 1861 identified the Gantu Bharangi of South- 

ern India with P. herbacea^ and in a pamphlet published at 
Colombo in 1887 gave a figure of the plant and its root. 

Description. — A small undershrub; flowering branches 
1 — 4 inches, springing up after the jungle fires. Leaves 4 by 
2 — 3 inches, obtuse, mature microscopically dotted above, 
minutely deciduously pubescent beneath, nerves 5 pair. 
Corymbs 1| inch in diameter, pubescent, somewhat dense; 
peduncle 0—1^ inch. Calyx -^-^ inch, closely pubescent; lobes 
ovate, obtuse. Corolla ^ inch, greenish- white, hairy in the 
throat, 4f-lobed, obscurely 2-lipped. Drupe 5 inch in diameter. 


glotose. Roots about as thick as a crowquill with numerous 
almost globular woody knots. 

Chemical composUion.—^The constituents of this root resemble 


ifolia. An 

and traces of an alkaloid are the most important. There is a 
quantity of starch in the root, and an entire absence of 

Premna tomentosa, Willd., Wight Ic, t. ■ 1468, 

Naguru- cliettu ( Tel.), Pedanganeree, Kollay-cottaynellay {Tarn.), 
is used medicinally in Soutliern India. Dr. P. S. Mootooswamy 
states tliat tlie leaves are diuretic, and are given internally and 
applied externally in dropsy. An infusion of 10 draclims of 
the leaves and 2 draclims of coriander in ten ounces of boiling 
water has heen used by him with advantage in acute dropsies. 

Dr. Mootooswamy has seen the natives using the leaves soaked 
in goat's urine or in onion juice for dropsy ; sometimes chebulic 
myrobalans are added if the bowels are costive. 



'Pig.—Ttoxh, Cor, PL m., t 246 ; Wight Ic, t. 1470 ; BeU 

Fl. Sylv., t. 253 ; Hheede, Sort. Mai 


The root and fruit 

W. Himalaya 

Vernacular. —Kumhhivi, Gumh^r, She van {Hind.), Gamari 
[Beng.), Shivani, Shevana {Mar.\ Shivannigida {Can), Gumadi 

{Tarn.), Gumar-tek, Peddagomru {Tel), Kumbulu {Mai), 
bhewan {Guz.). 

History, Uses, &c. 





fever, mdigestion, anasarca, &c. It is an ingredient of the Dasa- 
mu a, or ten roots," and is therefore much used in a variety 
of diseases. Bangasena saya that Gambhari root taken with 


milk. The 


f tlie fruits of 


■j of Andropogon muricafus (ushira), equal parts, in all 
two tolas (360 grains), water thirty-two toMs, and boil till reduced 
to one half. [Chakradatta, quoted by Dutt, Hind. Mat Med.^ 
p. 218). The juice of the young leaves is used as a demulcent 
in gonorrhoea, cough, &c., alone or with other demulcents 
(Pharmacopceia of India, p. 164). The bark of the tree is used 
by arrack manufacturers in the Madura district to regulate 
the fermentation of toddy. 

The wood of this tree on account of its lightness and tough- 
ness is much valued for carriage-building and all ornamental 
work ; it is light yellow with a reddish heart wood, close and 
even-grained, easily worked, and readily takes paint or varnish. 
At the Q-ovemment Medical Store Depot Workshops it has 
been found to be the best wood for making artificial limbs, 
stethoscopes, &c. It turns well. Weight 30 to 40 lbs. per 
cubic foot. 

Description. — An unarmed tree, sometimes attaining 60 
feet, deciduous, flowering with the young leaves. Leaves 9 by 
6 inches, more or less acuminate, entire, mature glabrate above 
stellately hairy beneath ; petiole 3 inches, top glandular. 
Panicles often one foot in length, terminal ; bracts. | inch • 
flowers numerous. Calyx ^ inch, teeth very small or obsolete. 
Corolla brownish-yellow, upper lip shortly bifid, longer than the 
lower. Drupe | inch, ovoid, usually 2 to 1 seeded. The roots 
have a light brown bark and yellowish wood, which is li^ht 
and tough ; they have a bitterish mucilaginous taste. The fruit 
is bitter-sweet and mucilaginous. 

ili! Chemical composition. — ^The root reduced to fine powder lost 
8-39 per cent, at 100°C. The ash amounted to 14'41 per cent, 
and was free from any trace of manganese. 


On analysis the following results were obtained : 

Petroleum etter extract ...... 1'80 per cent. 

Ether ,^ -21 

Alcoholic ,', 4-2741 T, 

Aqueous ,^ ... 19-560 „ „ 

The petroleum ether extract consisted of a yellow viscid oil, 
with slight siccative properties. On standing, white grains 
separated, which were non-crystalline when examined micros- 
copically. In alcohol the extract was partly soluble: no 
alkaloid was present. The ether extract was yellowish-wlilte, 
and contained a trace of oil ; it gave no reaction with ferric 
salts : in addition to resins a trace of benzoic acid was present. 

The alcoholic extract -was yellow and brittle : with water a 
turbid mixture was obtained, which had a bitter taste. lu 


The aqueous extract was sweetish and slightly bitter, and 


The fruit contained butyric acid, with a trace of tartaric acid, 
a trace of astringent matter giving a greenish coloration with 
ferric chloride, an alkaloid, and a white principle, non-crys- 
talHne, and neutral, with resin and saccharine matter. 

The alkaloids present in the fruit and in the root appear to 
he identical. The amount present in each case was very small, 
not exceeding a trace. 

Several species of GmeKna are sometimes used as demulcents. 

G. asiatica affords the Radix DeiparcB or Rais madre de 
^.0. of the Portuguese. Rumphius (Mart. Amh., i., p. 129) 
lelates that formerly its roots were dug only on St. Mary's 
day, and that only those roots which turned towards the north 


every poison 


disease in 

t^it^"; ^ '"'*' ^"^ ^I'shtly bitter, astringent, and 
w-omat c Loureiro say.:_'< Talent in dolnrih.,« „,t;o„l„nira, 

phoata. ^Flor. Cochm-Ohi... ii., p. 376.) Tbe Tamil nara« 

VE II BEN A GE2E, 7 3 


is Nilacunmly and the Telugu Nela-giimadL {Ainsru\ Mat 
InrLj ii., p. 240.) 


Fig. — JFifjht Ic, t. 519 ; Rjiccdcy Hort. MaL li.^ t. 12* 


Fig.— ^c)^. ^la(j,, t 2187 ; Rheede, Ilort. MaL iL, t, IL 

Hab. — Tlirougliout India and Ceylon. The leaves, root, 
and fruit. 

Vernacular. — -Sambhaki, Nisinda {Hind.), Nisinda {Bcng.)y 
Vanai, Nigiidi, Lingur {Mar^)^ Yellai-nochi, Nir-nochi (2\x^v?.), 

Tella-vavili, Niru-vavili {TeL), Nochi, Nirnochi [MaL), Lakkij 
Kare-lakki {Can.}, Niguri {Gnz.), 

History, Uses, &C. — These two shrubs, the properties of 

which appear to be identical, are described by Sanskrit writers 
under the names of Nirgundi, Sindhuvara,* Sephalika, Sveta- 
pushpi, Pushpanilika, &c. Two varieties are recognisei: one 
Avith pale blue flowers {SvetcqmHlipi) y and the other with blue 
flowers [PnalqyanHikti). Among the Tamils, one of these plants 
is supposed to be male and the other female, and for this 
reason they are usually combined together in their pre- 
scriptions. In the Nighantas, Nirgundi is described as cephalic, 
pungentj astringent, bitter and light; a remedy for colic, swell- 
ings, rheumatism, worms, leprosy, dyspepsia, phlegm, and boils. 

The leaves are generallj'' used as a discutient fomentation in 
sprains, rheumatism, swelled testicles, contusions, &c. The root 
is thought to be tonic, febrifuge, and expectorant, and the fruit 
nervine, cephalic, and enimenagogue. 

Mahometan physicians use these plants as substitutes for 
VifexAgnus-castasy the fruit of which is imported into India and 
sold in the ba/ars as Sambhitlu-ke-bij, 

* Sinduku, Siiuhivara or Syandavara, from beiug used to prevent a 
flow of humours, is probably more currcct. 

HI.— 10 



V. Nog undo is tlio Lagondium of Runiphius, wlio states tliat 
tlie leaves are used to preserve rice and clothes from insects 
and to drive tliem away ; and tliat the Javanese women make an 
extract from it Avhich they use as a carminative and cmmcna- 
^og-ue. In India the leaves are often placed between the leaves 
of books to pxesetve them from insects. 

'a, Linn., is highly extolled by Bontius. [Bkeam 
of India,, p. 226.) He speaks of it as anodyne, diuretic, and 
emmenagogue, and testifies to the value of fomentations and 
baths prepared with ' this noble herb,' as he terms it, in the 
treatment of Beri-beri, and in the allied and obscure affection, 
burning of the feet in natives. Of V. Nerjundo, Fleming 
remarks {Aaiat. Researches, Vol. XI.) that its leaves have a 
better claim to the title of discutient than any other yegetable 
remedy with which he is acquainted. The mode of apphcation 
followed by the natives is to put the fresh leaves into an 
earthen pot and heat them over the fire till they are as 
hot as can be borne without pain ; they are then applied 
to the affected part, and kept in situ by a bandage; the 
application is repeated three or four times a day until the 
swelling subsides. Pillows of the dried leaves are sometimes 
used to lie upon for cold in the head and headache. Dr. Ho^•t5 
(1787; states that the Europeans in Bombay call it the fomen- 
tation shrub, and that it is used in the hospitals there as a 
foment in contractions of the limbs occasioned by the land winds. 
In the Concan the juice of the leaves with that of ^laka [Edipta 
alba) and Tulasi {Ocimnni sanctum) is extracted, and Ajw'm 
seeds are bruised and steeped in it, and given in doses of six 
mas^as for rheumatism. The juice in half tola doses with ghi 
and black pepper is also given, and in splenic enlargement 
2 tolas of the juice with 2 tolas of coav's iirine is given every 
morning. A very interesting account of the treatment of 
febrile, catarrhal, and rheumatic affections, as practised by the 
people of Mysore, by means of a sort of rude vapour bath pre- 
pared with this plant, is furnished by Dr. W. Ingledc^v. 
{Ed... Mrd. and Sia-f/. Jouni,, Oct. 1817, p. 530.) Roxburgh 
mentions the use of baths prepared with the aromatic Icuvci in 


the puerperal state of women in India. According to Ainslie, 
the jMahomctans are in the habit of smoking the dried leaves in 
cases of headache and catarrh. The dried fruit is deemed 
vermifuge. {Phar. of India, p. 1G3-) 

Description.- — A shrub growing in patches; branchlets, 

panicle, and underside of the leaves white, with a fine tomcn- 
turn; leaves petiolod^ 3 to- 5 foliolate; leaflets lanceolate, long, 
acuminated, entire, or coarsely cut and crenated ; pnnicle termi- 
nal, pyramidal; flowers bluish- white to blue; berry black, the 
size of a pea. The habit of the shrub is variable; when grow- 
ing near the sea it has almost always 3-foliolate entire leaves, 
the leaflets being attenuated into the petioles ; inland, the shrub 
has a more delicate appearance; the petioles of the leaves are 
much lon^i'er and the leaflets, from 3 to 5 in number, are often 


serrated. The sen\ated variety is preferred for medicinal 
purposes, and is called Katri. The leaves of both varieties 
appear to be equally aromatic ; the odour reminds one of the 

English Bog Myrtle {M?jrica Gale, Linn,) ; the taste is bitter 
and nauseous. The berry is- very feebly aromatic. In' Anthony 
Collin's French Translation of Clusius, Lyons, 1602, there arc 
figures of both plants, which, though old and quaint, represent 
the general appearance very fairly. 

Chemical conqwsifion. — The leaves contain principally an 
essential oil and a resin. The oil possesses the odour of the 
drug and is neutral and almost colourless. The resin dissolves 
in alkaline solutions with a reddish-brown colour, softens below 
40° C., and gives off aromatic vapours when heated. A tincture 
of the drug gives a green colour withforric chloride. The ash 
of the air-dried leaves amounts to 7*75 per cent. 

The fruits contain an acid resin, an astringent organic acid 
giving a green colour with ferric salts and a precipitate with 
gelatine, malic acid, traces of an alkaloid and colouring matter. 
The fruits previously dried at 100^ gave 6-8 per cent, of ash. 

Vitex Agnus-castus, Lwn. Mahometan physicians, 
under the Arabic name of Athlakand the Persian Panjanguslit, 


describe the "yws of the Greeks and the Yitex of tlie Romans. 
The hemes under the names of Hab-el-fakad and Samhhalu-ke- 
bij are imported into India and are considered to be astringent, 
resolvent, and deobstrnent, and useful for removing obstructions 
of the brain and liver ; tbey are also giveu for enlargement of 
the spleen and dropsy. V. Af/ims-casfus is also called by the Arabs 
>^u-khamsata aurak, '' tbe five-leaved/' and in Egypt is kno^vu 
as Kaf 3Iiryara, '' the hand of Mary/' Amonj? the ancients 
it was sacred to Escidapius, and ^-aa considered symbolical of 
chastity. In the Middle Ages the fmit was known as " Monks' 
pepper." The fruit is sold in Bombay as liennlca, the true 
reuvika {Pi^er aurantictcum) is not known in "Western India. 

Description. — A small, dull gray, ovoid fntit, the size 
of a duckshot, half enclosed in the calyx, to which a portion of 
the peduncle remains attached. Upon section it is found to. be 
extremely hard, and, if perfect, to consist of four cells, each 
containing a small flat seed. Generally one or more of the 
cells are abortive. 

G/iamcfd co)))2)osftm}.~i:}io seed of F. Agmts-castm has been 
found to contain a peculiar bitter principle called Castine, a 
volatile acrid substance, a large quantity of free acid and fat 
oil. In Greece the fresh and rather unripe berries are said to 
be added to the must of the grape to render the wine more 
intoxicating, and prevent it from turning sour. {Landerer, 
Bnchn., Repert. In:, 20; LXXXI., 229; Buc/in. A". Eeperf., 
III., 392.) 



Fig,— Gartn. Frucf, L, t. 57, /. 1 ; Eheede, Ilort. Mai. r 


Hab.— India and Ceylon, near the sea. The leaves. 

T' r»ac/f?flr.-Sangkupi, Cbhoti-arni {m»d.), Isamdhaii 

ij^"^^'-} Shen-gaukuppi {Tarn.), Pisbinika, Uticbettu (T^^^.)' 

mu^oi (Benff.), Koivel, Vanajai, Labdn-Uu^ri-narvel {Mar.), 
Naitakkile (CaN.). 



History, Uses, &C. — This is a slirubtlie medicinal pro- 
perties of wliich are widely known in the East. Some identify 
it with the Kshudragniraantha of the Raja Nirghanta. It is 
the Gamhir-lant of Java, the WceUhii-rmida of Ceylon, and the 
Sanftf-nmn of Cochin-China. Ainslie says the juice of the 
leaves and root is considered alterative in scrofulous and 
venereal affections, the dose being a tahlespoonful with or with- 
out a little castor oil. Eheede speaks of the use of the di'ied 
leaves for the same pifrpose, and of a poultice of the leaves 
to resolve buboes ; he also says a bath prepared with them is 
used in mania, while the root boiled in oil affords a liniment 
useful in rheumatism. C inerme is the Jasmintim liforeiim and 
Pharmacum liforeum of Eumphius {Lib. vii., cap. 47), who says 
the Amboyna name is Wale-jmti'IohaJia, which means ^^ white 
strand cord.^' The Malays and Macassars administer the 
berries or the root to people poisoned by eating unwholesome 
fish ; the leaves smeared with oil are heated over the fire and 
applied to recent wounds ; they are also one of the leaves used 
for preparing the green rice of the Malaj^s ; he concludes 
by saying " larga ac fausta natura in cunctis fere litoribus 

banc obviam profert plantam.'' In Bombay the plant has a 
great reputation as a febrifuge ; the juice of the leaves is used 
in doses of half an ounce. It is mucilaginous, very bitter, 
somewhat saline, and with a fragrant, apple-like odour. 


of Chiretta. 


efRcicnt as the juice of the fresh plant ; they should be dried in 
the shade to preserve their aroma, and may be administered in 
decoction with aromatics, or powdered and made into pills, A 
tincture has also been found to be an efficient preparation. 

Description." A straggling shrub, 3—7 ft.; shoots grey- 
pubescent. Leaves opposite, rarely ternate, |— 1^ in., when 
young somewhat grey-pubescent, ba,se cuneate; petiole I in. 
Peduncles r}— 1^ in., all axillary, 3—7 fid. ; bracts ^\ in., linear; 
pedicels ^—^ in., calyx grey-puberulous or glabrate. Corolla 
white, tube % in., glabrate, lobes ^ in., oblong. Drupe i by | in., 


spongy, hardly succulent, smooth, hardly sulcate, separat- 
ing into four Avoody pyreucs. Or the leaves may be mostly 
ternate or sublinear and larger. The drupe also may vary in 
size. Some on this account make Rumphius' plant a separate 
species under the name of C. nerufoUum, but Bentham and 
Kurz consider it only a vai'iety. 

Chemical composition.— A proximate analysis of the leaves 
gave the followin'? results : — 

Alcoholic „ 

Ethereal extract , 4-77 




Aqueous „ .^^^^ 

Alkaline „ ^ 

Organic residue 50-06 

Inorganic „ 

Moisture „ 


Total 100-00 

Ash soluble in water 44'14 

„ „ in acid , 47-10 

Sand and silicates 8-76 



Total 100-00 

Sodium chloride in ash 2401 

The bitter principle is entirely removed by ether, and the 
subsequent treatment by alcohol and water affords extracts 
which are free from any bitterness. Ether, alcohol, and water 
independently exhaust the leaves of this principle, but the former 
removes it with less admixture of foreign substances. The 
ether extract evaporated and mixed with water will give up the 
bitter property to the solvent, and this by gradual evaporation 
leaves it in an almost pure condition. It is obtained as a viscid 
mass, which, in process of time and by exposure to the air, hardens, 
and may bo reduced to a non-hygroscopic powder. It is soluble 
in water, with a slightly acid reaction, and is partiallv rendered 
insoluble by neutral plumbic acetate, thus giving eVidence of 
Its compound nature. The portion precipitated by the lead 
salt, when liberated from the metal by hydrogen sulphide, was a 


llo-lit-coloured amorphous acid po^ycler, soluble in water, spirits 
of wine and ether, and reducing Feliling when in aqueous solu- 
tion. The bitter princix^le that escaped precipitation by 
plumbic acetate was readily shaken out of the acid filtrate with 
ether. This was a whitish amorphous powder soluble in water^ 
with a neutral reaction, and did not reduce Fchlinj?'s solution; 

it was not precipitated by alkalies, and was not coloured with 
ferric chloride ; it was chiefly distinguished by its being pre- 
cipitated by tannin and affording a transient red-brown colour 
with strong sulphuric acid. The dual nature of the bitter 

principle seems to show a very remarkable resemblance with 
thatfoimd in Chiretta {Swertia Chirafa), a gentianaceous plant. 

Chiretta has been investigated by Ilohn, who found the drug 

to contain Oijhelh acid G'^ H^^ 0^^ and C/tirafm G^'^ H^^ O^^ an 

acid and neutral bitter principle respectively, and representing 

the activity of the herb. 

The leaves, when distilled with water, yield a stearopten-like 
body having the fruity flavour of the fresh plant. The ether 
extract was fragrant, green, and of a greasy consistence. The 
alcoholic extract contained some resinous matter, and much of 

the salt, Avhich was left as cubical crystals when evaporated. 

' o-um and brown colourino- matter. JN^either 

^ * „^ WV.*^..^*^j^ 


tannin nor starch was present in the leaves. They left on 
gentle incineration as much as 15 '29 per cent, of ash, and the 
large amount of salt in this ash indicates the habitat of tho 
plant as being in close proxunity to the sea. {Hooper in Pharm. 
Becord, Aug, 1st, 1888,) 


Fig. — Rhcede, Uort. Mai. ii, t. 25; Burm. Zeij., t. 29. 

Hab, — Througliout India. Tho leaves. 

Vernacular,— miijit {Hind.), Bliat {Beng.), Cliitu [Nepal], 
Bhandir, Kari [Mar.), Kare {Can.). 

History, Uses, &C. — Bhecdc states tliat the leaves of this 
plant are used as a vennif uge, and that the root rubbed down with 


'buttermilk is administered in colic and lientery. Dr. Bholanutli 
Bose has drawn attention to the leaves as a cheap and efficient 
substitute for Chiretta. {Pharjuacqpoeia of India,) Brigade- 
Surgeon J. H. Thornton considers the expressed juice of the 
Icayes to be an excellent laxative, cholagogue, and anthelmintic ; 
also a valuable bitter tonic, and useful as an injection into the 
rectum for the destruction of ascarides. These opinions are 
supported by those of six other medical officers quoted by Br. 
G, Watt in the Didionanj of the Economic Products of Indian ii., 
'p. 373- M . 0. Butt gives Bhandira as the Sanskrit name, but 
this name does not occur in the Uaja Nirghanta, and is usually 
applied to other plants. In Western India it has been 
identified with the Kari of the Raja Nirghanta. 

Description. — A gregarious shrub spreading by under- 
ground suckers, 3 to 6 feet in height. The leaves are from 8 to 
10 inches long, and from 7 to 8 inches broad at the base, ovate- 
cordate, hairy on both sides, odour disagreeable, taste bitter, and 
elightly astringent. ' The inflorescence forms large, terminal, 
cross-armed panicles, flowers white, streaked with j^ink, sweet- 
scented ; after they have fallen, the calyxes enlarge and turn red. 

Chemical conipositton, — A proximate analysis of the leaves 
gave the following result: — • 

Ethereal extract lO'Sl 



Alcoholic „ , 

Aqueous „ > 

Alkaline „ 8-97 

Organic residue 3847 

Inorganic „ , 





Total 100-00 


Ast soluble in water 16-83 

„ in acid 72-86 

Sand and silicates 10-30 

Total 100-00 

Sodium chloride in ash 5-58 


The leaves of C. infortunatum were devoid of the odorous 
principle noticed in the former species, and yielded no volatile 
constituent when boiled with water. The ether extract contained 
a quantity of resinous matter, and gave up th^ bitter principles 
when heated with water ; the extract was of a less fatty consistence 
than that from the C, inerme leaves. The spirituous extract was 
also much larger than in the previous sample, and was differently 
constituted, inasmuch as it almost entirely consisted of a tannin, 
giving a green colour with ferric chloride. These leaves con- 
tain much more soluble organic matter than the former, but 
the percentage composition of the ash shows that the soluble 
inorganic salts are much smaller. The ash of these leaves 
amounted to 12'3 per cent, {Kooper in Pharm. Eecordy Aug. 1st, 


Clerodendron Siphonanthus, Br., Lam. Ill, «. 79^ 

/. i. ; Wight IlUy t. 173, is stated by M. C. Dutt to be in use in 
Bengal as Bharnngi, but the samples of that drug w^hich we 
obtained from Calcutta and Cawnpore proved to be the stems 
and roots of C. serratum, Spr,^ Wight lo.y t 1472; BoU 

Mag. J t^ 2536. Fiom enquiries we have made thore is no doubt 
that the latter plant is largely used in many parts of India as 
a substitute for Premna heroacea^ the true Grnntu Bharangi, but 
if we regard the root of (7. serratum as the true Bharangi, and 
the root of P. herhacea as the Gantu (or knotted) Bharangi, 
there will be no confusion. (7, serratum has a light-eoloured 
root, very often contorted^ and seldom more than an inch in 
diameter. A light brown epidermis and thin bark cover the 
tough woody portion, which shows well-marked medullary rays 
and concentric rings. The drug contains much starch, it is 
faintly bitter, and has no peculiar odour. The young tops and 
light blu(! flowers are used as a vegetable by the natives. 

The root of 0. serratum did not yield anything of great 
activity when examined chemically, which proves that there is 
little to recommend it as a medical agent. * The wood of the root 
is almost inert and tasteless ; the thin bark constitutes only one- 
fifth of the weight of the dried root and contains a small 


quantity of the peculiar bitter principles, dissolved by 
ether, associated with an acrid resinous substance, and some 
fatty material. It is interesting to observe, however, that the 
reactions of the bitter principle, although occurring in such 
small quantity, were identical with that obtained in the leaves 
of the other two species, where it formed from ^ to 1 per cent, 
of the total. 


Fig.— ^aZZ. PI As. Bar. m., t 271 ; TFight Jc, t. 1481 ; 
Eheede, EorL Mai iv., t. 45. The White Mangrove {^ng.)f 
Paletuvier blanc {Fr.). 

Jiab. — Mangrove swamps of Deccan Peninsula and 
Ceylon. The seeds and bark. 

Vernacular. — Bani {Beng.), Mada-chettu, Nalla-mada [Tel) 
Fpputi {Mai.), Tivara (ilfar.), Timmar {Stud). 

History, Uses, &C. — This plant derives its generic name 
from the celebrated Arabian physician Avicenna (Ibn Sina) . ihe 
green fruit mixed with butter and boiled is made into a plaster, 
which is used for softening and maturing tumours, and to promote 
the healing of the ulceration caused by small-pox. This property 
of the fruit is alluded to by Camoens in the ^^Lusaid*' 

" Wide forests there beneath Maldivia's tide 
From withex^ing air their wondrous fruitage hide. 
The green -hair'd Nereids tend the bowery dells. 



^ The bark is astringent and is used by tanners- In Madras 
the ashes of the wood are used by washermen for washing clothes. 
Ihe wood is valued on account of its durability under water, 
and as a fuel for heating furnaces it is preferred to other kinds 
of wood on the West Coast of India- The seeds are bitter, but 
are sometimes eaten. 

Description. — A slirub or tree with opposite evergreen 
leaver, which are oblong, entire, and covered beneath with » 
white pubescence. The flowers are arranged in closely-packed 



The fruit is 

a broadj compressed capsule, one incli in length, dehiscin 
t^ro thick valves; seed erect, cotyledons large, plaited length- 
wise, radicle inferior, villous. The roots stand out of the mud in 
which they grow, overarching each other in erect angled masses, 
and send up asparagus-like shoots from their undergroimd 
parts. . . 

Chemical compositwn.-— The hark of A. officinalis is used in 


It contains a red 


striking a greeni 

but giving no precipitate with gelatine. The colouring matter 
is precipitated hy acids and redissolved by alkaKes. The ash 
of the air- dried bark amounts to 11 '4 per cent. , and is 



I ■ 

Fig. — Wight Ic.y t, 868; Jacq. Hort. VincL iii,^ t. 72; 
Rheede^ Rort. Mai, x., t 87, Sweet Basil (Eng.), Grand Basilie 



Hab. — Persia, Punjab. Cultivated throughout India. The 
herb and seeds. 

Vernacular. — Nazbo, Sabza {Hind* ) , Sabja {Mar.y Ghiz.), 

Nasbo, Sabja, Baboi-tulsi {Beng.\ Tirunitru-pachchai (Tarn.), 
Vibudi-pattri (2V/.), Kam-kasturi {CaUu). 

History, Uses, &C. — The Hindus dislike the smell of 
this plant ; tlxe Malionietans on the other hand are very partial 
to it. The Arabs call it Rih^n or " the herb," and the Persians 
Shahasperham or " king of herbs," and Ndzbu, " having a 
delicate odour "; it is also known in Persia as Habak- i- Kirmani, 
** Kirman mint," from its abundance in that province. The 

(Ocimum) of 



84 TABIAT^€. 

Europeans, who call the large-leaved variety Ocimum magmm, 
and the sraall-leaved Ocimum iMrimm. The plant in considered 
to be hot and dry, deobs tnient, carmirtative/ar»'* sttTTuiTanf. and 

the seeds taken whole are much valued on 

mucilaginous properties : when crushed they are srdd to be 
astringent, and are prescribed in fluxes h ym the bcwels. The 
jmce of the plant snuffed up causes sneezing and clears the 


O, hasiUcum is probably tte &Kip.ov of Dioscoridos, but 
perhaps not of Theopbrastus, who describes o^ki^lov as a sbriib. 
The Ocimum of Pliny is probably a kind of clover wbicb also 

states that it is given to mares and 



I>e Gubernatis {Myth, des Plant, ii., 35) 

account of the history of Basil in Europe where it is considered ■ 
to be erotic anrl fimAVf^nl Tt^ q^„^-t — .^ ^i-.^^„ zt^ :^ ,^^„,. ,*n f>ip 

Southern Italv it is worn in the 

waist or bosom of young girls and in the hair of married women 
and is called Bacia-nkola ; the youths stick a sprig of it above 
the ear when they go courting. In Tuscany the BasH is called 
Arnonno. In Crete it is a sign of mourning, but is universally 
cultivated in window gardens ; Boccaclo's story of Isabetta of 
Messina is too well known to require repetition . De Guber- 

natis is of opinion that all the superstitions concerning thi3 

plant current in Southern Europe are of Byzantine origin. 

According to the Ajwinasaris Apotelesmata, to dream of Basil 
is unlucky. 

In ^ Europe Sweet Basil is used as a potherb for seasoning 
certain kinds of food, and is considered to have the same 
general qualities-as thyme, sage, &c. It has long been a popular 
remedy for mild nervous or hysterical disorders, and in Buenos 
Ayres its fresh juice is said to be used as an anthelmintic, and 

o ^ 

symptoms. Its essential oil was formerly in vogue as a carmina- 
tive and nervine. {Med, Record, xvi., 325.) 

Description. — Three forms of this plant are common in 

India : the mint-Hke gaixlen basil, with large flowers and green 

purple stems 



ty common 



hardly difrerezit from O. canum. The ordinary garden basil has 
brown nutlets, but those of the pilose variety are black and 
correspond v/ith the drug imported from Persia under the name 
of Tukm-i-iihin. They are small, black, oblong nutlets, barely 
Y^^ of an inch long, slightly arched on one side and flattened on 
the other, at the base there is a small projection with a white 
point. They have no odour, the taste is oily and slightly 
pungent. When moistened they become coated with a 
opaque mucilage. 


Chemical composition. — The leaves distilled with water yield 
about T56 per cent, of a yellowish- green oil, lighter than water 
{Rayhaudy J., PkamK 20, 447), which, when kept, solidifies, 
almost -wholly, as crystallised. basil-campJior ; the solid oil 
crystallised from alcohol forms 4-sided prisms, having a faint 
smell and taste ; crystallised from water, it forms white, trans- 
parent, nearly tasteless tetrahedrons. It is neutral. Formula 
Q20 j£ie Q\iQ {Bonastrey Dumas and Feligot in Gmelin^s Hand^ 
hook, 14,359.) 

The price of the Persian seeds in Bombay is Pts. 4 per maund 
of 37A lbs. 


Fig. — Jacq. Ic, PI, Rar. in., t. 495 ; Rheede, Uort. Mai. x.. 




The leaves. 

■ ¥ 

r^ivjacM/^;-.— Ram-tulasi {Tlind. Mar. Beng.), Elumicham- 
tolashi (Tarn.), Nimma-tulasi iTel.\ Kattu-tuttuva {Mal.)y 
Kada-tulasi [Can.). 

History, Uses, &C. — This plant is the Yarvara, Barba- 
ra, and A j valla of the Nighantas. The leaves have a remark- 

a,bly grateful lemon odour and taste, and are made into a chutney 


by the Hindus, and are also used as a cooling remedy in gonor- 
rhoea. . Baths and fumigations prepared with this plant are used 
in the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis. A decoction of 
the mucilaginous seeds is used as a demulcent. This plant 
has heen wrongly identified with the Palangmishk or Faranj- 
mishk of Persia. The seeds imported into Bombay from Persia 
under these names bear no resemblance to those of 0. gmtk- 

■ ■ - > 

M m _ 

. Description. — Stem erect, woody, perennial; bark ash- 
coloured; branches opposite, erect, 4-sided, when young smooth, 
glossy and green, whole height of the plant from 4 to 8 feet ; 
leaves opposite, long-petioled, drooping, oblong, ventricose, 
remotely serrate, pointed, smooth on both sides, often 6 inches 
long, including the petiole, which is about a third of the whole ; 
racemes terminal, pretty long, rigidly erect, with the verticels 
of six flowers pretty close ; bracts short petioled, reflexed, cor- 
date lanceolate; calyx^ upper lip marked with three nerves ; 
corol short, scarcely larger than the calyx, of a pale yellow under- 
neath, oblong, concave, and entire ; filaments longer than the 
corol, with a large tuft of dark yellow hairs on the joints of 
the large pair near tlie base. (Roxh.) 


Fig.— ^wm. Thes. ZeyL 174, t. SQ,ff. 1, 2; Rianph. Herb 
AniL v., t, 92,/. 2. Holy Basil {Eng.). 

Mab. — Throughout India. The leaves. 

V€TnMula)\~"l\x\d {Hind., Gu%.), Tulasi (Tr?«?., TtL.MaU 
Beng., Mar., Can,). 

History, Uses, &C. — The Tulasi plant is venerated 

in India by the Hindus like the Tervein was amongst the 

Romans. Its worship is expounded in the Tulasikaragamy^ \iii\^ 
book composed of two parts : the first beino^ the Tulasikavacam 


^ 4* 

proper or "Tulasi amulet,'' from the Tulashnahatmya oi the 
Bralimanda Purana, and the second, a hymn in honour of the 
plant by a certain Pundarika. The Tulasi is invoked for the 
protection of all parts of the body in life and death, and espe- 
cially in its quality oiputradah putrakanksMnam, or " giver of 
children." The plant is the beloved of the gods and of pious" 
persons, to whom it affords its cmirita {hmhrosia) ; it is especially 
dear to Yishnu and Lakshmi, whence its synonyms Haripriya, 
Vishnupriya and Lakshmipriya. The divine Narada has sung 
the praises of this immortal plant, which contains in itself 
every perfection, cures every ill, and purifies and guides to the 
heavenly paradise those who worship it. The mystery of the 
Tulasi is the mystery of the Creator. 



by the followers of Siva. Krishna, the popular incarnation of 
Vishnu, has adopted this herb for his cult, whence the name 



into a Basil plant, which on this account bears the synonym 
Sitahvaya. The connection between the Tulasi and the Amrita 
is indicated by the suspension over the plant of a dropp 
of water in the month Vaimkh. Worshippers of Vishnu 


LsUnu dvtas or "messengers 
When a Hind 

18 washed with water in which are placed Tulasi leaves and 
Sesamum seeds, and a sprig of the plant is placed upon his breast 
as a viaticum. According to the y{-ri>/dyogasaras, the devout wor- 


privileged to ascend to Vishnu's paradise 
accompanied by 10 millions of his kindred. The wretch who 
destroys the plant is abhorred of Vishnu, and can never hope for 
any prosperity ; it may only be plucked for religious or medicinal 
use and when ofciug the following prayer :f« Mother " 

to the heart of Govindas. I 

worsHi, of Narayana , without tbee, bWd one, every work 

me As I gather thee with care, be merciful to me. Tulasi 
mother of the world, I beseech thee " ' 



la worskipping the plaut, it is addressed as the goddess 
Sri or Lakshmi — 

Saklii, Sabhe, Papaharliu, Punyatle, Namasfce, 

Naradanute, Narayanamabahpriye ! 

O beloved, O beautiful, O destroyer of the wicked, O purifier; 
Hononr to thee, O distinguished of Narada, O dear to the heart of 
Vishnu ] 

• The goddess is besought to protect the head (r^Vas), the 
forehead (vhalam), the sight {dnfas), the nose {grahnam) in 
her quality of siigandha or perfumed, the face {mul'Iiam) in her 
quality of siimuhhi or fair of face, the tongue, the neck, 
the shoulders, the body [madJii/am)\n its quality oijnunjada, &c., 
down to the feet. {De Gubernatis.) 

The Tulasi plant may be often seen occupying a prominent 
position in front of Hindu houses ; when thus kept it has to be 
watered and worshipped daily . It is often grown on the top 
of the Brundavanas* or square brick structures erected in the 
outer courts of temples, and in Calcutta, even in European 
compounds, there is hardly a hut occupied by a Darwan or 
Ooriya bearer ivithout a pot of Tulsi close to the door. 
Frequently in the evenings a light is kept burning near the 

plant. Sanskrit writers make two varieties of this plant (founded 
upon some difference in the colour of their leaves) , namely, whxt^ 
and black ; the plant, irrespective of colour, is called in Sanskrit 
Tulasi and Parnasa. According to the Raja ^trghanta, it 
removes cold, destroys intestinal worms and evil spirits, and 
alleviates vomiting. 

The leaves are said to be expectorant^ and are prescribed m 
catarrhal affections. The dried leaves powdered are used as » 
snuff in a disease called peenash (ozoena), Ainslie mentions 
the use. of the root in decoction in febrile affections. In the 
Concan a decoction of the leaves with the flowers of Carej/a 
urborea and black pepper is given in remittent fever. Tulasi is 
also an ingredient in prescriptions for rheumatism. (See Vit<^^ 
tnfoUaJ) The seeds are mucilaginous and demulcent. 

• 1=^^ (VTiudavana) is a raised platform of earth or masonry ou which 
the worshippers of Kiishnu plaat and preserve the Tulasi* 


Description. — Stem short, woody, perGimial ; branches 
numerous, opposite, round, usually dark-purple, hairy; leaves 
opposite, petioled, oval, serrate, downy, about 1^ inch Ion* 
and 1 inch broad; racemes terminal, erect, usually dark- 
purple, hairy, 4-sided ; bracts opposite, petioled, cordate, reflex', 
3-flowered; seeds black, oblongs about ^^ of an inch lono-, 

slightly arched on one side and flattened on the other, blunt- 

Other labiate plants, officinal in the East on account of the 
mucilaginous nutlets, are : 

Salvia plebeia, B>%, and S. segyptiaca, Lbm. var. 



The former 

plant is common in many parts of India, and the latter in the 
{Salt Range and Trans- Indus, extending to Sind and Belu- 

The nutlets of S. pkbeia are very small, ^l of an inch long, 
ellipsoid, smooth, and of a brown colour j they are valued on 
account of their mucilaginous properties, and are administered 
internally in gonorrhoea. They arc supposed to have strengthen- 
ing properties, and are given to promote the sexual powers 
like many other nmcilaginous drugs. The statement that they 
are used for killing vermin is a mistake. The plant is known 
as Satld and Samuudar-sok in the Punjab and Sind, and the 
seeds are sold in the bazars under the name of Kammar-his 
or " strong-back." Theophrastus (H. P. ix., 19) mentions a 
KparaU^ovoi or " strong-back " which has not been identified. 

of modern Greece. 
The nutlfits of .« 

d with 8. officinaUs, the Eh 

(H., 1,2), andthe^'/, 

''•'-' '• 7'"-"<""' "it. luuuuiurger ^j^ oi 

an inch), and are used in the north of India as a substitute for 

Cltcmical composition.—Thii seeds of 8, pleheiahave the follow- 

ing composition :-Watcr, 10-44; oil, 18-68; albuminoids, 11-90 • 
gum and fibre, 43-98 ; ash, 15 per cent. No alkaloid is present. 
Ihe nitrogen amounts to l-8« per cent. 

III.— 12 


Lallemantia Royleana, Benth., furalshes the mitletj^ 

sold in the bazars as Tuhn-i-bulung. It is a plant of the Salt 
Range and Trans-Indus, extending to Persia, from whence the 
drug is imported via Bombay, 

As met with in commerce, they are bhick, ^ of an Inch 
in length, oblong, smooth, 3-angled, tapering towards the 
umbilicus, which is marked by a white spot ; one side of the seed 
is broader than the other two, and slightly arched. The seeds 
when moistened become immediately coated with a tenacious, 
opaque, tasteless, grey mucilage. 

Under the name of Faranjmhhh or BiranjmisWx, Arabic forms 
of the Persian name V alang mishk y the nutlets of an uuidentified 
labiate plant arc imported from Persia. 

. They are about -^^ of an inch in length, brown, oblong; 
smooth, 3-anglcd, tapewng towards the umbilicus, whicli is 
marked by a white spot. "When moistened thoy become coated 
with a transparent mucilage. The taste is feebly pungent. 

The plant from which they are said to be obtained is 
described by Persian medical writers as having a clove-liko 
odour, on which account it is often called Kavanfal-i-hmtam, 
"garden clove.*' According to Abu Hanifch, it is the same as 
tho plant called by the Arabs A^.-ha-el-faiiyat {Culaminthn 
Clhiopodium, Bouth., the AVild Basil). It is considered to be 
eephalic, astringent, cardiacal, tonic, and carminative. 


Fig.— Tn'i///^ IlL it, t. 175; Bot Beg., t. 1520. Country 

Borage {Eng.). 

Hab.— Moluccas. Cidtivated throughout India and Ceylou. 
The leaves. 



History, Uses, &C.— This plant, found in every Indian 

garden, is the Cohus aromaticus of Luureiro, who descril^^ it as 
resolvent, foiiio and oephalir, and useful in asthma and rhronic 

LAB I ATM. 91 

cough; also in epileptic and convulsive ailections. Roxburgh 
{Fl. Ind., iii., 22) remarks that the leaves and all parts of the 
plant are delightfully fragrant, they are frequently eaten with 
bread and butter, also bruised and put into country beer, cool 
tankards, i&c., being an excellent substitute for Borage. Amongst 
the natives of India the juice is a domestic remedy in colic and 
dyspepsia, and the crushed leaves are applied to relieve the pain 
and irritation caused by the sting of the ccntiiDode. The chopped 
leaves, made into pellets and dipped in a paste made of the 
flour of the chickpea, are fried in butter and eaten. Food pre- 
pared in this manner is a favorite Indian dish and is called m 
(bhajen). Dr. Wight speaks of the plant as a powerful aromatic 
carnunative, given in cases of colic in children, in the treatment 
of which the expresssd juice is prescribed mixed with sugar or 
other suitable vehicle. In his own practice ho observed it to 
produce so decidedly an intoxicating effect that the patient, a 
European lady, who had taken it on native advice for dyspepsia/ 
had to discontinue it, though otherwise benefiting under its use. 
The Rev. J. Long (./o?fn?. Agri-ITort. Soc.,Ind., 1858^ x., p. 23) 
also notices its intoxicating properties. En the Bid. Econ. 
Prod, of India, ii., 504, it is stated on the authority of Dr. A. 0. 
Mookerjee that the expressed juice of the leaves is considered 
an anodyne and astringent, and is applied round the orbit in 
cases of conjunctivitis. One of us has taken large doses of the 
fresh juice of the leaves without observing any intoxicating 
effect, and Mr. J. G. Prebble, who has expeiimented with a 
succm prepared from the fresh herb, informs us that in large 
and repeated doses it did not produce the slightest intoxicating 
effect. The succus, a sample of which he has kindly supplied, 
had the smell and taste of weak infusion of liquorice root. 

Description.— The leaves of C. aromaticn-% which are 
broad, ovate-crenated, and veiy thick, are about 3 inches long, 
and thickly studded with hairs, which on the upper- surface are 
principally jointed and tapering, but a few are simple and 
surmounted by a globular, transparent, brilliant gland like a 
minute dcwdrop. On the under-surface the glandular hairs are 
most numerous, and give rise to a frosted appearance. The 


epidermis is provided with numerous simj>le stoiuata. The 
venation is reticulate, and remarkably prominent on the undcr- 
surface of the leaf. A few oil globules are met Avith in the 
parenchyma, but the aroma is chiefly situated in the glandular 
hairs. The taste of the leaf is at first pleasantly aromatic, after- 
wards very pungent; the odour is agreeable and refreshing. 




Fig,-^mgM III., t. 176 b,f.l', Linn. Amcen. Acad, x.y 56, 
t. 3 ; Rheede, Hort Mai x., t. 90. 

Hab. — Western Himalaya, Central and Soutlicrn India. 
The leaves and essential oil. 

Vernacular. — Pan-jira {Hind.), Kapdrli, P^n-jiren {Mar), 
Karppdra-valli {Tarn.), Roga-cliettu, Omamu-aku {Tel.),(y^o- 
mara, KurkKa (il/rt/.),-Dodda-patri {Can.). 

History, Uses, &C. — Ainslie states that the fresh juice 
of the leaves mixed with sugar- candy is prescribed by thcTamu 
physicians in cynanche, who also prepare with it, incoujunction 
with the juices of other herbs and gingelly oil, a cooling lim- 

for the head. Dr. G. Bidio [Madras Quart. Med. Joiini., 
1862, Yol. v., p. 269) describes it as a mild stimulant expec- 
torant. Its properties depend upon a volatile oil. 

In the Diet. Econ. Prod, of India it is stated on the authority 
of Surgeon-Major N"orth that the juice of the leaves mixed 
with sugar and human milk is a popular domestic remedy for 
children's coughs in Mysore. 

Description, — Stem erect, tetragonal; leaves petioled, 
ovate-rounded, obtuse crenated, cor date at the base, or rounded, 
thick, fleshy, hoary and tomentose, or villous on both sides ; 
Bpikes long peduncled, at length cylindric ; floral leaves ovate- 
obtuse; upper lip of calyx acute, glabrous, membranaceous, 
cihated on the margin ; lower lip truncate, quite entire ; coroUa 

bilabiate; upper Up bluntly 3 to 4-clcft, lower lip entire; 
flowers hiao. 






Fig. — Barrel Ic, t, 301. Arabian or French Lavender 
{Eng.)y Stoeclias Arabiqnc {Fr.\. 

Hab. — Mediterranean Coasts to Asia Minor and Arabia, 
The flower spikes. 

Vernacular. — Dharu [ITukL), Ustuldmdus {LuL Bazars). 

History, Uses, &C, — Dioscoridcs states that this pknt 
is called Stoochas from its growing on the Stoochades, a group 
of islands on the South Coast of Gaul near Massilia, now called 
Isles d'Hyeres. It is the crj*^t^l or ^^^Sili-Mif of Ibn Sina, 
It is much used by Mahometan physicians, who consider it 
to be cephalic, resolvent, deobstruent and carminative, and 
prescribe it in chest affections ; they also think that it assists in 
expelling bilious and phlegmatic humors. (Cf . Bios, iii., 28 ; 

Taul. JEg. vi, ; FUn, 26, 27.) 

The author of the Malxhzan-el-Adiciya devotes a whole folio 
page to a description of its properties, and especially enlarges 
upon its cephalic virtues; he concludes by saying, ^^In short 
Ustukhudus is the broom of the brain, it sweeps away all 
phlegmatic impurities, and removes obstructious, strengthening 
its powers, expelling vain crudities, and rarifying the intel- 

In Western India the drug is best known, though incor- 
rectly, under the Portuguese name of Alfazcma,^ which is 
corrupted by the natives into Alphajan. In European medicine 
the flowers furnish the base of the sirop de stcechm compose^ 
and are sometimes distilled for the sake of their essential oil 
whicli is known as "false oil of Spike," the true oil of Spike 
being tlie produce of L. Sjnca, 

L, Stcechas is known in Spain as "Homero Santo" (sacred 
rosemary). Its essential oil (also that of L. dentata) is there 
obtained for household use hy s uspending the fresh flowcrin 

hamndtila mra, L. Stachas.h called Rosmarinho by fclie Portugucoe 
in Europe. ^ 



94. LABIA'l\K 

stalks, flowers downward, in closed bottles and exposing them for 
some time in the sun's rays ; a mixture of water and essential 
oil collects at the bottom, which is used as a heemostatic and 
for cleansing wounds. (J", C. Soicer,) 

Description. — The purple flowers occur in short-stalked 
spikes and are situated in the axils of downy, heart-shaped 
bracts. The upper bracts, which are abortive, form a purple 
tuft at the top of the spike. The drug has a camphoraceous 
odour and a hot bitter taste. The odour of the oil, which is of 
a reddish-yellow colour, recalls that of oil of rosemary. 

Chemical composition. — The specific gravity of Spanish oil 
of L. Slcechas is 0-942 at 15^ C. It boils between 180^ and 
245^, {J. C, Sawer, Chem. and J)rHrjgisf, l8dl,^o. 5Q7.) 

Commerce. — The drug is largely imported from Europe- 
Value, Rs. 8 per maund of 37^ lbs. 


The »*^AA.of the Arabian pliysicians is generally considered to 
be the Fidiyim (7rr)Xtoj')of the Greeks; by some supposed to be the 
l^oley-Germander {Tciicrium rolitim, Linn.) ; it is described as 
doobstruent, diuretic, anthelmintic, and tonic. {Diose. iii., 11"^> 
Plin.^ 21 , 60j 84.) Dumolin, howxver, maintains the nzoKiov of the 
Greeks and the Folium of Pliny to be Sanlolina cJiamccci/p(in><s\f^y 
the '^Lavender Cotton'' of our gardens. Ibn Sina describes 
Jadch as ^^-" cr^ry, **a kind of wormseed." Persinn writers 
on Materia Mcdica give Gul-i-urla and Amherhed as it^ 



Dr. Jayakar, Civil Surgeon at Muscat, and a distinguisher 
Arabic scholar, forwarded to one of us in 1885 a plant growing 



Bandar Abbas. Both of Dr. Jayakar's specimens are wmxly, 

labiate plants, with linear leaves and terminal crowded spikes of 
flovvrrs, both are densely covered with a cotton-like down, more 
esperially the Persian specimen. The two plantti are evidently 





yery closely related ; tliey are used in febrile affections by the 
Ambs, one ounce being steeped in cold water all night, and 
the infusion strained and taken in the morning:. In infantile 
fevers the body is fumigated with the drug. 

The specimens were forwarded to Kew, but have not, as far as 
we know, been identified. The Bander Abbas Jadeh, as sold in 
the shops, consists of the flowers mixed with a few leaves and 
stems. The flowers are about ~^^ of an inch long, and only 
protrude a little from tlie cottony calyx; they are permanent 
and firmly attached to the seeds, wliich are black, rugose, and 
somewliat kidney-shaped. The odour of the drug somewhat 

resembles that of wormseed, while that of the Arabian plant is 
more like lavender. 


Syn. — P. 2mr27tiricat(iis, Dalz. in Hook. Kew Journ. ii., 336. 
Hab. — Sub-tropical Himalaya, Deccan Peninsula, The root 

and leaves. 


History, Uses, &C. — This plant hardly differs from 
P. 7>?^;7y?<>r/6-6'^>2.?, and is very closely related to P* 2)kctrant/ioides, 
P. ijlaber, and the variety siiavis of P. PulcJtouli. It does not 
appear to be mentioned by Sanskrit medical writers, but the 
root has a popular reputation as a styptic. In the Ratnagiri 
District of Western India, the root has long been in use 
amongst the natives as a secret remedy for the bite of the 
Phursa snake, and in February 1871, Mr. H. B. Boswell, the 
Collector, addressed the Civil Surgeon in the folio win o> terms : 
** I have the honor to send you a specimen of a root which 
I have reason to believe to be a cure for the bite of the Phursa 

snake, and I shall feel very mucli obliged to you if you can 



one so bitten. 

" It is said to stop all the after ill-effects of this poisonous 
te, which is more than Liquor Ammonice will, I believe. 

96 LABIAT.^. 

often do. The patient is to cat as mucL. of it, after it lias been 
washed, as would mate in bulk the size of the first joiut of one's 
first finger. This he is to do three times a daj for seven days. 
It is also to be applied externally to the Avouud. I cannot, of 
course^ vouch for the truth of this, or the efficacy of the cure, but 
one of my sepoys, who was bitten by a Phiirsa a week ago, has 
been doctored by the Patel (village headman) of this place, in 
this manner, and is now apparently well. The Patel after much 
persuasion has shown me the root and the plant, one I know 
well, but the name of which I am not at liberty at present to 
mention. lie also assures mc that this is all he uses." 

The plant was forwarded in April 1871 to the Chemical 

Analyser to Grovernment, who identified it as a species of 

Perilkiy and expressed an opinion that it was highly improbable 

that a plant belonging to the Labiatse would prove to be a 

specific for snake-poisoning, and suggested that some trustworthy 

evidence of its value should be obtained before he undertook an 

analysis. In June of the samo year, Dr. C. Joynt, the Civil 

Surgeon, reported the following case: — "A sepoy, aged 27, was 

admitted on the night of the 29th ; Liquor Ammoniae was applied 

to the wound after incising; next morning there was haemorrhage 

from the wound, and also free hiDniorrhago from the gums and 

tongue, the blood escaping had a bright arterial hue# A 

scruple of the root was ordered three times a day. The first dose 

decidedly relieved the vertigo which he complained of, and 

next day there was a marked diminution in the h{:emorrhage 

From gums and tongue, which entirely ceased on the fourth day. 

No other medicine was given." Dr. Joynt remarked: — "The 

emj^loymont of the root in this case appears to have been 

singularly beneficial, and to deserve further investigation.'' 

Unfortunately, Dr. Joj^nt left Ilatnagiri shortly afterwards 
and was unable to continue his investigations. In the Annual 
Re|X)rt of the Ilatnagiri Police Hospital for the year 1873-74, 
ibe following remarks by Dr. E. IT, E. Langley, the Civil 
^urgeun, occur :—" Snake-bites furnished two cases; these 
injuries were caused by snakes called *Phursa' by the natives 
{luhl^ iftrimda uf uphioh)gis<s), A rai>id cure was effected hv 




fhe internal adrainist ration, togetlier with local application of 
the root of a shrub, 'the PoyostemonjmrpuricauUsy^ very common 
all over the Concan,'^ In 1874 Dr. Langley made the follow- 
ing report to the Deputy Surgeon-Grcneral: — "Thirteen cases 
arising from the bites of poisonous snakes were treated in the 
Civil Hospital, Eatnagiri. The only remedy used was the 
pounded root of a plant called Pangla^the ' PogosfemonJ>^lr2)nri'' 
can^is of botanists'; the root of this j)lant is given internally as 
well as applied as a paste locally ; all these cases did well, and 
were discharged from two to four days after admission.'' 

In 1884 Dr. H. McCalman, Civil Surgeon, Ratnagiri, for- 
warded a communication, ^^ 0)h the treatment of Phoorsa bite hj 
PangJa root uith illiistratire case,'' to the Bombay Medical and 
Physical Society,froni which we extract the following remarks: 
''The Echk ccwinata, a viperinc snake, is very common in the 
Ratnagiri District. Fayrer describes it as fierce, active and 
aggressive, always on the defensive, and ready to attack. The 
bite is eventually highly dangerous, although the symptoms may 
be slow in developing. In fatal cases death usually occurs in 
from 4 to 6 days, and is preceded by giddiness, great lethargy 
and depression, hreniorrhagic discharges, albuminuria, and 
occasionally lockjaw." 

•Tangla root, chewed in a fresh state, has been used for some 
yeare by Drs. Joynt, Langley, Barker and myself in the treat- 
ment of Phoorsa bite, and with invariable success.'^ 

The following is Dr, McCalman's illustrative case : — Rowjee 
Balsawant, Hindoo, poKce constable, aged 45, was admitted 
to hospital on the 14th June 1884, at 6 a.m. An hour 
previously he was bitten on the dorsum of the foot by a 
Phoorsa snake, afterwards recognized and killed. He was im- 
mediately given Pangla to chew, and a poultice of the leaves 
applied locally. At 9 a.m. there was much pain in the part, 
a^dematous swelling of the foot and ankle, extending half-way 
up the leg, giddiness, a feeling of great depression, and hicmor- 
rliago (dark-coloured) from the gums, under surface of the 
tongue and buccal mucous membrane generally. The blood 

expectorated did not coagulate. This bleedinir^ad be^un at 


o ""• ^"'O 

98 LABIAT.^. 

6 A.M., au hour after tlie mau liad been bitten. Pulse 72, tem- 
perature 98° r., no dyspnoea. Finding the bajmorrhage uu- 
checked by tlie remedy, some perfectly fresh root just dug up was 
substituted for that first given. The effect was soon apparent. 

At 2 p,M[., giddiness less, pidsc 78, temperature 09^ 
expression trauqidl, urine dark-coloured, depositing a sliglit 
flocculent sediment, reaction acid, sp. gr. 1012, albumen to a 
considerable extent. Pain of the foot less. 

6 P.M., bleeding from the mouth practically stopped, giddiuess 
increased, pulse 72, temperature 99°-4. Urine shows blood 
corpuscules under the microscope. 

15th. — 'No hoDinorrhage from the mouth; urine contains a 
considerable quantity of Llood; vertigo less. Swelling of Hmo 
less. Pulse as yesterday and of fair volume. 

16th. — Ko haemorrhage whatever. No giddiness. Uriiie 
pale, no sediment, no albumen, sp, gr, 1008. Pulse 66. Stiffuess 
of foot, but no real pain. 

17th,— Swelling rapidly disappearing. No head symptoms. 
Urine very pale and plentiful, sp. gr. 1004. 

18th. — Pangla omitted. His convalescence was uninteiTupt- 
ed, and he left the hospital on the 22nd perfectly Avell. 

Dr. McCalman remarks:— ''I do not pretend to explain the 
action of Pangla ; that the remedy acts generally and phy^i*^^^ 
gically is apj^arent from the early drying up of remote hseiwor- 
rhages {e.g., bleeding from the urinary tract) and the relief ol 
cerebral symptoms, effects due to a restoration of the natural 
state of the blood, and, through it, of the nervous centres. The 
drug may also stimulate organs concerned in the elimination of 
the poison. The subject is one which calls for further carefiJ 
experimental research." 

Through the courtesy of Surgeon- General Pinkerton we have 
been supplied with further extracts from the records of the 
Rutnagiii Civil Hospital, which show that Pangla root is still 
used with the same success in the treatment of Phursa bite. 


Only one fatal case Is recorded, and in that the remedy was 

administered in the form 




Mr. G. W. Vidal, C.S., in a letter to the Bomhay Gazette, 
dated January 30th, 1890, states that the bite of the Phursa snake 
is apparently fatal in about 20 per cent, of cases, and the action 
of the poison is slow. He says: ^^In collecting materials for an 
account of the snahes of Ratnagiri for the Bomhay Gazetteer^ 
I found (in 1878) records of 62 fatal cases treated at the Civil 
Hospital. These cases showed that death occurred on an aver- 
age in four and a half days, though in some instances patients 
had lingered up to twenty days/* In 1855-56 Dr. Imlach, then 
Civil Surgeon of Shikarpur, in a description of the *Kapar' 
[Eekis carinata)^ published in the Transactions of the Bombay 
Medical and Physical Society (Vol. iii., New Series, p. 80), wrote 
that '^a reference to police returns will show that in by far the 
majority of cases serious injury and death have been caused by 
the bite of this species." In an article upon the ^'Venomous 
Snakes of North Canara"' {Journ. Ned. Hist. Soc. Bomhay, 
VoLv.,No. l,p. 69), Mr. Vidal says : — '* There is indeed no doubt 
that the Echis is a far more potent factor than any other venomous 
snake in swelling the mortality of the Bombay Presidency, and 
it is important that this fact should be more generally known 
and recognised than it has been hitherto. It is, of course, 
impossible to show the exact percentage of the deaths from 
snake-bite for which the Echis is responsible. In the returns no 
attempt is made to discriminate the species to which the recorded 
deaths are attributable, and little if any reliance could be placed 
in the statistics, even if such an attempt were made. But the 
conclusion stated above may, I think, be fairly drawn from the 
fact, which is very clear from the returns in their present shape, 





while conversely, the mortality is insignificant in other dis- 
tricts where the Echis is either rare or absent. The following 
table, which I have compiled with some care and labour from 
the official returns for the eight years, 1878—85, shows the 



population, tlie actual average mortality, and the mortality per 
mille of each district in the Bombay Presidency : 


Census of from snake- 




bite, 1878 
to 18S5. 

per mill€f 

1878 to 


Thar and Parkar 


Eatnagiri ........ 


Panch Mahals 
Shikarpur .... 



Broach , 

Ufippr Sind Frontier 
Kolaba , 

Sattara ... . 

Kanara .... 

Poona ....... 

Bijapur ..., 





















10 8 













Thus three Sind districts and Eatnagiri, in all of which the 

list with an average mortality, taking the four districts together 
of -205 per 1,000. On the other hand, in the last four districts 
on the list, viz., Bijapur, Nasik, Ahmednagar and Sholapur, 
the combined average mortality per mille is only '0118. In 
other words only one man dies of snake-bite in about 100,000 
in these Deccan districts, while in the ^c/i/:s-ridden tracts one 
man dies in every 5,000. Daboias and kraits are probably 
nowhere so common in Western India as to have much appre- 
ciable effect on the mortality. But cobras are quite as common, 
I believe, in these Deccan districts as they are in liatnaniri or 






ts ■ 

labiatM 101 

Sind. This sto-w 

and not tlie cobra, or any other yenomous snake— is chiefly 




to clean wounds and sores, and to stimulate Wealthy granulation. 

Description. — A stout, erect, l)ranclied shrubby plant ; 

glabrous, pubescent, or scaberulous- Leaves long-petioled, ovate 
or ovate-lanceolate, singl}^ or doubly crenate-tootbed or serrate, 
basecuneate, wborls subglobose, in dense cylindric or one-sided 
softly hair}* spikes, bracts elliptic -ovate, exceeding the hirsute 



very small, black, shining. The whole plant has a strong black 
currant odour. Roots woody, knotted; bark light brown, 
scabrous, with an aromatic odour like that of the plant, and a 
pungent taste, benumbing the tongue and palate when chewed. 

Chemical composition. — The most interesting principle detected 
in the plant was an alkaloid. After repeated purification it 
was left as a yellow varnish with slightly bitter and mouse-like 
flavour. It was more soluble in chloroform than in ether. 
No special colour reactions were noted. We also detected the 
presence of trimcthylamine, and a volatile principle with a 
cedar- wood odour. Resinous principles were also present, with 

Of^ astringent matter. 




Fig. — Tieichb. Ic. FL Germ., /. 82; Eng. Bof. 686. Wild 
0^ Mint {Enrj\ Menthe sauvage {Fr.). 

Hab. — Temperate W. Himalaya, Persia. The herb. 

Vernacular. — Pudhia or Pudina {Hi 


History, Uses, &C. — A fragrant plant named t^lvBa or 
^f M'"^'?, in Latin Miutlia or Mentha, was known to the Greeks and 

^^ Romans {Thcoplw., ii., 4; Plin., 19, 47; 20, 53), which was 

■ > 


probably a kind of mint. According to Pliny, the name of this 
plant was afterwards changed to tj^ioiTfiov on account of the 
sweetness of its smell. It was used as an ingredient in sauces 
and for medicinal purposes ; it is impossible to determine with 
certainty wbicli species of mint was used by the ancients, but it 
is generally supposed to have been M. sativa, Linn. 

Ovid tells us that Myntha was a nymph beloved of Pluto, 
who was turned into a plant by Proserpine out of jealousy. 

( M//U 

" Les FraiiSais 


Miintz, Pietro de Crescenzi, Ecrba sanctce Marue. Dans la Na- 
tiirale et generalc Histona dell' Indie Occidentali (Ramusio) ou 
ut: "Jj'herha biiona, chc in alcune parti chiamano herba 
sania,^ e in molto altre nienta." Dans les Allegories d' Azz Eddin, 
traduit par Garcin de Tassy, la menthe serable jouer, au 
contraire, unassez vilain role. Le basilic en parle ainsiau jasmin: 
"Tu auras peut-etre entendu dire qu'il existe un delateur (la 
menthe) parmi les ^tres do mon espece ; mais, je t'en prie, nelui 
fais pas de reproches ; il ne repand que sa propre odeur ; il ne dl- 
vulgue qu'un secret qui le regarde; ilne de voile enfin quecequ'il 
pent decouvrir." Quelle allusion pent contenir cctte allegorie? 
Est-il possible que la vieille equivoque latine entre les mots 
mentha et mentula se soit repetee dans une langue oricntale?* 
Quant a la premiere, elle est certaine, et les poetes pomo- 
graphiques italiens en ont bien abuse. II faut sans doute en- 


superstition Sicilienne de Caltavuturo, dans la province de Pa- 
lermo; on y croit que si la femme dans ses mois%'approche de la 
menthe, la plante pe'rira ; autrefois, au lieu de menta, on enten- 
dait probablement mcniula : d'oCi la croyance qui, autrement, 
serait inintelligible. 

Apulde, De ViHutihis Herbarum, indique le rite qu'il faut 
suivre pour cueillirla menthe : - Lege earn mense Augusto, mane 
prmio pnusquara sol exeat, mimdus, ad omnia sic dicens : Te 
precor, he ^ a hedyomio s, per eum qui nasci te jussit, venias ad me 



hilarls enm tuis virtutlbus et effectu tuo, et ea milii proGstes quae 
tide a te posco," ^ 

Mint does not appear to be mentioned by Sanskrit medical 
writers. In Arabic ^^i {naanaa) and 0^.=^ {hahah) are 
general names for tlie miuts, but tliey are best known as Fuda- 
naj, tbe Arabic form of the Persian word Pudina or Pudang. 
The author of tbe Makhzan describes tbree kinds of Fudanaj, 
wild, mountain, and water mint ; the latter, he says, is the Cala- 
mintha of the Greeks. Mountain mint is described as having 
hoary leaves, but it is impossible from his description to form 
any opinion as to the exact species to which he refers. The 
mints are considered to be hot and dry, and are prescribed in 
dyspeptic aifectioUvS, fluxes, and dropsy. Different kinds of 
mint are much cultivated in Indian gardens, and are used as 
domestic remedies on account of their stimulant and carminative 
properties. They are often made into a medicinal chutney^ 
w hich is eaten to remove a bad taste in the moiith in febrile 
conditions of the body, e,g.^ Pddfna, kharik (dry dates), black 
pepper, rock salt, raisins, and cumiii in equal proportions are 
rubbed into a chutney with limejuice. 

In colic, mint juice with a little black pepper and honey is 

^ Description. — M. syJvestris has leaves broadly or narrowly 

oblong, obovate or lanceolate subacute, serrate, hoary beneath, 
whorls in t-erminal spikes, calyx-teeth triangular or lanceolate^ 
corolla hairy, glabrous within. Nutlets usually pale, smooth, 
sometimes brown and. delicately reticulate. {FL Br, Ind.) 

The plant varies much in size and habit. Aitchison observed 
it in Biluchistan in beds of streams amongst tamarisk shrubs, 
growing nearly seven feet high and forming large clumps. 
cinother variety was collected by him on the Harirud A^alley. 

^^ Mentha virkiis (spear-mint), If.jvperifa and M. incana (pep- 

permint), M. saiira, and 3L aquaticaj occur in Indian gardens, 
and as escapes. M. arremis is a natr\^e of the Westera 







Chemical composition. — The most important constituent is the 
volatile oil,wliicli has the same composition as oil of peppermint, 
but differs from it in odour and flavour (see p. 107). 

The plant contains a little tannin. 

Commerce,— Ihe dried plant of M. si/lcestns is a regular 
article of import from Persia into Bombay. Yalue about 
2 annas j)er lb* 


MENTHA ARVENSIS, Li'vi, vixv, inpemscens. 

Hab. — China and Japan. The essential oil, and Menthol 
or Peppermint camphor. 

Veniacular.—'Ihe oil.~Liu-tsao [Ohm.), Ilakano Abura 
{Japan), Pddine-ka-tel or atar {Hind., Bcmj.), Vatiilau- 
cha-t^l (J/rtr.), Phudino-nu-tel {Guz.), Pudina attar (?/' taibm 
{Tarn.), Pudina-attaru or taihunu [Tel), Pudiua-attar or 
yanne {Can.), Menthol— Po-ho-yo {Chin.), Hatsca {Japd") 
Pudine-ke- jphul [Lid. Bazars). 

History, Uses, &c. — Peppermint was in use m 
China and Japan at least 2,000 years ago. The Fudanaj- 
cl-tays, "Mentha hircina," of Ibn Sina apjiears to have been 
peppermint ; he describes it as a very efficacious kind of mnit 

^ood diuretic. Ilaji Zein el-attar (1368) mentions a 
kind of mint called Filfilmdn, i.e., "having the qualities of 
pepper," also known a« Pudinch-i-kohi or " hill mint." Both 
the Arabs and Persians appear to have been well acquainted with 
the value of this mint in neuralgic affections. It is interesting 
to observe that in Hull's Z?;7Y/«/<2^^o/w, Manchester, 1799, pepper- 
mint is^ named Mentha hircina. Peppermint is not mentioned by 
Sanskrit writers ou :iLjtf,-la Medica. From the Pharmacographia 
we learn that pepa-mi)it was fii-«t observed by Dr. Eales and 
coimniinicatcd to Ray, who noticed it in his Si/nopsis in 1 606. 
Dale, m 1705, states in his rharmacohgim Supjy^cnmdnm that it 
is esteemed a specific in renal and vesical calculus ; and Ray, in 
the third edition of his S>/nop.v\ declares it superior to all other 
mints as a remedy for weakness of the stomach and for diarrhea. 



. LABIATjE. 105 

ITpon the Continent of Europe peppermint became practically- 
known about tbe latter end of tlie last century {ojj. cit.^ 2nd ed.^ 
p. 481). Peppermint camphor was first described by Grmelin in 
1829, who obtained it from tlie European plant. Pereira and 
Guibourt notice the menthol of China, and in 1862 a 


on crystallized oil of peppermint from Japan was presented to 
the Chemical Society by Oppenheim, who speaks of it as 


with sulphate of magnesium to the extent of 10 to 20 per cent 

examined bv Moss 


H. Beckett and C. R. Alder Wi 


ache and neuralg'ia, and was known in France as Gouttes 
Japomhes. In 1879 Mr. Archibald Duncan, a student of the 
University of Edinburgh, drew attention in the Lancet to its 

an antiseptic. Dr. A. Rosenberg {Lancet^ 1885) recom- 
an alcoholic or ethereal solution as a local anaesthetic 
in affections of the nose, pharynx, and larynx. The use of 
menthol for these purposes has now become general in Europe 
and America. Dr. Lahnstein {Thenqy. llonatsk, 1890, No. 5) 
has used menthol with striking success against vomiting in a 
child with traumatic peritonitis where opium and morphine 
had failed. 


Dr. Drews {T/iemp. Monatsh., 1890, No. 7) has corLditionally 
confirmed the communications of Gottschalk and Wpi'rs nmi. 



Dr. Bronner of Bradford reported at the 62nd meeting of 
German Scientists and Physicians in Ileidelburg on the success 
obtained by him with menthol (a few drops of a 20 per cent, 
solution in olive oil poured on pieces of pumice stone) in 
obstinate swelling of the tubes as well as in some cases of 
sclerosis. {Therap. Monatsh., 1890, No. 8.) 

Dr Jones {Beutsch. Apoth-ZeiL, 1890, p. 143) has used 
menthol successfully in 20 per cent. alcohoHc solution for 
"'•^x.'^'''' in asthmatic cases. Lastly, the success obtained 
with menthol against diphtheria must be mentioned 




Dr. Hermann Wolff {Therop. Mannish., 1890, j?fo. {>) lias 
exhaustively reported on his experience of two years with the 
treatment. In India it is chiefly used as a stimulant carmina- 
tive by vegetarians in the same manner as the essential 
oil of peppermint, which is largely imported from China 
and Japan. One of us has found a large rectal injection of 

peppermint m warm water afford 

renal colic. 

Description. — Chinese oil of pepijermint is generally 

higli coloured and very 

after-taste. It 


able to compete with the Japanese oil which has nearly driven 
it from the Indian market. The menthol of China and Japan 
occurs in long hexagonal crystals, resembling sulphate of mag- 
nesium, which contain much water. E. B. Kyle [Amer. Jo urn. 
ofPharm., 1885) mentions the following among the properties 
of menthol. When thrown upon water, currents are produced to 
and from the dissolving crystals. Menthol liquifies with chloral, 
thymol, and camphor ; and this action is particularly noticeable 
with thymol, crystals of the two substances placed in contact 
being in a few minutes transformed into a thick oily liquid. 
On gently heating a mixture of 1 drachm of the aqueous solu- 
tion of menthol with half a drachm of a solution of 1 grain of 
iodine and 5 grains of potassium iodide in two drachms of water, 
with a small quantity of potash solution, the characteristic odour 
of iodoform is developed. The aqueous solution is not affected 
by ferric chloride or bromine water, but yields a slight turbidity 
^■ith chlorine water. One grain of menthol yields, with 120 
drops of sulphuric acid, a brownish red liquid of a very dis- 
agreeable odour, and on the addition of a Uttle potassium bichro- 
mate becomes chrome-green, the colour remaining unaltered 
for several weeks. Menthol slightly warmed with nitric acid 
yields a thick, wine-coloured, oily liquid, and at a higher 
Heat red fumes are given off; on neutralizing now with ammonia, 
a precipitate is observed which is soluble in alcohol, and the 
solution when evaporated yields an indistinctly crystalline 




distilled from tlie fresh 

plaut, grown at Mitcham, by Moss had a decided yellow colour, 
and a sp, gr. of '9107 at G'2>^ F, With the barometer at 30 iu, 
i-t boiled at 402^ R 

The sp, gr. of the oil after deteruiiiiing the boiliug point, 
was fouud to be * 9117 at 62^R 

Other speciuieus of oil distilled in England from- the dry im- 
ported herb, were found by Moss to be different- in appearance 
and physical properties from that distilled by^ him. One 
labelled ** non-rect." was distinctly greenj and had a sp. gr, of 
•9 1 67 at 62^F, ; a second, labelled *^ rect.," wat^pale in colour, with 

a faint green tinge, and had a sp- gr. of 9098. The sp. gr. of 
those oils confirni^ Todd^s gene ralization- that pure oila fall 
between •908 and •917. {Pharm. Jonrn., p. 446, 1886.) None of 
the three oils^ gave any coloration^ when- subjected to the test 
given in Todd's paper above mentioned. It consists in adding 
^ne drop of oil to a mixture of 25 drops of alcohol with one drop 

j^ ^f nitric acid, sp. gr. I'2- With the oil of ili". piperita a 
permanent blue or bluish-green colour is- developed. 


Chemical composition, — ;Oil of peppermint owes its peculiar 
©dour to menthol (mint camphor, mint stearopten), C^^H^'^0, 
which is ehieS^y contained in th-e last portions obtained on sub- 
jecting the oil to fractional distillation. It forms colourless 
prisms which fuse at 42*^ C. and boil at 212^0. Distilled 
jfli with phosphoric anhydride, it yields menthene G^^H^^, which 
^ is a colourless liquid of an agreeable odour. According to 
^ Moriga {1881), oil of peppernnnt contains probably also an 
oil of the formula C^°H*^0, which may be prepared from 
menthol by oxidation with potassium bichromate; but by 
^^ treatment with fuming nitric acid menthol yields at first an 
explosive oil, afterward crystals of an acid (C'H^O^)^H^O 
^* melting at 97^C, ; this compound is not identical with pyro- 
]jiJ tartaric acid, with which it agrees in composition. A compound 
^1^ isomeric with borneol had been found by Beckett and Wright 
(1875) in the liquid portion of Japanese peppermint oil, but, 
4 according to Fiuckiger and Power (1880), is not present in 

108 ■ LABIATJE. 


the oil distilled at Mitcham, which contains, besides menthol, 
several hydrocarbons of the formulas C^^H^^ andC^^H^^ and 
having a terebinthinate somewhat lemon-like odour. {StilU 
and Maisch.) 

Commerce. — Chinese oil of peppeitaint and menthol are 
imported into India in quarter-catty flat bottles, bearing a 
Chinese label. Four or more of these bottles are packed in a tin 
box. The Japanese oil is packed in tins of various sizes and 
has generally an English labels much of it is of very inferior 
quality, the menthol having been separated. Cooking's i& th® 
best brand, and is packed in glass bottles with paper cases. 
Value— oil, Rs. 4 to 5 per lb. ; menthol, Rs. 8 per lb. 

peppermint are Mentha 



Micromeria capitellata, Benth,, a native of Behar 

the Western Himal 

native properties. 





¥ig,'-Woodv. Med. Bot. t. 165. Sweet Marjoram [Eng ), 
Marjolaine {Fr.). 

Hab. — Portugal to Western Asia, Cultivated in India. 
The herb. 

Vemacular. — Marwa {Indian Bazars). 

History, Uses, &C. — The name opt>vo.., m modern Greek 

P^V*"", was applied in ancient times to plants of this genus, but 
O. marjorana was distinguished by the names a-afxfvxo" and 
ajxapoKos, ^ A Gi-eek myth informs us that Amaracus was a page 

ho one day on letting fall a vessel of 
itened that he was turned into this 
Romans decorated the newly married 

w Luo iiiug oi \jyprus, \' 

perfume became so frig 
plant. The Greeks and 
with it. Catullus says : 

Cinga terapora Horibus 
Suaveolentis Amaraci. 



It Is tlie Marjolaine of the French. De Gubernatls states that 
in Southern Europe it is the symbol of honour and the protector 
pf married women. It is the Maruva and Jambhira of the Raja 
Nirghanta and the Marwa or Marzaugush of the Persians. 
Ibn Sina calls it Marzanjush. The Persian word signifies 
•'mouse-ear/' a name given to it on account of the greyish downy 
character of the leaves, which is more marked in the Persian 
variety than in the European plant. Marjoram is cultivated as 
a pot-plant in most Indian gardens, and is used as a substitute 
for thyme in cookery. At Bandora, near Bombay, it is grown 
as a garden crop to supply bouquets for the Bombay market, 
which are much worn by women in their hair. The medicinal 
uses of Marjoram in the East are similar to those of mint. 

Description. — An annual herb. The leaves are spatu- 
late or oval, very obtuse, entire, gray green, soft-hairy, and 
pellucid punctate. The flowers are aggregated in small heads 
and have a small whitish corolla. The plant is agreeably and 
puugently aromatic. 

Chemical comj)osit ion. —The volatile oil {Oktm majomncB) is 
thin, yellowish, of the specific gravity 89, boils above 163° C, 
is readily soluble in alcohol, has the aromatic odour of the herb, 
and, according to Beilstein and E. Wiegand (1882), contains a 
terpene boiling at 178 

HCl, _^_ 

composition C^^H-'^Q, and 

(Stille and Maisch. \ 



Fig.—Hngl. Bat., xxiL, t 1514. Wild Thyme {E, 

let {Fr 



Western Temperate Himalaya, Persia, Europe. The 

Vernacular. —Misho (PanJ.), Hash^ {Pers. Ind. Bazars). 

History, Uses, &C.— H^sha is the Persian name of 
serpjUum, but it has been adopted by the Arabian and Persian 

110 LABTATJ^. 

physicians as the equivalent of the ^vfj^os of Dioscorides, a plant 


concerning the identity of which there is much doubt: some 
supposing it to be the Satureia capitata of Linneus, and others 
the Thymus vulgaris or T. Zygis of the same botanist. Ibn Sina 
in his description of Hasha quotes what Dioscorides says con- 
cerning Bi^os, and does not notice the ^pTrvXkos of the same author 
usually identified with T serpyllum. Haji Zein el-Attar follows 
Ibn Sina in identifying Hasha with the Siy^^^ of the Greeks, 
and describes it as a kind of mountain mint with very numerous 
small flowers of a purplish colour, slender stems, and leaves like 
the Jadeh. His description of its medicinal properties hardly 
differs from that of Pliny (21, 89), which is as follows :—'* Thyme 
is considered to be very beneficial to the sight, whether 
used as an article of food or as a naedicament, and to be good 
for inveterate coughs. Used as an electuary with vinegar and 
salt, it facilitates expectoration^ and taken with honey prevents 
the blood from coagulating. Applied externally with mustard, 
it dispels chronic fluxes of the fauces, as Avell as various 
afEections of the^ stomach and bowels ; still, however, it must 
be used in moderation, as it \h of a heating nature, and acts 
as an astringent on the bowels. In cases of ulceration of the 
intestines, the dose should be one denarius of thyme to one 
gextarius of oxymel ; the same proportions, too, should be taken 
for pains in the sides, between the shoulder-blades, or in the 
thoracic organs. Taken with oxymel, it is used for the cure of 
intestinal diseases, and is administered in cases of alienation of 
the senses and melancholy. Thyme is given also for epilepsy, 
when the fits come on, the smell of it reviving the patient ^ 
it is said, too, that epileptic persons should sleep upon soft 
thjTue. It is good also for hardness of breathing, and for 
asthma and obstructions of the catamenia. A decoction of 
thyme water, boiled down to one-third, brings away the dead 


with oxymel, as a remedy 

of palus in tlie bladder. Applied with wine, it removes tumours 

and fluxes, 
warts. Mixed 

LABIAT^^. Ill 


for sciatica ; and beaten up with oil and sprinkled upon wool, 
it is emploj^ed for diseases of the joints and for sprains. 
It is applied also to burns, mixed with lard. For maladies of 
the joints of recent date, thyme is administered in drink, 
in doses of three oboli to three cyathi of oxymel. For loss 
of appetite it is given beaten up with salt." 

The ancients appear to have been acquainted with the anti- 
septic properties of thyme. Virgil (Georg. IV., 241 ) speaks of 
the fumigation of beehives with the smoke of the burning 
plant, and the name ^y^^o^ is derived from 6v<o, to burn incense. 
Macer Floridus {De Vir. Herb) recommends thyme as a 
remedy for the bites of venomous animals. In the Punjab 
the seeds of T. serpyUum are given as a vermifuge. {Steivart.) 
The plant is an indifferent substitute for T. mlgaris, as it 
contains hardly any thjTnol. The latter principle is, however, 
afforded abundantly by the seeds of Carum cojitictim, a plant 
largely cultivated in India. Thymol is a powerful antiseptic ; 
when absorbed it paralyses the nerve centres in the cord 
and medulla, and like carbolic acid lessens reflex action, 
slowing the respiration, and lowering the blood-pressure 
and temperature. In poisonous doses it causes weakness, 
drowsiness, coma and death. It differs from carbolic acid 
in being less volatile and less easily oxidised. Its action 
as a disinfectant is more permanent and at the same time 
more powerful than that of carbolic acid. It is less irritating 
to the skin or mucous membrane, and does not act 
caustic like carbolic acid, and is a less powerful poison to 
mammals. Its action on the nerve-centres is a paralysing one 
from the first, and is not preceded by excitement as in the case 

of carbolic acid. "While in the bodv it ar>r>ParR fn o*F^..+ +,•„„„_ 

as a 


in animals poisoned by it the liver is found 


to be elimi 

nated by the respiratory and urinary organs and 
to cause irritation of these organs during the process of 
excretion. In poisoning by it, the bronchial 

mucous mem 


the lungs congested, and sometimes consolidated ; the kidnej 



inflamed, and the urine albuminous or bloody. Thymol has 
been used as an antiseptic, as an application to skin diseases, 
ringworm, eczema, psoriasis; as a gargle, spray, or inhalation 
in sore- throat, bronchiectasis and phthisis, or as an injection 
inozsena. Internally it has been used in diabetes and vesical 
catarrh. {Lauder Bnmton,) 

Dr. Gross [Pharm. ZeitscJu, 1890, p. 261) reports on the suc- 
cessful results obtained with thymol in the treatment of diph- 



cent, solution in doses of 10 to 12 drops every 5 to 10 minutes, 
according to the severity of the case. The solution was flavour- 
ed with some pleasant-tasting syrup and in severe cases a few 
drops of brandv were added. The children soon become accus- 


to the burning taste and willingly take the solution- 
Besides this there is the advantage that the remedy is perfectly 
harmless and may be given continually for weeks together. 
The effect of the treatment in cases of average severity is seen 
in from 3 to 4 hours. 


whooping-cough in a 


solution of 1 in 2,000. Three or four times a day lie directs 
this solution to be inhaled by means of an atomiser. According 
to his experience the cases never assume a violent character 
when this treatment is begun in time ; if, however, the attacks 
are already frecjuent and violent they soon diminish in number 
and severity. The duration of the treatment is between three 
and four weeks, and healthy children who inhale the spray are 
protected from whooping-cough. Dr. E. Lawrie ^Lancet, 
\ 16, 1891) reported two cases of chyluria successfully treated 
with thymol given internaUy in doses of one ^rain every four 
hours, gradually increased to 5 grains. 

Description and Properties, 


and 52° 0. 


It melts between 50 

fl„;^ .^^A-r r. 7 ^ ^^guLcr man water, retains n» 

fluid condiUon often for a long time, and boils near 230° C. It 



has an aromatic thyme-like odour and a warm, pungent but 
scarcely caustic taste. It dissolves sparingly in water, requiring 
at 35° 0. 1,100 to 1,200 parts for solution, but is soluble in half 
its weight of alcohol, ether^ and chloroform, in 2 parts of soda 
solution sp. gr. 1*1 6, and freely in benzol, benzin, carbon 
disulphide, glacial acetic acid, and fixed and volatile oils. It 
forms with soda a crystallizable and readily soluble compound, 
and does not change the colour of a solution of ferric chloride. 
Symes{]879) ascertained that on being triturated with one-half 
to ten times its weight of camphor, a colourless syrupj^ liquid ia 
obtained, but it does not liquefy with chloral hydrate. According 
to Gerrard, the strongest aqueous solution of thymol available 
ia 1 in 1,000, and a solution of 4 grains of it in a fluid ounce of 
alcohol is miscible with water without becoming turbid; 
3 grains of thymol are dissolved by 1 grain of caustic soda and 
1^ grains of caustic potash. Solid fats, when heated, are 

excellent solvents of thymol. A solution of 1 part of thymol 
in 100 parts of warm glycerin remains clear. Thymol is also 
soluble in 4 parts of cold sulphuric acid ; the solution has a 
yellowish colour, and, on being gently heated, becomes rose-red. 
On pouring this solution into 10 volumes of water, digesting 

^ the mixture with an excess of lead carbonate, and filtering, 
^ the liquid becomes Aaolet-blue on the addition of ferric chloride. 
This reaction is due to sulphothymolic acid^ C^°H^*SO*, discovered 
by Lallemand (1853). Hummarsten and Eobert (1881) give 
the following as the most delicate test by which one-millionth 
of thymol may still be detected : Mix the liquid with one-half 
of its volume of glacial acetic acid, then with at least an 

equal volume of sulphuric acid, and warm gently, when a bright 
reddish-violet colour is produced which is not destroyed by 
boiling. According to Hirschsohn (1881), a solution of thymol 
in 60,000 parts of water is rendered turbid by bromine-water, 
but, according to Hammarsten, the precipitate is not crystalline 
Uke tribromophenoL {Stille and Maisch.) 

iJ Chemical composition. — The volatile oiL oi Thi/mus Serpf/iliim, 
Linn., according to E. Buri (1879), contains two phenols which 
|g^ do not congeal at — 10° C, and of which one imparts a yellowish- 


114 LABI AT JE. 

green colour to ferric chloride, and yields a sulphonic acid, the 
salts of which, like the thymol sulphonates, produce with ferric 
salts an intense blue colour, Jahns (1880) reported also the 
presence of a little thymol and carvacrol. Messrs. Schimniel 
& Co. (Report, April 1891 ) obtained by distillation of the leaves 
and stalks 0-3 per cent, of an oil having a very pleasant melissa- 
like aroma with a slight soup<5on of thyme. Its specific gravity 
atl5°C. was 0-917, 

Thymus mlgaris, Linn., is the chief source of thymol in Europe; 
the essential oil is usually sold under the name of Oleum Origani. 
For the chemistry of thjTxiol the reader is referred to the article 
upon Carum coptwiim. (Vol. ii., p. UG.) 

±udanaj-i-jibali, also called Pudineh-i-kohf, *'hill mmt/ is 
identified by Mahometan physicians with the Calamintha of the 
ancients (cf. MaWu Valgr. v., 2, 7G, /), Calaynintha ndgam 
Sweet, Ung. Bot. 1676. We have not met with thisdrugin the 
Indian Bazars, but three species of Calamintha occur in the 



Hab.— Arabia, Persia. The herb in flower. 
■ Vernacular.— ^Si.Sii(iT {Tnd. Bazars). 

History, Uses, &C.— The Mahometan physicians of the 
East identify this drug with the oplyavov of the Greeks, and 
describe it as having properties similar to those of thyme and 
mint. Dr. Jayakar of Muscat found the plant in flower in 
May 1885 on the hills near Muscat in Arabia, and kindly 
forwarded specimens, which were identified at Kew as Z. muUi- 
flora. The drug is much used in India in infusion as an 
agreeable aromatic stimulant and diaphoretic; many other 



Description The drug has a fragrant odour like lemon 

of small ovate, or nearly round, dotted, 
entire, rather leathery leaves, the largest of which are about 

i inchlonff; mixed with them a.r(^.r^^^yi\c^T^^ r.^ ^ „7„^j ,„ „ ;i„cfoTn 

thyme, and consists 






and numerous minute flowers, forming knotted clusters upon a 
slender spike ; eaclx flower is furnished witli a small bract^ and 
when magnified tlie bracts and calices are seen to be densely 
covered witb jointed bairs. The calyx is unequally 4-cleft, tbe 
corolla labiate, and of a red colour, the calyx and flower after 
being soaked in water for 24 hours only measured ^ inch in 
length. The leaves when magnified present a mossy surface, 
which is thickly pitted^ each pit containing a granule of red^ 
resinified essential oil. 

Chemieal comj)ositmi. — The leaves contain an aromatic essen- 
tial oil having a minty odour, a red^ tasteless, acid resin, and 
some tannic acid giving a green precipitate with ferric chloride. - 
The bitterness is not due to an alkaloid. The leaves containing 
10 per cent, of moisture yielded 13 per cent* of ash. 


Hab. — Persia, Beluchistan. The herb. 
Vernacular. — Mishk-i-taramashia (Ind. Bazars), 

History, Uses, &C. — The Mahometans of the East 
identify this plant with the C^y^s- or '^ wild thyme " of the Greeks. 
It is the t^-^ ]j)aiLx^ of Ibn Sina, who describes it as very hot 
and dry. Haji Zein in the IWdiarld states that it is called 
Rang in Shiraz, and that the milk of goats feeding upon it 
becomes bloody. He describes it as a valuable exj)ectorant and 
lithontriptic in doses of one mithkal, but says that it sometimes 
causes hacniaturia. He also mentions its use by Galen as a 
suppository in painful affections of the uterus, and by Ishak as a 
carminative addition to purgative medicines. The drug is also 
said to be a powerful aphrodisiac. Aitchison states that the 
peasants in the Harirud Valley and Khorasan call the plant 

Description. — A very small plant, 2 to 3 inches high; 
root as long as the plant, single, woody, with a few small fibres. 
The stems, which are 2 to 5 in number, are also woody, and 
branch from the ground ; they are thickly set with leaves and 

J 16 lABIATM. 

flowers, wKidi reach to the apex and form a spike. The leaves 


on each side of the midrib. The calyx, which is purple, 


«**w*^.^-^K, ivkA4. ^KJM.\ji^^ oi^cuio \j± a ULKJWix IJUXUUJ.5 auuxiS JiJrt.xJa.':^^* Tr*v** 

numerous ribs, and ends in five sharply cut claws; it is studded 



an inch long. The odour 



appears to be a suiall plant, 6 to 8 inches high; stem not thicker 
than a crow-quill, 4-angled, purplish, branched from the base, 
which, is woody; root woody, seldom branched; flower heads 
numerous, oblong ; calyx striated, hairy, purple, with five sharp 
teeth ; seeds naked, four in number, oblong, 3- angled, of a pale 
brown, studded with rows of small round tubercles; on one side 
of the hilum there is a fringe of smaller tubercles very closely 
set, and on the other two elongated white prominences. As 
found in commerce the plant is much broken up ; it has a pleasant 
odour like sweet hay. Taste bitter ; properties, according 
to native writers, stimulant, anthelmintic, and deobstrueiit. 
The drug is generally attributed to Hi/ssopus officinaUs, but 
this cannot be correct, as the flowers are in oblong spikes. It is 
imported from Persia. 

H. parvi flora, Benth.^ h a native of the temperate 

Chemical comj^osition. —Besides tannin, resin, fat, sugar, muci- 
lage, &c., the most important constituent of Hyssop is oil of 
hyssop, of which the fresh herb yields i to i per cent. It is 
pale-yellow or greenish, limpid, of about the specific gra^nty 
U 94, and freely soluble in alcohol; it contains oxygen, and com- 
mences to boil at 142- C, the boiling-point rising to 180° C. 
It has the odour and taste of the herb. The hyssopin of Her- 
berger (1829) was found by Trommsdorff to be impure 
sulphate o f calcium. 

• Sibthorp 8t..tes that iSa/ureir7;:i^7~TT;;7~7Tr— Tj ^TThe 

Beth': ifX^'zlH'."' ""'" "' ■'-''■ '" S""' «'.-*'^- 




LA BIA T^. 117 

Badranjboya, Baklat-el-Utmjiya {Arab.). Imported 


Description. — Calyx striated, hairy, S-fid, not so long as 

that of Zufah-i-yabisj and not coloured; seeds four, naked, 
brown, 3-angled, nearly smooth, a white patch on each side of 

hilum ; flowers in axillary 



peduncle; leaves ovate, margin deeply dentate, somewhat 
hairy. The drug is always much broken and consists chiefly of 
stem and fruit; the former is quadrangular, much larger than 
that of Zdfah, of a purplish tint. Taste bitter, odour faintly 
aromatic. This herb is supposed to represent the ^€Xto-ao<^vXXoi/ 
of Dioscorides and Theophrastus, generally known in Latin as 
Apiastrum. Yirgil (G* 4, 63) calls it Melisphylla, and Theo- 
phrastus (4, 25) ivwhris ficXireta, It is a plant beloved by bees, the 
Balm Gentle or Melissa officinalis of our gardens. When fresh 
it has a pleasant lemon odour, which is not retained by the dry 
plant. It was formerly valued as a corroborant in hypochon- 
driacal aiiections, and the Persian drug is still used for this 
purpose by Indian kaMms. In Europe, Balm tea is still a 
domestic remedy, and is given as a grateful diluent in febrile 
affections : it has a place in the French Codex. The different 
species of Melissa are widely diffused, being found in Europe, 
Central Asia, and North America. 

Chemical composition. — The leaves of Jf, officinalis contain, 
besides the common constituents of plants, a small quantity of 
tannin and bitter principle, and about | to ^ per cent, of volatile 
oil, which is colourless or yellowish, has a specific gravity of 
about 0*89 ; dissolves in about 5 parts of alcohol, sp. gr. 0*85 

'^ and contains a stearopten. 



Fig. — Reichh. Ic. Fl. Germ., t. ]224, /. 1 ; _En(j 
W rube \ 


White Horeliound (Ung.), Mar 

Hab» — Western Temperate Himalaya to Europe, The herb. 
Vernacular. — Faragiyun (Ind, BazarsV 

118 LAB I AT JE. 

History, Uses, &C. — This plant is the TTpi<Tiov of Theo- 
phrastus (yi., 2), who mentions twokinds. Dioseorides (iii.,110) 
relates its medicinal uses, which are also noticed by Hippocrates 
(681, 3), Celsus (v., 11), and PUny (20, 89). The ancients 
considered it to be a general stimulant^ expectorant, deobstruent, 
carminative and local anodyne. Horehound has still a consi- 
derable reputation in Europe as a remedy for chronic bronchitis 
with copious expectoration, and as a stomachic tonic in dys- 
pepsia. It was also foi^merly prescribed in chronic rheumatism, 
hepatic and uterine obstructions and ague, the usual dose being 
from ^ to 1 drachm of the dried herb. The ancients used the 
expressed juice with honey, both internally and as a local appli- 
cation to foul ulcers and diseased mucous surfaces. 

Horehound is the Farasiyun of Ibn Sina and other Arabian 
physicians, who reproduce the account given by Dioseorides of 
its medicinal uses. Hakim Ali Gilani, in his commentary upon 
the Kanun, gives Suf-el-ard, 'dearth wool," and Hashishat-el- 
kalb, '* dogs' herb," as Arabic names for the plant; he says that 
dogs always piss on smelling it. 

Owing to the similarity between the Greek words 'rrpaa-iov and 
TTpao-ov some Mahometan physicians have fallen into the error 
of supposing the drug to be an alliaceous plant. Hakim 
Muatamid-el-muluk Syud Alvikhiin points out this error, but 
falls into another^ inasmuch as he identifies it with Arusa 
{Adhafoda Vasica). Mahometan writers also mention a second 
kind of Fardsiydn called Baluti ; this is our Black Horehound 
(Ballota nigra, Linn.). 

M. mlgare is a common plant in Persia ; Aitchison observed 
it growing abundantly in Khorasan. In the bazars of the plains 
of India it is not obtainable ; if demanded, either Arusa, or a 
kind of squill called Farasiydn-i-piyazi, is supplied. 

SCription. — The branching stem is about a foot high, 
quadrangular, much -branched, and covered with a white felt- 
The leaves are opposite, petiolate, about an inch long, roundish- 
ovate, somewhat heart-ahaped or rounded at the base, obtuse, 

serrate or cnav'^Alv nrpna*^ -fir*.;«1^1..J i a1._ • i ^/^iSia 

LABI ATM. 119 



flowers are in dense axillary whorls, with woolly, linear, and 
hooked bracts, a tubular ten-ribbed calyx divided into ten short, 
spreading, stiff, and hooked teeth, and a white bilabiate corolla 
enclosing four stamens. The four achenes are dark-brown. 

The herb has a peculiar aromatic and somewhat musky odour 



Chemical comjjosition. — The plant has been recently examined 
by J. W, Morrison {Am, Journ. Phann., 1890, p. 327). A 
proximate analysis gave the following result: — • 

Per cent. 

Fat, wax and traces of volatile oil T 2*05 

Crystalline compound, soluble in ether •48 

Chlorophyl and fat 2*29 

Resin and bitter compounds, soluble in absolute 

alcohpl ...* 1'94 

Mucilasre 494 




Extractive, soluble in water ,..,...• 5-93 

Albuminoids , .., 4'48 

Pectin and undetermined 5'93 

Pararabin , ...,.,••, 2'30 

Cellulose and lignin 37*48 

Moisture • *.... 6'72 

Ash 24 30 



The fat was soluble in hot 95 per cent, alcohol, and melted at 
46^ C. The wax was insoluble in this solvent, but dissolved in 
carbon bisulphide. The crystalline principle was extracted 
from the drug with stronger ether, and purified by repeated 
crystallization from hot 95 per cent, alcohol, with one or more 
treatments with animal charcoal. The crystals were insoluble 


in water and in solution of potassium hydrate, very sparingly 
soluble in boiling water and in cold alcohol. Soluble in hot 
95 per cent, alcohol^ also in ether and chloroform. They melted 
at ]52° to 153° 0. They were at first tasteless, but developed, 
when held on the tongue^ a decided bitterness. The alcohohc 
solution was very bitter. 

Sulphuric or nitric acid gave a dark -brown colour, hydrochloric 
acid produced no change and ferric chloride produced no change. 

This principle reduced Fehling's solution slightly by boiling, 
without first being treated with an acid. On boiling it first 
with acidulated water a peculiar aromatic odour was developed, 
then on heating with Fehling's solution an abundant precipitate 
of cuprous oxide was produced, thus showing it to be an easily 
decomposable glucoside. 

A small quantity of a bitter principle was extracted from the 
drug by absolute alcohol, along with the resin. This appeared 
to be different from the previous one extracted by ether, and 
for the purpo:se of further investigation, a larger quantity of 
the drug was exhausted with ether, the solvent recovered and 
the residue treated with petroleum ether to remove fat and wax.. 
The remaining portion was dissolved in hot alcohol, treated 
with animal charcoal and crystallized. The crystals were puri- 
fied by repeated crystallization and treatment with animal 
charcoal. Melting point, 152° to 153^ C. 

The average of two combustions was : 




Found. Calculated for 


70-25 70-38 

8-42 850 

^ 21-33 


100-00 ] 00-00 

Three samples of crystals, presented with a thesis of last year 

^Ln T" • H^^t^l. Pi^-G. ( American Journal of Pharmac!/, 
1»90, p. 273), and obtained by him from the fluid extract, wer« 


LA BIA T^. 121 



also examined. One of these, wliich he had crystallized from 
cold alcohol, melted at 153-5° to 154-5° C, was evidently nearly 
pure ; the average of three combustions gave : — 

C 70-54 






The otlier samples ^yere evidently the same compound in an 
impurer condition, as was found by combustion and melting 


point. The author here remarks ; 

'*This compound as well as that obtained by myself is 


evidently the marrubiin discovered by Mein in 1855. Harm 
{Archiv der Pharmacie, No. 83, p. 14i) stated the meltiug point 
to be 148^0. 

^*In a later commimication (No. 116, page 41), on elementary 
analysis he found the substance to contain 8*52 per cent- of 
hydrogen and more than 69 per cent, of carbon,. 

■ n 

" Kromayer [Archiv der Fharmaciey No. 108, p. 257) gives 
the yield of marrubiin as about 2 grams from 25 pounds of the 
drug, and states the melting point to be about 160*^G., and 
that it is not a glucoside. My results indicate its composition 
to be very close to that of absinthiin, O^^H^^O^ but they do not 
agree with all the properties of that substance as described by 
Kromayer in the same journal (No. 108, p. 20), who states 
that absinthiin melts at 120'^to 125° C. Many of the properties, 
however, are common to both substances, prominent amonof 
which are, — solubility, taste, grittiness between the teeth, 
crystalline appearance and percentage composition/^ 

The larger portion of the drug, after exhaustion with ether, 
was extracted with methyl alcohol, the solvent recovered, and 
the residue treated with water and filtered. 

* - . , _ 

The filtrate, on agitation successively with ether and chloro- 
form, yielded to the former a^ ve-i-y hitter greenish substance 


122 MBUTM. 

witB a narcotic odour, and to tlie latter a brownish substance 
with a bitter and pungent taste. Both gave negative results 
when tested for alkaloids and both reduced FehKng's solution, 
especially after heating with dilute acid, during which process 
each developed a peculiar aromatic odour. These results point 
to the presence of two bitter principles besides marrubiin, which 
is in agreement with Hertel's statement, that after the separation 
of marrubiin the fluid extract appeared to be as bitter as before. 


Anisomeles malabarica, Br. Bot. Mag 

called Peyameratti in Tamil and Mogbira in Telugu. Rum- 
phius, speaking of the juice of the plant, says:— "Idem quoque 


asthmaticis, vel tussi mala laborantibus, quem in finem syrupus 
quoque priDparatur ex foliorum succo cum saccharo cocto." 
{Rort. Ami. v., 8, 65.) It is a native of Malabar, where it 
is called Karintoomba, and is noticed by Rheede. {Hort. Mai x.f 
p, 185, t. 93.) Wight, Aiuslie, and others mention that an 
infusion of the leaves is given to children in colic, dyspepsia, 
and fever arising from teething; in ague an infusion of the 
leaves is used to promote perspiration ; a decoction of the plant, 
or the essential oil distilled from it, is used externally in 
rheumatism. The plant appears to have medicinal properties 
very similar to those of liorehound. 

Description.— Shrubb}^ 2 to 5 feet; branches obtuse 
angled ; leaves ovate-lanceolate, crenately serrated at the upp«' 
part, entire below, about 5 inches long, and 1 1 inch broad ; calyi 
5 -clef t, thickly covered with long white rather viscid pubescence ; 
upper lip of corolla entire, white, under one 3-cleft with the 
lateral divisions reflexed ; anthers deep purple ; whorls dispo 
in simple racemes. 


Fig,—R/ieede, Hort. Mai, x.,i.Ql. 

Hab. —Plains of India. The herb. 



LABIATE. . 123 

Fig.—Jacq. Ic. PI. Ear, i., 11, i. Ill; Bumph. Herb 

Amh. vi., t. 16,/ 1. 

Hab. — Plains of India. The herb 


Fig.— Wiffh t III. ,t. 176. Herbe Tomb ^e (i^. ) 
Hab. — Assam to Ceylon. The herb.. 


Fig.— Wight Ic, t. 337; Desf. in Mem. Mm. xi., 8, t. 4. 
Hab. — Himalaya. Plains of N. India and Deccan. The 





(Guz.), 'Tumba {3fal), Gul-dora, Chatra (Punj.), Halkasa 
{Beng. ) , Tumi ( Tel. ) . 

History, Uses, &C. — At least four species of Leucas 


calyx of tliese plants to a little cup. The 

plants are Kv.mhha-yoni, Knrumha, Kharva-yattra, Chitra- 




bed for jaundice 

phlegmatic bumors and worms ; they are also considered to be 




of cbildren, Tiimha juice 1 part, 
Eew grains of Borax, may be mixed,' 

intestinal catarrh 

(dry dates). 

uice may be given witb a little powdered Kk 

124 LABI ATM. 

These plants are also used in Hindu ritual ; during tKe cere- 



round tlie body, while bathing, of a sprig of Drana-pmhpi of 
Achyranthes aspera (^apamdrga)^ and of Cassia Tora (prapunaia), 
cf. Yol. II., p. 65. The Mahometan physicians have given these 

plants the name of Sisdliyus, and use them as a suT^titute for 
the true Slsaliyus {Mj/rrhis odorata), as stimulant diaphoretics. 
Rheede notices the use of L. aspera in Malabar, and the ^ame 

Under the name of 

JTet^ba admiratioms a species of Leucas, probably L. linifoUdy is 
described by Runiphius, In Western India L, zeylanica is 

. These plants are 




the leaves snuffed up by the nostrils is used as a remedy in snake-^ 
bites, and for headache and colds. An infusion is known as un 
insecticide, and planters and others on the Nilgiris find that blight 

and insect pests may be kept away from trees by a diligent 
application of this remedy. The flowers are offered in the 
Hindu temples. In Reunion L. zeylanica is known as EeiM 
Tomhee^ and is considered to be stimulant and antirheumatic. 



stout, hispid or scabrid, leaves 1 to 3 inches^ linear or oblong 
obtuse, entii-e or crenate, whorls large, terminal and axillary^ 
bracts long, linear and filiform, ealj^x | to f of an inch, tubu- 
lar, curved, smooth below, green and ribbed and scabrid above, 
contracted above the nutlets, mouth small, glabrous, ver)' 
oblique, shortly and irregularly toothed, flowers small^ whit«- 
L- liulfoUa and L. zeylanica are very similar plants, and 
X. cephahtes has very large terminal and globose whorls oi 
flowers. These plants have an odour recalling that of the 
Dead-nettle (Lamium album), but L. asjjcm is more fragrant 
than the others. 

Chemical co?nposition .—The herb of i. zeylanica on distillation 
afforded a very small quantity of essential oil. By boiling » 





given off, and on condensing the vapour, ammonia and a volatile 
alkaloid were detected in the distillate. The alkaloid was com- 
bined in the plant with an acid giving a green colour with ferric 
salts. The air-dried plant afforded 7-3 per cent, of ash. 

Leonotis nepetsefolia, Br. Bot. Reg., t. 281 ; WigUIc, 

/. 867; F^nz.— Ilejur-chei {Beng.)yMitijeY, Matisul {Guz,), 
Dipnial [Mar.), is a large and conspicuous annual common in the 
neighbourhood of villages throughout the hotter j>arts of India. 
It is easily recognised by its globular spinous heads of 
orange-coloured flowers. Roxburgh gives the following 
description of the plant: — *'Stem annual, straight, four-sided, 
simple, fi'om.4to 6 feet high. Leaves opposite," spreading, 
petioled, cordate, serrate, pointed, downy, from 4 to 8 inches 
long, and 2 to 3 broad. Floral leaves [hractes verticillonim) 
lanceolate, depending. Petioles channelled, winged with the 
decurrent leaf ; verticels globular, 2, 3 or 4, towards the apex of 
the plant about 5 inches asunder. Involucres many, subulate. 
Flowers numerous, of a deep rich orange colour. Calyx, 
10-striated, 8-toothed; corol, under lip very short, 3-toothed, 

at all times of a dirty withered colour.'' 

The ashes of the flower-heads mixed with curds are applied 
to ringworm and other itchy diseases of the skin. Dr. A. J. 
Amadeo states that it is called JRascamono in Porto-Rico, and 


that a decoction of the leaves is used as a tonic, the juice is also 
expressed and taken with lime juice and rum as a febrifuge* 
Dr. Amadeo has used it in combination with Phyllanihm 
JYiruri in interniittcnts. 

Buliun {'rroXiov ), the Poly-Germander (2>wcrm;??P(?Zm;;2^L.), 
Iskurdiyun {o-Kopdlop), the Water- Germander {T. Scordium), 
and Kamazariyus (x^m^^^p^^), the Wall-Germander {T. 
Ghammdr}js)y are treated of in the Materia Medica of the Indian 
Mahometan physicians, but none of these plants are, as far as 
our experience goes, obtainable in the bazars, although T, Scor- 


Western H 


odour of ararlic, and is one of 




still sold in 

the bazars of India. T. Polium is a native of Persia, and was 
found by Aitcbison in Kborasan, but he did not observe that it 
was used medicinally. He also notices T. serratnm, Benth., as 
having a strong odour of asaf oetida. T, Chamcedrys was formerly 
used in Europe as a remedy for gout, and was an ingredient ia 
the celebrated antiarthritic or Portland powder. 



Fig.—Bentl and Trim., U 211. Syn. P. Ispaghula. 

Hab. — Punjab, Sind, Persia. The seeds. Spogel seeds 

. Temaczi/ar. —Isbaghol {Hind.), Esabgol {Mar.), Eshopghol 
(Be«5r.),EsopgoI,Uthamu-jirun((?«2.), Ishappukol- vir ai {Tarn), 
Isapagdla-vittulu {Tel.), Isabakolu ( Can.). 

History, Uses, &C. — The seeds are not mentioned by 
the old Hindu writers, but the Guzerathi name appears to be of 
Sanskrit origin. In all the vernaculars corruptions of the 
Persian name Ispaghul are in use. This word is a compound 
of v-«l "a horse," and J^i "the ear," in allusion to the shape of 
the seeds. In Mahometan works the seeds will be found 
described under the name of Bazr-i-Kathia. The author of the 

Makhzan states that Kalinin i^ the Greek, ...^.,. „„,. 

and BangtUt and Shikam-daridah the Shirazi names for them. 
In India, they are considered to be cooling and demulcent, and 
useful in inflammatory and biHous derai ^ 
tive organs. The crushed seeds made into°a poultice with vine- 
l^r and oil are appHed to rheumatic and gouty swelUngs 






to three dirhems moistened with hot water and mixed with 
Bugar are given in dysentery and irritation of the intestinal 




canal to procure an easy stool. The decoction is prescribed in 
cough. The roasted seeds have an astringent effect^ and are use- 
ful in irritation of the bowels in children^ and in dysentery. 
The natives have an idea that the powdered seeds are injurious, 
and consequently always' administer them whole, Fleming, 
Twining, Ainslie, and others speak very favourably of the use 
of Ispaffhul in the treatment of chronic diarrhoea. Twining 
gives the dose for an adult as 2| drachms mixed with half a 
drachm of sugar-candy. {Dismses of Bengal, Yol. L, p. 212.) 
In the Pharmacopma of India the seeds have been made 
official, and directions are given for the preparation of a 

Description. — The seeds are boat-shaped, about ^ of an 

inch long and rather less than y'^ broad, translucent^ with a pinkish 
tinge and a faint brown streak upon the convex side. The con- 
cavity is covered with a thin white membrane. Soaked in water 
they become coated with an abundant adherent mucilage which 
is free from taste and odour. The epidermis of the seeds is 
composed of polyhedral cells, the walls of which are thickened 
by secondary deposits, the source of the mucilage; between 
it and the albumen is a thin brownish layer. The albumen 

is formed of thick walled cells which contain granular 



P. amplexicaulis, Cav. Ic. //., t. 125, a plant of the 

Punjab Plains, Malwa and Sind^ extending to Southern Europe, 
furnishes the brown IspagJml not unfrequently to be met with 
in the Indian bazars. The seeds have the same boat-shaped 
form as those of P. ovafa, but are rather larger, averaging 
I of an inch in length. They are probably as efficient as the true 
Ispaghul seeds. 

Commerce, — Large quantities of these seeds are imported 
into Bombay from Persia. Value, Rs. 4 per maund of 
37 1 lbs. 

They differ in colour, some being brow^n and some nearly 
white^with a pinkish tinge ; the latter are preferred. 





Fig.— WigM III, t. 177; Eng. BoL, 1558. Greater IMan- 
tain {Eng.), Grand Plantain [Fr.). 

Hab. — Temperate India, Persia, Europe. The seeds. 
. Vernacular. — Bartang, Barliang {Indian bazars). 

History, Uses, &C. — Under the name of ap'oyXwao-ovDios- 
corides describes two yarieties of Plantago, the greater and the 
lesser, and states that the first is the best and most generally 
^used. These plants were known to the Homans as Plant; ^ , 
according to Sibthorp are the P. lagopits and P. altissima of 
modern botany ; they were considered to be very effectual in 
arresting the fluxes known by the Greeks as '^rheumatismi,'* 
or ^'griping pains in the bowels" [Plin. 25, 39 ; 26, 47), The 
leaves and roots were considered to be astringent and febri- 
iuge {Galen). The Arabian physicians describe them under 
the name of Lisan-el-hamal, and state that they are the 
Sabaat-azlaa and Kasrat-el-azlaa of Dioscorides (Arabic trans- 
lations of cTTraTrXeupoi^j tiiid. TToXvuevpov) meaiiino- ^ sevcn- ribbed and 

'many-ribbed' ; they repeat what the Greeks have written with a 
few trifling additions. The seeds of P. ma^or are largely 


as a remedy for dysentery. Valentine Baker states that he 

^was cured by these seeds when suffering from the disease during 

his travels in.Khorasan. The root and leaves are still in use in 

Europe as domestic remedies on account of their mucilaginous 


P. Psvllium 

Punjab^ extending to Southern Europe, are used in a similar 
manner. This plant is often stated to be the source of the 

Persian Bdrhang, but we have always obtained P. major by 
sowing these seeds. 

Description. — The seeds are minute, oblong and brown, 
marked witb waved, slightly elevated, longitudinal ridges of a 
Jo^Vo. ^^XoMT ; one side is arched, the other concave and marked 



Witt a scar sTiowing tte attacliment to tlie ovary. They 
are insipid, and have an oily smell when crushed. Soaked in 
water they become coated with a transparent mucilage. 

Chemical composition, — The leaves of P. major have been 
examined chemically by Dr. Rosenbaum, but the results 
obtained do not indicate any active principle. He found that 
petroleum benzine extracted 4 per cent, of wax and chlorophyll, 
the extract fusing at 83° C. Ether dissolved 4*4 per cent, of 
resin and chlorophyll. Alcohol extracted 10 per cent., of which 
6 per cent, was soluble in water and contained a considerable 
amount of sugar; the remaining four parts were soluble in 
ammonia. Water took up 13 per cent.,of which 7-2 per cent, was 
insoluble in QQ per cent, alcohol. Soda solution dissolved 6 per 
cent., and diluted acid 10 per cent., the latter containing a 
notable quantity of calcium oxalate. It may be noted hero that 
Th. Koller, in 1868, found citric acid and oxalic acid in the 
three species, P. majoi', P. lanceolaia, and P. fneclia, besides the 
ordinary plant constituents, chlorophyll, resin, wax, albumen,and 
pectin. These constituents do not account for the reputation as 
a styptic and vulnerary in which the plant was held by ancient 
writers. The presence of sugar indicates the possibility of a 
glucosidc being contained in the plant. The value of the seeds 
m diarrhoea and dysentery is no doubt due in some measure to 

the quantity of mucilage they afford. (Arna: Joimi. Pharm., 
Sept., 1886.) 

Plantago mucilage is neutral in reaction, is not altered 
by iodine or precipitated by borax, alcohol, or perchloride 
of iron. It is only sparingly soluble in water. R. W. Bauer 
separated the carbohydrate xijlose (previously obtained f 
wood-gum) from the epidermis of P. Psyllium, by boiling 
the aqueous extract with dilute sulphuric acid. It was 
identified by its melting point, rotatory power, and by its 
compound with phcnylhydrazine. Wood-gum can be obtained 
from beech wood, jute, or deal, by extracting with 5 per cent, 
soda and precipitating with alcohol and HCl. When this is 
hydrolysed, it yields Koch's wood-sugar or xylose. Xylose 
closely resembles arabinose in all its properties," and, like the 



130 ' NYCTAQINE^. 

latter, is dextrorotatory ; when treated with acids, it yields consi- 
derable quantities of furfuramide, but no levulose. The phenyl- 
osazone has the composition C^^H^oj^^O^ so that xylose is a 



and arabinose, and all substances from which they can be 
obtamed, give the cherry-red coloration of arabin when warmed 
with phloroglucinol and hydrochloric acid. This reaction can 
be employed for the detection of xylose and arabinose. {Joimu 
Ohem. Soc, LVI,, pp. 233, 847.) 



'Fig.—Delik, Fl. Eg., t. 3, / 1 ; Wight Ic, t. 874 ; Itheede., 
Hort. Mai, mi., t, 56. Spreading Hogweed {Eng.), Patagon 

Hab.— Throughout India. The herb and root. 


Mar.'). M 

{Tarn.), Atlka-mamidi [Tel), Vakha-khaparo, Sdtodi-mula 
{Onz,), Ganajali, Bile'ganjali [Can.). 

History, Uses, &c.~This plant is called by Sanskrit 

medical writers Punar-nava, Punar-bhava, and Punar-bhu, on 
account of its perennial habit, and Sothagni from its use as a 
remedy ior dropsy. It is described in the Nighantas as pungent, 

a W ' "T^ '''^ ^^**"^' ^^*^ ^' recommended as a laxative, 
diuretic, and stomachic in jaundice, strangury, dropsy, and inter- 
nal inflammations. A comnmiTirl A^^r^J^^ ^L...l^'r..T.. i. 


roots. rlrifiH 

dried ginger, root of Picrorhiza m 

Rt^m r.f t; *■'■*'"' ^^'"'ooa, cnebulic myroDaians, 

(Dirhaladl, each one q„„r,er tola, water S9 f„l.. hnileJ 





Ainslie mentions the use of the root In powder, in the 
quantity of a teaspoonful twice daily, as a laxative* In the 
Pkarmacopma of India its successful use as an expectorant in 
asthma is noticed, and it is said to act as an emetic when given 
in large doses. This has been confirmed by the experience of the 
French in the Antilles, where the plant is called Fatagon or 
Patagonelle" Valeriane, In Western India the herb is used as a 
diuretic in gonorrhoea, and as an external application the 
pounded leaves are applied to dropsical swellings* In the rainy 
season, when luxuriant, it is eaten as a potherb, after having 

3 its medicinal properties. The use of 
the root In gonorrhoea appears to have been introduced by the 


Portuguese ; In the West Indies the plant Is known as Bejuco 
de purgacion^ and is the popular remedy for that disease. A 
decoction (1 oz, to a pint of water) is used in doses of a 
wineglassful every hour. 

Description. — A common creeping weed on waste ground 

and roadsides ; stalks numerous^ about two feet long, slender, 
procumbent; leaves cordate-ovate, unequal, opposite, edges 
waved, tinged with red ; flowers small, sessile on the apex of the 
pedicels, peduncles from the axils and ends of the branches ; fruit 
oblongs dull green, or brownish, viscid, about the size of a 
caraway, longitudinally 5-grooved, studded all over with glan- 
dular hairs ; root twisted, often as thick as the finger when 
fresh, whitish J fleshy, 2 to 3 -branched, a foot long or more ; 
taste bitterish, nauseousv A microscopic section shows that 
the parenchyme is loaded with needle-shaped crystals, other- 
wise there is nothing peculiar. 

There are two varieties of the plant, one with white and 
the other with red flowers; in Bengal the former is called 
Svetapurna and the latter Gudha-purna, 

Chemical composition. — The whole plant was used for the 
examination^ and, with the exception of minute traces of a 
principle eolublo in ether, and atfording reactione with 


alkaloldal reagents, nothing of interest was detected. No 
principle reacting with ferric salts was present. 


Fig. — Bot. Mag., t. 371 ; Bheede, Hort. Mal.x., f. 75. Mar- 
vel of Peru [Fng.), Belle de nuit [Fr.]. 

Hab. — West Indies. Cultivated in India. The leaves 
and root. 

VeniacuIar,~G\i\ A'bbas {Pers., Ind.), Krishna- keli (Beiuj.), 
Anthinarlu, Patharachi (Tarn.), Batharachi (Tel), 

Madhyanhamallige ( Ca«.), Antimalari (ifa^.)^ Cr^l^tas, Gulbas 

History, Uses, &C. — Five varieties of this plant, wth 
red, white, yellow, red and white, and red and yellow flowers, 
were introduced from the West Indies in 1596, and must have 

been carried by the Portuguese to the East shortly afterward . 
as the plant is said to have been introduced into Persia in the 
reign of Shah Abbas the first, and was established on the 
Malabar Coast in the time of Yan Eheede. It was at one time 
supposed to produce the Jalap of commerce. M. J(dapa has 
been given the Sanskrit name of Sandhvakali, or " evening 
flower,'' but is best know^n by its Persian name of Gul A'bbas, 
or " flower of A'bbas " ; it is a favorite flower of the Persians, 
who cultivate it in ornamental flower pots. The Arabs call it 
Shab-el-leili, which is evidently a translation of the French 
" belle de nuit " ; it is the Ffda (juadro/ioras, or " four o'clock 
flower," of the Portuguese, as its flowers open at that hour 
in the afternoon. 

In India the leaves boiled in water are applied as amalurant to 
boils and buboes, and the juice, which is considered to be very 
cooling, is applied to the body to allay the heat and itching in the 
""^ arising from dyspepsia ; the U. fehrilis or U. ah ingestis 

mn physicians, which the Hindus consider to be caused 
u the blood . The seeds are said to be sometimes used 





but Loureiro remarks, "Haec radix non est apta ad medfcinam 
nisi x^er aliquot aiinos in viva planta senescat ; tuncque sit subro- 
tunda, rugosa, exterius s\ibuigra, intus fusco-pallida, circulis 
couceutricis nigricantibus distiiicta. '' lu the Concaii the dried 
root powdered, and fried in ghi with spices, is given with milk 
as apaushtik or strengthening medicine, and rubbed down with 
water to a paste it is applied to contusions. 

Dr. P. S. Mootooswamv iLul Med. Gaz.nni 1RRQ\ ofo+^c +i,„+ 


beneficial to those who suffer from piles, and that a powder and 
confection are also in use. The powder contains five drachms 
of root, two and a half each of long and black pepper, and five 
ounces of sugar. Dose 3i, twice daily. The confection has 
the same quantity of root with 2^ drachms each of nutmeg, 
mace, and Atis root, g/ti 1 oz., sugar and milk of each 10 ounces! 
Dose as above. 

Dr. Mootooswamy finds the root to act as an astringent in 

these preparations. Ainslie, quoting Fleming {Cat, p. 29), 
states that the root was tried as a purgative by Drs. Hunter and 
Shoolbred, but found to have so feeble a purgative action as to 
be useless. He also tried it himself with the same result. 
According to Thunberg, the Japanese prepare a kind of white 
paint for their complexions from the seeds. 

Description.— The root of young plants is cylindrical 


or subrotund, the external surface is dark brown and marked with 
numerous circular rings; internally it is dirty white or greyish. 
When dry, very old roots become hard, compact and heavy, 
and deepen in colour, but younger roots are of a leathery 
consistence. It has a faintly nauseous odour, and a sweetish 
subacrid taste. A transverse section of the root shows numer- 
ous concentric rings of a darker colour than the intervening 
eubstance ; it shows numerous acicular crystals when magnified. 
Chemical comjmifhn .—The roots were collected in July, cut 
into slices, and exposed to warm air, then reduced to powder 
and the desiccation completed at 100° C. 


The fresh roots dried over sulphuric acid lost 81 -136 per cent. 
in weight ; the ash amounted to 6-135 per cent., and was free 
from manganese. 




Light petroleum ether extract 0580 per cent 

Ether extract, soluble ia water 0-09 per cent. 

alcohol 0-222 „ 
Residue insoluble in water 

or alcohol 0-028. ,. 0-340 

„ u ui^^ n 


Absolute alcohol extract 3040 

Aqueous extract containing glucose 1-6 per 
cent., saccharose or allied carbohydrate 
7-97 per cent 3062 „ 

The petroleum ether extractive was soft and pale yellowish 
in colour, non-crystalline, and without any special odour. It 
consisted of wax, and a pale yellow oil, soluble In absolute alcohol 
with neutral reaction. 

The ethereal extract was soft and yellowish. The portion 
soluble in water had an acid reaction, but gave no coloration 
with ferric chloride. Acidulated with sulphuric acid a slight 
precipitate was aiforded with Mayer's reagent. The residue of 
the ethereal extract soluble in alcohol was also yellowish, soft' 
and on standing became indistinctly crystalline. Treated with 
water acidulated with sulphuric acid it gave no alkaloidal 
reactions ;^ with alkalies on gently warming it was slightly 
soluble, with pale yellow coloration : the colour being destroyed 
by acids, and whitish flocks precipitated. 

The alcoholic tincture of the roots was of a port-wine colour, 
and the extract of a deep orange tint. In water part was soluble 
With acid reaction, and afforded a precipitate with alkaloidal 
reagents. The extract was treated with ammonia, in which the 
greater part dissolved, affording a dirty brownish-red solution, 

and the solution agitated with ether: the ethereal extract 





amounted to 0-384 per cent, and contained a small amount of 
alkaloid with mucli colouring matter. An attempt was made to 
purify the alkaloid by reagitating this extract from an acid 
solution with ether, and then neutralizing and again agitating 
with ether ; an unweighable amount of the alkaloid was, however, 
obtained. No special colour reactions of the alkaloid were 
noted. An alkaline solution of the alcoholic extract was only 
slightly precipitated by acids, the solution remaining dark- 
coloured. The aqueous extract contained 1'6 per cent, of 
glucose calculated on the roots dried at lOO^C. After boiling 
with dilute sulphuric acid a second determination with Fehling's 
solution was made, and the result calculated as saccharose, 
which was equivalent to 7*97 per cent. 

In order to determine whether the plant had any injurious 
properties, the alcoholic extract from 10 grams of the dried 
and pounded roots was mixed with a few drops of ammonia 
and water and injected into a cat's stomach ; the cat vomited 
once, but was not otherwise inconvenienced. 



Pig,— mg/U Ic, t 1780. Prickly Chaff-flower {Eng.). 

Hab. — Throughout India and tropical Asia. The herb. 

Vernacular. — XJnga, Latchira, Chirchira ( Bind,)^ Apang 
( Beng. ) . , Pandhara-aghada, Aghada ( Mar. ) , Sufed-aghado 
(<y?/2-), Na-yurivi (7V/;>?.), Tlttareni^ Antisha (IV/.), Uttarani, 
tJttareni {Can.)^ Katalati {MaL). 

HistOiy, Uses, &C. — This plant has given a name to the 
sacrificial offering called Apamarga Homaj which consisted of a 
handful of the flour of the seeds offered at daybreak, but which 
is not now, as far as we know, practised in India. According to 
the Black Yajurveda, Indra, having killed Vritra and other 
demons, was overcome by Namuchi and made peace with him, 
promising never to kill him with any solid or liquid, neither by 
daynor by night. But Indra collected some foam, which is 


neitlier solid nor liquid, and killed NamucTii in the morning 
between niglit and daybreak. From tlie bead of the demon 
sprung the herb Apamarga, with the assistance of which Indra 
was able to kill all demons. Hence this plant has the reputation 
of being a powerful talisman, and Is now popularly supposed 
to act as a safeguard against scorpions and snakes by paralysing 
them.^ It is waved round the body whilst taking the ceremonial 
bath early in the morning on the Karaka Chaturdasi or first 
day of the DIvall (new year) festival. 

The Sanskrit synonyms for the plant are Shikhari, KinI or 
Kinlhi, Khara-manjari '^ having a rough flow^er- stalk/' Adhva- 
shalya " roadside rice/* Shaikharika, Pratyak-pushpi ''having 
reverted flowers/' and Mayuraka "crested/' It is described in 
the Kighantas as purgative, pungent, digestive ; a remedy for 
phlegm, wdnd, inflammation of the internal organs, piles, itca, 
abdominal enlargements, and enlarged cervical glands. Ihe 

ashes are used by the Hindus in preparing caustic alkaline pre- 
parations. The diuretic properties of the plant are well known 
to the natives of India, and European physicians agree as to its 
value In dropsical affections; one ounce of the plant may be boil- 
ed in ten ounces of water for 15 minutes, and from 1 to 2 ounces 
of the decoction be given 3 times a day. [Pharm. of Induh 

p. 184.) 

Different parts of the plant arc ingredients in many native 
prescriptions In combination with more active remedies. 

In Western India the juice is applied to relieve toothache. 
The ashes with honey ai*e given to relieve cough ; the root m 
doses of one tola is given at bedtime for night blindness, and 
rubbed Into a paste with water it is used as an an^an (eye salve) 
in opacities of the cornea. The seeds are often used as a famine 
food in India, especially in Edjputana, where the plant is called 
Bharotha, ^r^fry (grass). 

Description. — A common weed, with an erect, striated 
pubescent stem, generally about two feet high, but sometimes 
much more. Side bra nches in pairs, spreading ; leaves pubescent 

♦Conipnre with Scribonius Comp. 1G3, 16-1, where similar saperstitions 
are uncorded. 

A ilA RA NT A CEm, 





from the presence of a thick coat of long simple hairs, obovate, 
undulated, very obtuse, acuminated, base attenuated ; petiole 
short ; spikes long, lax ; flo\Yers green ; bracts rigid, prickly. 
Sections of the stem do not show any crystalline deposit in 
the parenchyma- The seeds arc oblong, of a brown colour, 
from j"Q to ^ of an Inch in length ; on one side a grooved 
prominence is seen which indicates the position of the embryo 
where it carves round the mealy albumen. The starch granvdes 
are very small, and are so closely packed that the large irregular- 
shaped cells which contain them have almost the appearance of 
parenchymatous cells* 

Chemical composition, — The whole plant collected in August 
was used. A proximate analysis failed to indicate the presence 
of any principle of special interest, ]^o alkaloidal body was 
detected, and the alcoholic extract contained no principle reacting 
with ferric salts. 

For the ash determination, the roots, stems and leaves were 
separately examined with the following results: 





SiO' as Sand ... 







Manganese .. 














Traces, not 
















5 6297 

ot estimated. 

Not estimated. 



Not estimated 





x^ot estimated. 

Not estimated. 


III.— 18 

138 AM A RANT A OE^u 

The leaves, stems, and roots dried atlOO'^C. afforded respectively 

the following- percentages of ash .-—Leaves, 24-334 ; stems, 8'672 ; 

roots, 8'863. The large amount of sand j)resent in the ash is due 

to the fact of the plants having been collected during the raius, 

and when received they were coated with finely divided sihcious 

The total potash calculated as K'O was equivalent in the leaves 
to 21-4986 per cent., in the stems to 38-0122 per cent., and in 
the roots to 28-5830 per cent. It is possible that the plaut 
might he of value as a cheap green nianure on account of its 
potash content. {Warden, C/iem. m^vs. Vol. ii., 1891). 

Amarantus spinosus, Linn., WiUd. Amar. 38, t. 4,/. 8; 

Vem.—Tanduiija (Sam.), Kdntemath {Bomb.), Kantanatia 
(Beng.), MuUuk-kirai (Tam.), K^ntalo-dambho (Guz.), possesses 
mucilagiuous properties. The Hindu physicians prescribe the 
root in combination with other drugs in menorrhagia. It is 
considered to be a specific for colic. A poultice of the leaves 
was officinal in the Bengal P/iarmacopma. 

The authors of the P/iarmacopceia of India regard the plan* 
as a simple emollient, and inferior to many others, but recently 
the root has been found to be of great service in the treatment 
of gonorrhcea and eczema. In gonorrhoea it is said to stop the 
rauco-purulent discharge, and all the concomitant symptoms, 
siich as heat, scalding and general irritation. 


Fig,~~Wig/it Ic„ f. 876. 

Hab Plains of India. The herb. 

^RUA LANATA, Jns.^, 

Fig. — TTij/a Ic, t. 723; Rheede, EorL Mai. x., f, 29. 
Hab.— Plains of India. The herb. 
- ^''^'^•'^^^;«^«/.-Cliaya {Hind., Beng.), Bhui-kallan {Funj.), 







History, Uses, &C. — These plants are used by the 

natives of India as diuretics, and are considered to be of great 
value iu litliiasis; tliey are also thought to be antidotal in cases 
of poisoning by arsenic-. The flowers are sold iu the bazars of 
Northern India under the name of Bhui -kalian. ^. lanata is 
the Scherubala of Rhecde, and Ainslic states that the Vytians 
consider the root to be demulcent and prescribe a decoction 
in strangury ; in the Concan it is used as a diuretic. ^. jara- 

": we 


nica has a great reputation in Hyderabad, Deccan, as a remedy 
for lithiasis, and the flowers have been brought to us for iden- 
tification by the medical attendant of a gentleman in Bombay, 
who had been in the habit of obt^aining them from Hyderabad 
under the Marathi name of Eumra-piudi, which is equivalent to 
the Telingi Tindi-conda, and signifies "cock's pinda 

derived from their 
use.^ These plants resemble Achyrauthes aupcm in theiir 
medicinal properties. The flowers are very soft and woolly, 
and are used for stufiing pillows and mattresses iu Sind and in 
Egypt. In Southern India the natives use the flowering 
spikes during the Pongul festival for decorating their houses. ° 

Description.— The plants have a white tomentose app'^ar- 
ance. The leaves are alternate. The minute flowprs are in 
dense terminal or axillary spikes, those of JE.javanicah^m^ 
much the largest, often 4 to 5 inches in length ; they are herma- 
phrodite, with three concave persistent bracts. The calv^- 
consists of five, nearly equal, erect and hairy sepals ; the five 
stamens are united into a cup at their base ; the ovary is one- 
celled, with a single ovule in each cell. The fruit is a roundish 


Fig.~JFu/M Ic, t. 1767; liheede^ ITort. Mai. x., t. 38, 39. 
Hab.— Throughout India and tropical Asia. The seeds. 

Vernac^aax.■~^ixx^vi\i, Suft^d-raurgha {Ilhul.), Svet-murga 
{iic,Hj.), Li^padi [Guz.), Kurdu {Mar.), Gurugu {Tel), Goraji 


History, Uses, &C, — This common annual plant is con- 
sideredby some to be tbe Vitunna of Sanskrit writers ; when 
young and tender it is eaten as a vegetable, but is considered to 
be very heating. The seeds are considered an efficacious 
remedy in diarrhoea. Indian Mahometan writers on Materia 
Medica have adopted Sarvvali as a substitute for the ^p^rawiKi] of 
Dioscoi-ides, and the Herba Britannica of Pliny, which has been 
identified by Prol Muntingius of Groningen as Enmex Hydro- 
lapaf/mm^ Huds., our AYater Dock, the Patience aquatique of 
the French, and Wasserampfer of the Germans. The author 
of the Mufandat-i'Nadri states that 180 grains of the seeds, 
with an equal quantity of sugar-candy, taken daily in a cup of 
milk, is a most powerful aphrodisiac. 

Dr.Watt(Z)zcf. 'Econ.Trod.Ind.,i\,2^0) states,onthe authority 
^ of the Rev. A. Campbellj that the Santals extract a medicinal oi 
from the seeds. 


Description, — Stem 1 to 3 feet, stout or slender, simple or 
branched; leaves 1 to 6 inches^ narrow ; spikes solitary, few or 
many, 1 to 8 by | to 1 inch ; peduncle slender; flowers white, 
tipped with pink, glistening ; bracts much shorter than the acute 
sejals. Seeds lenticular, brown, "polished, -^-^ of an inch in 
diameter. . 

Chenikal compoHition^—The following is an analysis of the 
finely powdered seeds : 



Kesin, soluble in ether ^^^ -^l 

Alcoholic extract 1'94 

Water extract 24'70 

Starch, &c 37*96 

^^^^^ ,.. 11-23 






The alcoholic extract contained an alkaloidal principle 
precipitahle by alkalios, soluble in ether, and giving a rose 
colour with strong sulphuric acid. 



GE^ERA.— Arthrocnemum, Caroxylon, Salicornia, 

Salsola, Suseda. Soda plants. 

History, Uses, &C. — Sarjikakshara has doubtless been 
prepared in India^ as it is at the present time, from averj^ early 
date. In the time of Pliny a mineral alkali appears to have 
been prepared in Egypt from the ashes of certain plants and to 
have been known as Natrum, or in Greek vlrpov {^Plm, 3], 10), 
and Strabo^ as cited by Beckman, mentions an alkaline water 
in Armenia used for washing clothes, {Hist, of Invent, iii., 
p. 233.) The plants from which Barilla was prepared were 
known to the Greeks as t6 dXiuou or salt-worts, {Theophr. II. P, 

iv., 20 ; Diosc. i., 105.) The Arabs also were early acquainted with 
the same substance, which seems to have been sometimes potash, 
or a mixture of soda and potash in various proportions, and to 
which they gave the name of t^^' El -kali or alkali. The 
Arabian writers describe Ushnan as good for the mange or 
scab, and the itch ; clearing to the complexion, cleansing, 
emraenagogue and abortive, and a substance wath which clothes 
and the hands are washed. The author of the Makhzan^ 
speaking of TJshndn, states that it is a name applied to 
several plants, one of which has slender branches instead of 
leaves, upon which knob-like bodies form [Suceda fruticosa?). 
This plant is always fresh and juicy, and is a large herb with 
round w^oody stems. He then describes the manner in which 
the plant is burned in a pit in the ground, and the Kali or 
Barilla extracted from the ashes. After this he mentions 
another plant with reddish stems and leaves purplish on one 



side and green on the otlier {Chenopodium atripHcis?)^ yielding 
a juice whiclx stains black ; this plant jbe says is very conimou 
in Sind and Milltan, and is used for staining the black pattern 
on the Sind pottery. Lastly, he mentions a plant called Khurii- 
el-'asafir (sparrow's dung) with white leaves {Chenopodium 
album ?)y and another which is called in Persia Ghasool, and 
is used for dissolving lac dye, and as a substitute for ink, 
Dr. Wattj in the Bktlonary of the Economic Frodads of ImUa^ 
gives the following list of plants which are used in the manu- 
facture of Sajji-khar or Barilla: 

Arthrocnemum indicum, Moq._ 


Caroxylon foetidum, Moq... 
.,, Griffithii, jfo^^. 

Salicornia brachiata, RoxK 
Salsola Kali, WilUL 
Suseda fruticosa, Fonk^ 



indica, Moq. 
nudiflora, Moq. 

Aitchison states that the name Idhlan (probably a mispromm- 

ciatiou of Ushuan) is applied in the Ilari-rud Valley to Anabasis 

erispoda, Benth. et Hook, f., which is used in preparing bavilla- 

In the Report on Punjab Products, it is stated that the plants 

are cut down during the cold months, dried and burnt in a pit 

of a hemispherical shape, about six feet in circumference and 

three deep, at the bottom of which one or more inverted earthen 

pots, having small holes in their bottoms, are sunk. The 

holes are kept closed at first, but when the alkali begins to run, 

they are cleared to allow it to fill the pots ; when cool it forms a 

porous mass of a greyish- white colour, consisting of carbonates 

of soda and potash, sulphate of soda , and organic matter. In 

native practice this substance is prescribed like our preparations 

of the caustic alkalies. It is the Sarjikakshara of the Raja 

l*firghaata and the Sajji of the bazars. 



Hab. — Persia, The herb. 

Vernacular. — Shnliiii [Inch Bazars). 

History, Uses, &C. — This drug is described in IMaho- 


metan works as the Akranfkl* or Afsharnlkf of the Greeks. 
Other Arabic names given are Shankat-el-baida^ Shaukat-el- 
Arabiya, and Ivathir-el-rakab. Ibn Sina says it is the same as 
Bdzaward (Badaward, Pers.) Muhammad Ilusain yery truly 
denies this ; he says the Persian names are Charchah and 
Kangarkhar^ and describes two varieties^ one with a white 
flower and more slender stems than the other, which has purple 
flowers, and is the kind generally used. The latter, he says, 
has triangular stems, the size of a man's finger or less, and thick, 
small, triangular, downy leaves terminating in thorns; the seeds 
arc small, triangular, and of a greyish colour. The whole druf^ 

is of a yellowish white colour and sweetish taste. The plant 
and fruit are generally used, but the root is to be preferred. 
Shukai is more drying and astringent than Badaward; it is 
attenuant and deobstruent, &c., &c. {MaJxhzan-el-Achviya, 
axticle S/nikai ) Haji Zein- el- Attar states that it is useful in 
palsy and other diseases caused by cold humors. He quotes 
Galen as recommending its use in melancholia, and Paulus as 
saying that it is useful in leprosy. In Persia it is said to have 

a reputation as a remedy for ague. The dose is from 2 to 5 

Description. — The drug as met with in India consists of 
all parts of the plant broken up, but very little of the root is 
present. The portions of the stem are of a greenish-yellow 
colour, round, crooked, channelled, with numerous branches 
springing from the axils of the leaves ; the external surface of 
the stem is siliceous, hard, and pubescent ; internally it is full of 
soft pith. The petioles of the leaves are 
lower ones completely so. The lower leaves are of considerable 

Possibly from dKpi>vvxoi:, on account of its thick leaves, each lobe of 
which terminates in a thorn. 


1 4 i CHE NOT 01)1 A CE^. 

size with a triangular midi^ib, channelled on the upper surface, 
and short, thick, spinous lobes which vary much in shape. 
The plant has a gummy, rather disagreeable taste. The fruit 
is occasionally found mixed with the drug in considerable quan- 
tity. It is a woody nut, ^ of an inch long, formed by the 
fusing together of the different parts of the perianth and ovary, 
somewhat triangular in form ; at the base are spines formed by 
the calycine segments; at the apex the perianth forms a number 
of tooth-like processes which surround the top of the ovary. 
The seed is ovoid, horny, and has a terebinthinate odour. 

Chemical composifhn,—T]ie chopped plant, air-dried, was 
treated for several days with warm 80 per cent, spirit, the 
resulting tincture distilled to remove alcohol, and the residue 
finally deprived of the last traces of alcohol by spontaneous eva- 
poration. The extract was then mixed with water acidulated 
with sidphuric acid and agitated with petroleum ether. The 
petroleum ether extract was greenish, soft, with a camphoraceoun 
and peppermint odour and taste. Treated with warm proof 
spirit a portion dissolved, forming a clear yellowish liquid while 
warm, but from which rcsinoid matter separated on cooling- 
The solution had a strongly acid reaction and gave a greenish 
coloration with ferric chloride. After the addition of sulphuric 
acid, it afforded a very marked precipitate with Mayer's and 
other alkaloidal reagents. With alkalies the solution was colour- 
ed of a bright yellow hue ; basic acetate of lead gave a bright 
yellow precipitate, a similar precipitate, but smaller in amount, 
being also afforded by lead acetate. The soft resinous residue 
insoluble in proof spirit, after standing deposited a small amount 
of bright yellow matter which was destitute of crystalline 
structure on microscopic examination. In ammonia the residue 
was insoluble. 

During agitation of the extract with petroleum ether a consi- 

separated ; this resin had a 

e in ether. 

dark, soft 

mass which could be kneaded by the fingers ; on drying at 
lOO^C. a nearly black brittle mass was left, easily pulverised 


jpeated wasl 


and forming a dark olive-brown coloured powder, odourless and 
tasteless, but bitter in an alcoholic solution, soluble in ammonia, 
forming a deep yellowish brown solution, from which it was 
reprecipitated by acids in dirty yellowish white flocks. In 
alcohol the resin was easily soluble with acid reaction ; with 
ferric chloride the alcoholic solution was slightly darkened in 

After agitation with petroleum ether the acid aqueous solution 
was agitated with ether : the ether extract was small in quantity, 


and though some small points separated on the sides of the dish 
which appeared crystalline on naked-eye inspection, on micros- 
copic examination no crystalline forms were yisiblc. In water 
the extract was partly soluble with strong acid reaction : the 
aqueous solution gave with ferric chloride a dirty bluish-green 
precipitate, changing almost instantly to dirty whitish-brown. 
With alkalies a bright yellow coloration was afforded; the 
solution did not precipitate gelatine and gave no reaction with 
cyanide of potassium. The ether extract was treated with 
ammonia, in which, with the exception of some flocks, it 
appeared to be wholly soluble. The solution exhibited a marked 
greenish fluorescence ; it was agitated with ether. The ether 
extractive formed a non- crystalline yellow varnish, soluble in 
alcohol without fluorescence, with a very bitter taste and neutral 
reaction; treated with dilute sulphuric acid a small portion dis- 
solved, and the solution afPorded marked reactions with all alka- 
loidal reagents. The alkaline aqueous solution was acidulated, 
which caused whitish flocks to separate, and agitated with ether. 
The ether extract was a non-crystalline yellow varnish, partly 
soluble in water with strong acid reaction, the solution affording 
similar reactions to the original aqueous solution of the ether ex- 
tract. The ammoniacal solution exhibited a greenish fluorescence. 
The original aqueous acid solution was now rendered alkaline 
and reagitated with ether; a yellow varnish was obtained after 
spontaneouB evaporation of the ether. The extract was treated 
with dilute sulphuric acid and agitated with ether, the ether 
separated, the aqueous solution rendered alkaline, and again 
agitated with ether, in order to purify any alkaloidal principle 

III.— 19 


which might be present- The purified ether extract dried to a 
yellow varnish; the solution in sulphuric acid gave a very 
marked yellowish precipitate with Mayer's reagent; a white 
precipitate with alkalies; with Frohde's reagent, a precipitate 
first yellowish, rapidly changing to pale blue, and darkening, 
on standing or warming, to deep prussian blue ; chromate of 
potash gave a yellow precipitate; bichromate of potash and 
concentrated sulphuric acid, a dirty orange-red ; ferric chloride 
no reaction ; the solution was destitute of any bitter taste. 



Finally the original alkaline aqueous solution was acidulated 
with sulphuric acid, and agitated with amylic alcohol. On 
eyaporating off the amylic alcohol, a deep orange-red varnish 
was left, partly soluble in water with strong acid reaction, the 
solution giving an olive-brown coloration with ferric 'chloride; 



alkalies ; a brig]\t yellow precipitate with basic acetate of lead ; 
and it reduced Fehling's solution on boiliug. The residue, 
insoluble in water, was dissolved by ammonia, forming a deep 
orange-yellow solution from which acids afforded a whitish 
precipitate, the yellow colour being destroyed. 



Fig.— Lamk. Encyel, /. 814 j Wight Ic, L 818. Spinach 
{Eng.), Epinard {Fr.). Syn. S. tetrandra, Stev. 

Hab. — Persia. Cultivated in India. The herb and fruit. 

Fer/iacMZar.— Palak {Hind.), Pdlang [Beng.), Yusayley-keeray 
( Tarn, ) . 

History, Uses, &C.— This potherb is a native of Persia ; 
it is described in the Persian Bm-ym under the name of ^Lia . 
(ispanakh) as a potherb much used in broth. The name is 
now often incorrectly pronounced Ispan&j by the Persians, and 
Isfat .aj or Isjin^j by the Arabs. The plant has been 









parts of the country. The African Moors brought it to Si:>ain, 
whence its use gradually spread to other parts of Europe. It 
was known in England as Spinach in 1568, and is noticed in 
Turner^ s Herbal, published in that ycar^ as ^' lately introduced 
and not much in use. '' Aitchison, in his Botany of the Afghan 
Delimitation Comniissiony remarks that it grows profusely in the 
vicinity of Simkoh in the Badghis, and is collected as a potherb 
by the natives. He says; — ^' I have no doubt Mr. De Candolle 
is correct in assuming 8. tetrandra to be the wild form of 
S.oleracea*^^ Spinach is much valued by the Mahometans on 
account of its cooling and emollient properties, and the seeds 
are sold in all the Indian bazars. A decoction of the plant is 
prescribed in febrile affections, in lithiasis, and in inflammation 
of the lungs or bowels. The juice of the leaves is also used as a 
diuretic and as a gargle in sore-throat. Poultices of the leaves 
or boiled seeds are applied to soften tumours and promote the 
maturation of boils. The herb is considered one of the most 
digestible and wholesome of vegetables. 

Description. — The plant has large, thick, succulent, deep- 
green leaves, of a somewhat triangular form, produced on long 
foot stalks. The stem is erect, large, round and hollow, about 
two feet high- The male plants are distinguished by their long 
terminal spikes of ereen flowers, while those of the females are 


axillary, sessile and clustered- The frui< is prickly in 
varieties and smooth in others. 

Chemical composition, — Besides a large quantity of mucilage 
spinach contains so large a proportion of nitrates, that the water 
in which it has been boiled may be used for making touch - 
paper. The following figures give the mean percentage com- 
position of three samples of spinach recorded by Konig : — . 

Water 88*47 

Nitrogenous matter 3*49 



Sugar , OlO 

Nitrogen-free extractive ••,... 4'34 

Fibre 0'93 

Ash ..,,.. 209 


Anhydrous spinach contained^ as the mean of three analyses 

of different samples^ 




Carbohydrates , 37-93 


Basella alba, Lmn., Wight Ic, t. 896, is known as Indian 
spinach, or Malabar Nightshade, and the juice of the leaves, 
which is demulcent and cooling, is a popular application to 
allay the heat and itching of urticaria arising from dyspepsia, 
an affection which the Hindus consider to he indicative of bile 
in the blood. The boiled leaves are also used as a poultice. 
This herb is extensively cultivated as a vegetable, and bears the 
vernacular names of Poi (Ilmd.), Mayal (Mar.), Vasala (Tarn.), 
Bachchali (Tel), and Bili-basale (Can.). The generic name is 
derived from the Tamil. The Sanskrit name is Potaki or TJpodika. 

of this Ordfir nrp nsprl na -nnfTiovT-io in fVip Ti^ast. In 

Many plants 

Chenopodium Botrys, Li7in., C 

Blitum, Hooic.f., and Atriplex Moneta 


Arthocnemum indicum 

a plant of the salt marshes, is used as a vegetable, and is also 

pickled. Fryer, who visited Bombay in 1694, calls it " samphire." 

Plants more generally known as vegetables are ChenopO- 

dium album, Linn., C. ambrosioides, Linn., Beta 
vulgaris, Linu., and Atriplex hortensis, i^■rt«. The seeds 

of the Beet are sold in Indian Bazars for medicinal use, under 
the name of Chukandar. 



^'^Z'—^»9'Bot., 1252. Knot-grass {Eng.), Renouee des 
oiseaux {Fr.). 

Hab.— Northern Asia, Europe. Introduced 
The root and seeds. 


Vernacular. -U^^^oii, Bi jband, Kesri {Hind. ), Endrani { Sind.) 



Tom its being 

History, Uses, &C. — This plant fs identified by Fee with 

the male iroKvyovov of Dioscorides, a vulnerary iand astringent 

herb, the Polygonos of Pliny (27, 91). It was used by the 

ancients to arrest hemorrhage, the seeds were considered to be 

laxative and diuretic and to arrest defluxions. For burning 

pains in the stomach the leaves were applied topically, and 

were used in the form of a liniment for pains in the bladder 

and for eiysipelas. The juice was administered in fevers, 

tertian and quartan more particularly, in doses of two 

cyathi, just before the paroxysms. Scribonius ( Comp. 46) says 

that it received its name '^polygonos'' 

everywhere, Ibn Sina and other Arabian physicians call 

the plant A'sa'r-ra'i- ^tjc f^ U^a^) and Batbat (Jst^i^j) ; they 

consider it to be cold and dry, and reproduce what the Greeks 

have said concerning its medicinal uses. The Persians call 

it Hazar-bandalc. It is the Folygonum mas of Matthiolus 

[ValgrAi., 300). 

In India the plant is still used by the Hakims in the diseases 
named by Dioscorides. 

In our own times Polygonum root has been used as a febrifuge 

in Algeria, and has been reported upon as being an excellent 

remedy for chronic diarrhoea and stone in the bladder. Its 
value has apparently been much exaggerated. {J. B. Jachson^ 

Ame)\ Joiirn. Pharyn.y 1873, 247.) 

In iAx^ Lancet (1885, 658) it is said to be used in Eussia, 
under the name of Homeriana, as a popular remedy in lung 
afiections. Dr. Kotschinin, who has experimented with the 
drug, found it really valuable in several cases of bronchitis, two 
of which were capillary ; also in three cases of whooping cough. 
It was tried in phthisis, but no definitely satisfactory results 
were obtained. A tumblerful of the decoction was given three 
times a day. 

Description. — Root fibrous, long, very tougli, and some- 
wliat woody; branclied below, simple at tbe crown. Stems 
several, spreading in every direction, generally prostrate, much 



branched, round^ striated, leafy at the numerous knots or joints. 
Leaves alternate, stalked, hardly an inch long, elliptic or 
lanceolate, entire, obtuse, single-ribbed, smooth except at the 
margin, tapering at the base^ very variable in width, substance 
rather coriaceous, colour greyish or glaucous. Flowers variegated 

and green. Seeds acutely triangular, of a 


shining black. 

Polygonum Bistorta, Linn., is the Anjuhar of the 
Western Arabs, and their description of it is still reproduced m 
Indian medical works. P. viviparum, Linn., a nearly 
allied species, is used as a substitute for it in the Punjab, under 
the same Arabic name, and is called in the vernacular Maslun and 
Bilauri. The Anj ubaf-i-Rumi of the bazars, imported from 
Persia, is a thick reddish-brown astringent root-bark, evidently 
obtained from a tree or shrub of some size, and it may be 
observed that Aitchison found an arboreous species of Polygonum 
growing in the Badghis and Paropamisus. 

Other species of Polygonum which have been used medicin- 
ally, and which occur in India, are ; 

P. glabrum, Willd., p. Hydropiper, Linn., P.molle, 

Bon., P. barbatum,imw., and P. alatum, Ham. AH these 
plants are astringent, but P. Eydropijper also contains a pungent 
volatile principle having acrid properties. 

Chemical composition.— Dr. C. J. Rademaker {Amer. Jotirn- 
Pharm., Nov. 1879) separated from P. Bydropifer a crystalline 
principle which he named Pohjgonic acid. H. Trimble and 
H. J. Schuchard {Amer. Journ. Pharm., Jan. 1885) re-examine*^ 
the plant with the foUowing results :— They found that the 
pecuHar pungent principle, although present in a \^eak 
alcohoKc tincture, disappeared on distillation, the pungent 
taste of the herb being absent both from the distillate and the 
residue m the retort. 

From these experiments they conclude that the active prin- 
ciple IS decomposed on the sUghtest heating, and that the only 



proper preparation of the drug would be one made without the 
^ application of heat. They prepared the polygonic acid of 
Dr, iiademaker, and conclude from their experiments that it is 
only a mixture of impure tannic and gallic acids. 

The following summary shows the amount of the most impor- 

tant constituents : 

Per cent. 

Water 10'25 

Wax 2-70 

From petroleum spirit 


Resin and chlorophyll 1*54 From ether solution. 

Resin, tannin, and chlorophyll. 5' 14 From alcoholic solution. 
Sugar .,..., 1'44 


55 > From aqueous solution 

Tannin and extractive 5'23 

Albuminoids »...•• 1*00 

^ r From alkaline solution 

Phlohaphene, &c. 5'95 

Salts and a small amount of 1 n.r^r. f From dilute acid solu 




Cellulose 57-45 


ly determined : tannin 

{Year-Booh ofPharm., 1885, p. 160.) 

Dr. C. J. Rademaker {Amer, Journ. Pharm., June 1886) 
re-asserted the existence in this plant of the active crystalline 
principle, descrihed by him as polygonic acid, and supplied 
further details respecting its extraction and properties, together 
with a wood-cut illustration of its crystals. He says: — '^ Poly- 
gonic acid may he prepared by treating the plant with water, 
to which some bicarbonate of sodium has been added, and 
f allowing it to macerate for 24 hours; or by precipitating 


a fluid extract with, basic acetate of lead- In eaeli ease separate 
the base by means of sulphuric acid, and the organic acid by 
means of ether. Allow the ethereal solution to evaporate, and 
treat the residue with distilled water, and filter ; this separates 
the resin (resinous acid). The filtrate is then filtered through 
animal charcoal repeatedly, until all colouring matter isremoYcd. 
The filtrate is next treated with solution of gelatine, in order to 
remove any tannic acid that might be present, again filtered, 
and evaporated to dryness, redissolved in ether, and the ethereal 
solution allowed to evaporate spontaneously* Polygenic acid 
thus prepared crystallizes in needles. Its solution in water does 
not precipitate gelatine nor produce a bluish-green coloration 
when added to a mixture of ferrous and ferric salts in solution, 
showing absence both of gallic and tannic acids. It is freely 
soluble in water, less so in ether, and insoluble in petroleum 
spirit. The heat of a water-bath does not destroy any of its 
properties. ( Year-Book of Pharm,, 1886, p. 210. ) 

The other species of Polygonum which have been examined 
contain starch and tannic and gallic acids. Bowman (1869) 
obtained 21 per cent, of tannic acid from Bistort root. In the 
Bengal Chemical Examiner's Heport for 1884 we meet with the 
following notice of P. glahrum : '^ Several specimens of a pl^^* 
caUed Bish-kurki were sent from Cachar for examination. 1* 
was stated that the plant was frequently added to country 
spirit, which it was believed might have thus communicated to 
it some specially noxious property. The plant was identified 
by Dr. Gr. King as Pohjgomtm glabnim^ and on chemical exami- 
nation and physiological application was not found to possess 
toxic properties/' 


Flg.^Bentl and Trim., t. 213. Rhubarb (Eng.), B^^^' 
barbe (Fn). 

Hab. —South-Eastern Tibet, China. The root. 



Fig, — Bentl. and Trim,^ t 214. Hhubarb (Eng,), Rhu- 
barbe {F/\). 

Hab. — Soutb-Eastern Tibet, Cbina. Tbe root. 
Vernacular. — Rewand-cbini,Lakn-re\vaiid-cbini(Z»/^.^asa;'5). 

History, Uses, &C* — The Cbinese appear to have been 
acquainted witb tbe properties of rbubarb from a period long 
anterior to tbe Christian era, for tbe drug is treated of in tbe 
herbal called Pen-Idng^ which is attributed to the Emi^eror 

Shen-nung, the father of Chinese agriculture and medicine, who 
reiG^ned about 2700 B.C. The drug: is named there 



yellow, excellent, and Ta-huangy the great yellow. The latter 
name also occurs in the great Geography of China, where it is 
stated that rhubarb was a tribute of the province Si-ning-fu, 
eastward of Lake Kuku Nor, from about the 7th to the 10th 
centuries of our era. 

As regards "Western Asia and Europe, we find a root called 
pa or pTjov, mentioned by Dioscorides as brought from beyond 
the Bosphorus. Pliny describes a root termed Rhacoma^ which, 
when pounded, yielded a colour like that of wine, but inclining 
to saffron, and was brought from beyond Pontus. The drug 
thus described is usually regarded as rhubarb, or at least as the 
root of some species of Rheum. Lassen has shown that trading 
caravans from Shensi in Northern China arrived at Bokhara as 
early as the year 114 B.C. {PharmacograpJda.) 

Riwas (the plant Ri in the Zend language) was known to the 
ancient Persians, and the same name is still applied to a species 
of Hheum in the province of Grilan in Persia. Aitcbison found 
R, BibeSy Gronov., on the Paropamisus range, to be known to 
the peasantry as Rewash, Rewand and Chukri; he states that 
the flowering branches are eaten, and the root used in colouring 
leather- In tbe llari-rud Valley he found R. tataricum, Linn. , f ., 
to be known as Rewash-i-dewana, ** fools' rhubarb/' the 
fruit and root being used as a purgative. Ibn^Sina (978) 



notices both the plant Ribas (Riw^s, Pers.) and the drug 
Edwand (Rewand, Pers.)— the first an acid plant, and the second 
eyidently Chinese rhubarb. Mesue, early in the 11th century, 
distinguishes between Chinese and Khorasan rhubarb, and Haji 
Zein- el-attar, writing in 1368, says: — '* I consider Re wand to be 

the same as Ribas. 



the latter is known as Rawand-el-dawabb, and is used in veteri- 
nary practice, whilst the Chinese is reserved for human beings. 
The latter is the best kind, and, when powdered, is of a saffron 
colour ; the fractured surface has the grain of a cow's hump, and 
is friable ; it is called Rewand-i-lahmi (meaty rhubarb), and 
should be in large pieces like a horse's hoof, and not»worra-eateu. 
In my experience there are three kinds of rhubarb— Chinese, 
Khorasan, and Indian. Masih (Mesue) states that rhubarb is 

hot in the third degree and dry in the first." {IkhtiaraU 
article Hdiranil.) 

The author of the Mal-Jizan-el-Adiciya, himself a native of 
Khorasan, has the following account of Rib^s :— " It is called in 
Persian Riwas, Riwaj and Chukri, and is an herbaceous plant a 
cubit in height; from the centre spring one or two flattened stem 
2 fingers by 1 finger in thickness, having a pubescent bark, the 
lower portion of which is purplish and the upper green, like the 
stem of a lettuce. Internally the stem is white, soft and juicy ; it 
has a sour and somewhat astringent taste. The top of the stem is 
branched, and between the branches are green rough bracts; the 
flowers are red, and have a slightly acid and sweetish taste. The 
pknt grows in the cold snowy mountains ; the best is the Persian, 
white, delicate, succulent and subacid, with a stout tall stalk. 
The root of this plant is rhubarb (R^wand), which has already 

been described, and it is called ^ Ribas-i-Mu^ammiri/ because 

aniimr of Nisbapur was the first to discoyer this." Fur 

Ph a i 'macographia. 



the modern Hindus have become acquainted with its propeW 
through Mahon.etan and European physicians. 


In tlie use of rhubarb as a medicine, tbe Mabometans quote 
and follow Galen, Oribasius, Paulus, Razf, Ibn Sina and Masib, 
wbose opinions it is unnecessary to reproduce. In India it is 
cbiefly used as a stomachic, tonic, and mild aperient. 

The rhubarb found in the Indian bazars is of a very inferior 
kind, in long stick- like pieces, shij^ped to Calcutta and Bombay 
from the Eastern ports. It comes from China, and has 
hardly any aroma, a bitterish taste, and but slig-ht purgative 
action. When fresh, it is covered with a yellow dust, like 
ordinary rhubarb. The natives use it as a tonic and 
stomachic. None of the commercial rhubarb known as East 
Indian is imported into Bombay unless specially ordered from 
China, but it often passes through the port on board the 
P. and O. Company's steamers. Bombay druggists, Native 
and European, usually obtain their rhubarb from London. 
On account of its low price, the former always import English 



India is attributed to EJienm emodl, B. Moorcro/fiamim, and 
E. Welhianum, all Himalayan species ; it is said to be of two kinds, 
large and small : *' The first in cylindrical pieces, of various 
sizes and shapes, furrowed ; cut obliquely at the extremities, 
about four inches long and an inch and a half in diameter ; of a 
dark-brown colour, feeble rhubarb odour and bitter astringent 
taste ; texture radiated, rather spongy, not presenting on frac- 
ture the marbled texture characteristic of ordinary rhubarb ; 
pulverized with difficulty ; powder of a dull brownish-yellow 
colour. The second consists of short transverse segments of the 
f root branches ; of a dark-brownish colour, odourless or nearly 
60, with a very bitter astringent taste." (Op. cit,,^^, 187.) The 
first kind so exactly corresponds with the stick rhubarb im- 
^ ported from China, that we are of opinion t!)at it was not 

Himalayan rhubarb, whilst the second probably was of Indian 
origin. Trials made with Himalayan rhubarb by Prof. Royle 
{Calcutta Med. and Phys. Tram., iii., p. 439) and Mr. Twining 
(Diseases of Bengal^ i.> p- 220) are reported to have been satis- 
factory, and Dr. Hugh Cleghorn [Madras Quart, Med. Journ., 
1862, v», p. 464), who furnishes some interesting remarks oa 



Himalayan rhubarb^ states that it is only an inferior variety 
tbat reaches the plains of Hindustan, He tested the action of 
the fresh root, and found it to resemble the action of Russian 
rhubarb. {Op. cit.y p. 188.) 

Description. — China rhubarb consists of portions of a mas- 
sive root which display considerable diversity of f orm^ arising from 
the various operations of paring, slicing and trimming to which 
they have been subjected. Thus some pieces are cylindrical or 
rather barrel-shaped, others conical, while a large proportion 
are plano-convex, and others again arc of no regular shape. 
These forms are not all found in the same package, the drug 

usually sorted into round and flat rhubarh. - The pieces 
are from 3 to 4 inches long by 2 to 3 inches in breadth. 
Many pieces are pierced with a hole. The drug is dusted over 
with a bright brownish-yellow powder, on removal of which the 
surface is seen to have a rusty-brown hue. The chai^acter which 
most readily distinguishes the rhubarb of China is that well- 
developed pieces, broken transversely, display dark lines arranged 
as an internal ring of star-like spots. In good rhubarb the 
interior is compact and veined with reddish-brown and white, 
sometimes mixed with iron-grey. The root when chewed tastes 
gritty, by reason of the crystals it contains of oxalate of calcium ; 
but it is, besides, bitter, astringent and nauseous. The odour is 
peculiar. [Phannacogmphia,) The characters of the Chinese 
stick rhubarh which is used in India have already been noticed ; 
it would appear to consist of the smaller branches of the root 
which have been removed in preparing the drug for European 

Chemiaal composition. --T]xe purgative principle of rhubarb is 
Cathartic ^ceV/, a glucoside discovered by Kubly {Bull Soc. Chim. 
Fari$, 1866) in Senna in combination with calcium and magne- 
Buira, and now known to be present in many other purgative 
drugs. Rhubarb also contains Ghrysophanic acid, CH^'^O*, andan 
allied substance Emodiu, C**H^"0' ; a tannin, C^^H^'O^*, named 

Rheo-tannicaeidby Ivubly; resins and muclbiginous matters- 
Small auantities of albuminoul anKQiuTi^A.^ ^...i- . «„:j ^^4- ..nrl 



sugar have also been met witli in rhubarl). The amount of the 
mineral constituents is exceedingly variable : Fluckiger and 
Hanbury obtained from two good samples of China Rhubarb, 
dried at lOO'^C. and incinerated, 12-9 and 13-87 per cent, of ash"; 
another pale sample yielded no less than 43*27 per cent. The 
ash consists of carbonates of calcium and potassium. 

The following analyses by Elborne show the percentage 
composition of three samples of English Rhubarb and two of 
the Eastern drug ; 

B. offici- 
nale, or- 
dinal y 

B. offici- 
nale, high 

R. rha 







Moisture 606 


Mucilage (soluble in water) 
Cathartic aciiJ .-.. 

Tannin aniichryso|)Iiao 
Organic acid 



Fat and 

substances sohible in 

free chrj'sophanic acid 
soluble in petrolenm ether 

14 3 


























Rumex vesicarius, Linn., Campd: Bum.,'l29,t. 3,/. 1.8; 

Chuka {Hind., Beng., 5ow5.), Chukra {Sans), is cultivated all 
over Asia, and is used just as sorrel is in Europe; excellent 
'potage EL I'oseille' may be made with it The plant is, doubt- 
less, one of the kinds of Hamaz (Dock) mentioned in Arabic 
works, and is mucli esteemed for its medicinal properties. The 
juice is said to allay tlie paiu of toothache, and by its astrino-ent 
properties to check nausea, promote the appetite, and allay 
morbid craving for unwholesome substances. The herb also is 
considered very cooling and of use in heat of stomach, and 
externally as an epithem to allay pain, especially that caused 
by the bites or stings of reptiles and insects. The seeds are said 
to have similar properties, and are prescribed roasted in dysen-* 
4 tery, and as an antidote to scorpion stings. The root is also 



Description. — The fruit sold In the shops as Gulham^z 
(Dock flowers) is reddish-brown, about J^ of an inch long, and 
consists of three fringed, leaf -like expansions, each furnished 
-with an oblong glandular body and attached at the base to a 

short thick pedicel ; they enclose a triangular, polished^ dark- 
brown seed. 

Bijband. — Shining angular seeds (nuts), evidently derived 
from a species of Eumex. They are used as an aphrodisiac. 
Murray states that the fruit of Polygonum aviculare, Linn., 
is known as Bijband or Endrani in Sind. According to 
Atkinson, Eumex WalKchii, Meissn., referred by Hooker to 
H. mantimiis, Linn., yields the Bijband of the bazars. Probably 
the seeds of several species are collected. 

Etmex Patientia, which Hooker thinks, along with 
R. aquaticus, Linn., might be united with R. orientalis, Bernh., 
has been examined by "W. Dahlen, who gives the following 
percentage composition:— Water, 92-18 ; Nitrogenous matter, 
2-42 ; Oil, 0-48 ; Sugar, 0-37 ; Nitrogen-free extractive, 306 ; 
Fibre, 0-66 ; Ash, 0-82. 

This plant is a native of the Western Himalaya and extends 
westward to Asia Minor, Syria and Greece ; it was named by 


xiii., 6,\t. 5), from its having 

been identified with the \aTrdeov of the ancients, and it is still 




Yig.^Wight Jc, t. 1858; Griff. Ic.Pl. AsiaL, 

via., t 25. Indian Birthwort {Eng.). 

Sort. Mai. 

Hab.— Throughout the low country of India. The stem 

and root 

Vernacular,— IsliSLTm^l 







Ichchura-mula, Peru-marindu (Jaw.), IsKvara-veru, Govila 
{Tel.), Ishvari-beru, Nanjin-beru {Can.), Karalvekam, Ishvara' 
muri {Mai.), Sdpus {Ooa). 

History, Uses, &C. — This scandent shrub is tbe Eudra- 
jata of the Raja Nirgbanta; otber Sanskrit names for it are 
Arkamula, " lightning root "; Isbvari, "goddess"; Sunanda, 
" pleasing"; and Svidhy-upasya, "worthy of worship." It is con- 
sidered to be attenuant, deobstruent, emmenagogue, antarthritic 
and a valuable medicine in the bowel affections of children who 
are teething. In the Mahometan Materia Medica it is known as 
Zarawand-i-Hindf, and is admitted as an Indian substitute for 
Zarawand {Ansfolochia long a). The early Portuguese settlers 
in India gave it the name of Raiz de Cobra, on account of its 
supposed efficacy against the bite of that snake. 

The plant was first described by Rheede, who compares its 
odour to that of fresh ginger, and states that boiled in oil it is 
apphed as a liniment to snake-bites, and a decoction given 
internally. It is also administered, rubbed to a paste with water 
or in decoction, in cold fevers, headache, flatulent distention, 
and dysuria. As a lotion it relieves gouty pains, and the pow- 
der with pepper and hot water stops bloody fluxes. 

It appears to be the Radix puloronica of Rumphius, which is 
employed in Banda in decoction, in diseases of the intestines, 
and also in intermittent fevers. Ainslie {Mat. Ind., ii., 298) 
notices its use by the Tamil doctors in the bowel complaints to 
which children are subject in consequence of indigestion and 
teething, and says they sometimes call the drug Talashroolivayr, 
He also says that the powder is taken internally in cases of 
snake-bites and applied to the bitten part. Loureiro [Flor 
Cochin-Chin., vol. ii., p. 528), speaking of the plant, says' 
" Prodest in colica, cibi inappetentia, febribus intermit tenti- 
bus, obstructionibus, hydrope." Fleming {Catalogue of Indian 
Plants, p, 8) notices its use in Upper India as nn .t.^.^o_ 

ip gogue and antarthritic. 



properties is given. In Bombay Sapsan is cliiefly prescribed lu 
the bowel complaints of children and in cholera ; it is regarded 
as a stimulant tonic, and is also applied externally to the 
abdomen. Babu T. N. Mukharji states that the juice of the 
fresh leaves is very useful in the croup of children, by induc- 
ing vomiting/ without causing any depression, [Am-sferdam 
Ca/., p. 21.) 

, Description. — The drug as sold in the shops consists of 
the root and stem, the latter in by far the larger proportion ; ui 
many parcels the stem only is to be found It is either in short 
pieces, or the whole stem may be twisted into a kind of circular 
bundle. The thickest portion of the stem is i to i an inch or 
more in diameter, and has a central woody column made up oi 
about ten wedge-shaped portions. The bark is thick and corky, 
marked with longitudinal ridgres and numerous small warty 

„*«.*v*^.^..^ *^"0 

projections ; it is of a yellowish-brown colour. The taste i3 
bitter and camphoraceous, and the odour aromatic and agreeable. 

1 3Iicrosco2n'c sfrudifre. — The wedge-shaped woody columns are 
traversed by large vessels, the medullary rays are distinct ana 
easily traced into the bark ; in the latter, which consists of 
starchy and corky parenchymatous tissue, there is a circulai 
zone of large yellow stone-cells. 

Chemical composition. — The air-dried roots were contused an 


digested for several days with warm 80 per cent, alcohol, -l^ 

greater part of the alcohol from the resultant tincture ^va3 

removed by distillation, but the last traces could be separuted 

by spontaneous evaporation with difficulty, owing to 

resinous matter separating and floating on the surface and thus 

preventing evaporation. The extract still containing alcohol, and 

which possessed a strong smell of the drug, was mixed with water 

and agitated with light petroleum ether. During agitation a 

r!:irk viscid resinous mass separated, as well as a small aniouufc 

oi a bright yellow powder. The clear aqueous solution, after 

separation of the petroleum ether, was gently heated to expel 

alcohol, and the residue acidified with sulphuric acid a"^ 

agitated with ether. After separation of the ether, the aqueous 




solution was rendered alkaline and reagitated first with ether, 
then with chloroform, and lastly with amylic alcohol. 

The dark resinous matter which separated on agitation with 
petroleum ether was repeatedly shaken with ether, in which a 
portion was soluble. The ethereal extx'act was of the consistence 
of honey^ had a taste and smell like that of a mixture of turpentine 
and peppermint, and was also bitter : in alcohol it was 
soluble with acid reaction ; it was dissolved by ammonia, forming 
a dark reddish orange-coloured solution, and was reprecipitated by 
acids in yellowish flocks. The residue insoluble in ether was soft 
when moist and dark chocolate in colour : on drying at lOO^C. it 
became brittle, and could be easily reduced by pressure between the 
fingers to a yellowish powder which possessed neither taste nor 
odour : in alcohol it was soluble with acid reaction : in ammonia 
the greater i)art dissolved, and was reprecipitated in yellow flocks 
by acids. The bright yellow powder was soluble in ether, and 
was left on spontaneous evaporation as a bright yellow varnish, 
destitute of crystalline structure. In warm water the greater 
part dissolved, forming a pale yellow solution which became 
turbid on cooling^ and which had a marked acid reaction. 

In alkalies it was soluble with deep orange coloration, and 
was reprecipitated by acids in pale yellow flocks : with ferric 
chloride it gave a dirty brownish-red precipitate : with basic 
acetate of lead, yellowish flocks : with baryta water no 
precipitate, only a deep yellow coloration. 

The light petroleum ether extract was soft and brownish in 
colour, and had a strong odour of turpentine ; on gently heating 
in a small retort, a trace of a distillate was obtained which 
had a most powerful terebinthinate odour and taste. 

The extract obtained by agitating the original aqueous acid 
solution with ether was a bright yellow, transparent, soft, var- 
nish-like mass, from which slowly separated a few small yellowish 
nodules, which, on microscopic examination, were found to consist 
of bundles of rod-shaped crystals. The extract was soluble in 
alcohol with strong acid reaction, the solution exhibiting a well- 
marked greenish fluorescence, as did also an ethereal solution. 

111.— 21 



The taste was very bitter, aromatic, and also somewhat terehin- 
thmate. On treatment with ammonia the extract was partly dis- 
solved, yielding a deep orange-red solution, which was agitated 
with ether, the ether showing a marked greenish fluorescence. 
On evaporating off the ether, a bright yellow, viscid, trans- 
parent extract was left, with a bitterish taste, accompanied by a 
strong one of turpentine. In alcoholic solution the extract was 
neutral in reaction, the solution exhibiting a marked fluorescence. 
The ammoniacal solution, after separation of the ether, was acidu- 
lated with sulphuric acid and reagitated with ether. On evapora- 
tion of the ether, a bright yellow, soft, varnish-like residue was 
left ; on heating with water the greater part dissolved, forming a 
clear solution which became turbid on cooling. With alkaHcs 
the extract gave a deep orange-red solution: with ferric 
chloride a dirty browiiish-red precipitate: with basic lead 
acetate yellowish flocks were precipitated: with lime and baryta 
water a yellowish coloration, but no precipitates. After 
boiling with dilute sulphuric acid,Fehling's solution was reduced. 
The reactions of this acid were, therefore, similar to those of the 
yellow poicdei- which separated on agitation with petroleum ether. 
The original solution after addition of sulphuric acid ^vas 
rendered alkaline with ammonia and agitated with ether. On 
spontaneous evaporation of the ether, a yellow, soft, non- 
crystalline, transparent, varnish-Kke extract was left. This was 
treated with a little dilute sulphuric acid, in which a portion only 
dissolved, and agitated with ether, which removed resinous 
nuitter. The ether was then separated, and the aqueous 
solution rendered alkaline, and reagitated with ether. A 
yellow non-crystalline extract was obtained, which was nearly 
wholly soluble in dilute sulphuric acid, and which afforded the 
lollowmg reactions : with ammonia a white precipitate soluble in 
excess : with caustic soda a similar precipitate,only slightly soluble 
m cxces. : with platinic and auric chlorides yellow precipitates : 
marked yellow precipitate with Mayer's reagent, and with other 

atlt-tith7"^!f; with strong nitric acid a yellowish color- 
ation ^ ith Fiohde's reagent a deep-blue coloration in the cold, 
uo alf.Mation m tint on gently heating. After boiling with 


dilute sulphuric acid^ tlie liquid slightly reduced Fehling's 

After agitation with ether^ the liquid was agitated with 
^v chloroform^ which separated an ulkaloidal principle mixed with 

gs much colouring matter. The reactions were similar to those 

yielded by the principle extracted by ether. 


Finally the liquid was agitated with amylic alcohol^ the 
alcohol exhibiting very marked greenish fluorescence. The 
amylic alcohol extract contained a large amount of resinous 
matter insoluble in dilute sulphuric acid ; the acid solution 
afforded, however, very marked evidence of the presence of a 
principle reacting with alkaloidal reagents, the colour reactions 
ll being similar to those yielded by the principle separated by ether 

and chloroform. It would be premature for us to definitely 
state that the principles extracted by ether^ chloroform, and 
amylic alcohol were either identical or different. 

Toxicohgjj. — Dr. S, M. Shircore of Moorshedabad states that 
it is undoubtedly used to procure abortion. 

Commerce. — The drug can hardly be called an article of 
commerce, as it is supplied to the shops by herbalists or 
country people. It is very abundant in the Southern Concau. 
Value, annas 6 per pound. 

:t , 




f ' 


Hab. — Beccan Peninsula to Bandelkand, Sind, Ceylon. 
The herb. 

Vernacular. — Kiramar, Gandhani {Hind.), Kiramar {Guz.)^ 
Gandhan-gavat, Gandhani {Mar.)^ Ganajali-hullu^^ Kattagiri 
{Can,) J Adutina-pdlai {Tam.)j Gadide-gadapai*a-aku, Kadapara 

{TeL)y Atutinta-pala (Mai.). 

History, Uses, &C.— This plant is the Dhumra-pattra 
of the Raja Nirghanta, i.e.y the plant with grey leaves. The 
synonyms are : — Dhumrahva, Su-labha, Svayam-bhuva, Gridhra 
pattra, Gridhrani, Krimi-ghni, Srima-lapaha* It is much used 


Ilinclu physicians on account of its bitter, purgative, and 
anthelmintic properties. The leaves are applied to the navel to 
move the bowels of children, and are also given internally ui 
combination with castor oil as a remedy for colic. The juice of 
the fresh leaves or the powder of the dried leaves is a favourite 
application to sores to destroy maggots. In the Kuriiool 
District, when the sazza is attacked with insects, a long rope 
soaked in the juice of the plant, and with the leaves of the 
plant attached, is drawn OA^er the crop. Dr. Hove, who visited 
Bombay in 1787, found the plant growing in great abundauce 
in Guzerat, He states that the root and leaf are remarkably 
bitter, and yield a thick yellowish juice, which is mixed with 
boiled milk and given in syphilis, and combined "s^'ith opium is 
used with great success in gonorrhoea. Ainslie notices the 
application of the leaf, when bruised and mixed with castor oil, 
to obstinate psora (the Carpang of the Tamils). The plant is 
also thought to stimulate uterine contraction, and is administer- 
ed in tedious labour and as an emmenasrosrue. In Dalzeil and 


Gibson's Flora of Bombay (p. 225) it is spoken of as possessing 
a merited reputation as an antiperiodic in intermittent fevers. 
The native doctors in Bombay make a paste with water, of the 
plant, along with the seeds of Barringtonia aatfangida, Celasfnis 
pameulata, and black pepper, and rub the whole body with it for 
the cure of malarial fevers. 

The evidence collected by Dr. AVatt (Diet. Econ. Prod. India, 
i., 314) stows that it is the opinion of several European phv- 
eicians in different parts of India that the plant has a decided 
action upon the uterus, and increases or induces uterine con- 
tractions. There appears to be no doubt as to its anthelmintic 

Description.— 'J'he drug consists of the whole plant in 
fruit ; the stems are striated, slender, and about as thick as 
a piece of whipcord ; the leaves are of a pale, glaucous green, 
obtuse, heart-shaped, with wavy edges, about 2 inches long and 
l\ inch broad, when dry they are blackish ; the capsules are 
ovate, i of an inch long, ribbed, depro^^ed at the apex, six-celled ; 


each cell contains a column of heart- shaped flat seeds, closely 
packed. The aj^pearance of the seeds is peculiar, they look as 
if they had been cut out with a punch ; one side is flat, black, 
and rough from a number of irregular projections; the other is 
ahnost entirely occupied by two brown comparatively smooth 
lobular projections of a soft corky structure; these under the 
microscope are seen to be entirely composed of ovate, empty, 
dotted cells. The whole j^lant is nauseously bitter. 

Chemical compoHitmu — The plant contains a nauseous volatile 
substance, an alkaloid, and a large quantity of salts. The 
alkaloid is amorphous and gives no colour reactions w^ith the 
strong mineral acids. The bitter concentrated tincture on 
standing deposited cubical crystals of potassium chloride. The 
ash calculated on the air-dried plant was 17'75 per cent., and 
strong alkaline fumes w^ere given off from the plant when 

Commerce, —Yohxe, Hs. 3^ per maund of 37| lbs. 

Zarawand-i-gird {Pers.,Ind. Bazars). The imported root 

of Aristolochia rotunda^ Linn., Guih. Hist, JYat., ii.,]). 371, a small 
plant with slender stems and almost sessile, obtusely cordiform 
leaves. The flowers are solitary in the axils of the leaves, 
tubular, yellow without, and orange brown wdthin. The w^hole 
plant is acrid, aromatic and bitter. The root is tuberous, 
placcntiform, hard and heavy when dry, more or less mam- 
raillated on the under surface, of a reddish-brown colour ; on 
the upper surface are the remains of several stems or small pits 
showing where they w^ere attached ; on the under surface one 
central scar marking the attachment of the rootlets. The 
substance is very hard and horny, and has a bitterish somewhat 
aromatic taste^ and camphoraceous odour. 

Zarawand-i-tawil [Pers., Ltd. Bazars). The imported 
root of Aristolochia longa, Linn., MilL Ic.^ t. 61,/. 2, a plant 
much resembling A. rotunda, and having a similar habitat. It 
differs from the latter plant in having petioled leaves, yellow 
flowers striped with brown, and a cylindrical root which has much 
the same taste and odour as that of A. rotunda. Mahometan 



pliysicians describe it as resolvent, deobstrueut, diuretic, 
emmenagogue, alexij^Iiarmic, and vermifuge.* 

These Aristolocliias were formerly' consideied to bo antidotes 
for snake-bites. Albertus Magnus [Be mirabiiibus Mnndi) says: 

Si vis statim interficere serpentem, accipe ex Aristolochia 
rotunda quantum vis et tere illam bene, et accipe ranaiu 
sylvestrem vel campestrem et coutere ipsam et commisce earn 
Aristolochia, et pone cum eo aliquid ex incausto, et scribe cum 
eo m charta aut aliquo quod plus amas, et projice ad serpentes." 

Zarawand-i-gird, or mudahraj, is considered by Persian writers 
on Materia Medica to be the female of Aristolochia loncja. Mfr 
Muhammad Husain tells us that at Ispahan it is called 
Nukhud-i-alwandi. Mahometan physicians describe it as resol-' 
vent, stimulating, pectoral, stomachic, and cephalic ; they pre- 
scribe it in jaundice and gout. True Zarawand-i-gird is very 
scarce in India ; most of the druggists, when asked for it, supply 
the small starchy, inert tuber of an arum.f 

The Aristolochias are still collected by herbalists in Southern 
Europe for medicinal use. 



Fig.— ilf 

and. Trim., t. 245; Black Pepper {Enj.), Poivre noir {Fr.). 

Hab. — Travancore and Malabar. Cidtivated elsewhere. 
The fruit. 

Vernacular.— mvsich, Kali-mirach {Hind.), Gol-marich 
{Beng.), Uil^gxi [Tarn.), Miriy^lu {Tel.), Kuru-mulaka (MaL), 


nw 4W.^f ^ with the description of the two Aristolochias in Dioscorides 
to wrocTire mlTl ff^'" "P^V-y^^-?^- ^liny mentions their use by «oa.en 
iJainsUhe evH e/e^^""^' ""'^ ^P'^^'^'"' recommends them as a protective 

•bLt^Pekin fHr/"""; 7"""°^' ^^'^ Sang-puuH-hea of the Chinese, growing 



pepper bears the same names witli the addition or substitution 
of the adjective "white." 

History, Uses, &C. — T'he earliest travellers from the 

West who visited India, found the pepper vine in cultivation on 
the Malabar Coast, Theophrastus (H. P. ix., 22) mentions two 
kinds of popper (TrtVcpi or TrtTrept) in the fourth century B. C, and 
Dioscorides (ii., 148) mentions ^€vkov tt/ttcpi, \vliite pepper, fiaKpov 
TTitvept^ long i^eppor, and /^/Xa^ ir^ircpi, black pepper. Pliny says : 
"It is quite surprising that the use of pepper has come so 
much into fashion, seeing that in other substances which we use, 
it is sometimes their sweetness, and sometimes their appearance, 
that has attracted our notice ; whereas, pepper has nothing in it 
that can plead as a recommendation to either fruit or berry, 
its only desirable quality being a certain pungency; and yet it 
is for this that w^e import it all the way from India ! Who was 
the first to make trial of it as an article of food ? and who, I 
Avonder, was the man that was not content to prepare himself, by 
S hunger only, for the satisfying of a greedy appetite? '' (12, 14,) 

In the Periplus of the Erythrean Sea, written about A.D. 64, 
it is stated that pepper is exported from Barake, the shipping 
place of Nelkunda. in which region, and there only, it grows in 
great quantity. These have been identified with places on the 
Malabar Coast between Man galore and Calicut. 

Long pepper and Black pepper are among the Indian spices 
;f on which the Romans levied duty at Alexandria about 






Coast, or at all events had some information about the pepper- 

plant from an eye-witness. It is he who furnishes the first 

^ y^ particulars about it, stating that it is a climbing plant, sticking 

close to high trees like a vine. Its native country he calls 
Male. The Arabian authors of the Middle Ages, as Ibn 
Khnrdadbah [circa A.D. 869-885), Edrisi in the middle of the 
12th, and Ibn Batuta in the 14th century, furnished nearly 
similar accounts. 

1.6 8 PIPER A GEJE, 

Among Europeans who described the pepper-plant with 
some exactness, one of the first was Benjamin of Tudela, who 
visited the Malabar Coast in A.D. 1166. Another was the 
Catalan friar, Jordanus, about J 330 ; he described the plant as 
something like ivy, climbing trees and forming fruit, like that 
of the wild vine. " This fruit," he says, " is at iirst green, 
then, when it comes to maturity, black." Nearly the same 
statements are repeated by Mcolo Conti, a Venetian, who, at 
the beginning of the loth century, spent twenty-five years in 
the East. He observed the plant in Sumatra, and also described 
it as resembling ivy. {Phanmcographia.) 

The high cost of pepper contributed to incite the Portuguese 
to seek for a sea passage to India, and the trade in this spice 
continued to be a monopoly of the Crown of Portugal as late 
as the 18th centurv. 

In January 1 793, an agreement was made between the Eajah 
of Travancore and the English, by which he was to supply a 
large quantity of pepper to the Bombay Government in return 
for arras, ammunition and European goods ; this was known 
as the "Pepper Contract." 

It is worthy of remark that all the foreign names for black 
pepper are derived from Pippali, the Sanskrit name for long 
pepper, which leads one to suppose that the latter spice was the 
first kind of pepper known to the ancient Persians and Arabs 

through whose hands it first reached Europe. Their earlier 
writers describe the plant as a shrub like the Pomegranate 
(P. chaha ?). The moderns apply the name Filfil (Pilpil, P<'''^'-) 
to all kinds of pepper. Black pepper is called in Sanskrit 
Mancha, which means a "pungent berry." The word is derived 
from Marichi, "a particle of light or fire," and appears to 
have been first applied to the aromatic berries known as Kakkola ; 
It now signifies black and red pepper, and in the vernacular 
tonus of Mirach or Mirchai, is a household word in India. 

lAIaricha is described in the Nighantas as bitter, pungent, 0, hot and dry ; synonyms for it are VaUi-ia "creeper 
grown Lshana, Tikshua "pungent." Mulina, SyaL "black," 
^f-. It IS said to be u..ful in intermittent fever, haemorrhoids, 


dyspepsia, cougli, gonorrhoea and flatulence, and to promote tie 
secretion of bile. Together with long pepper and ginger it 
forms the much -used compound known as Trikatu, "the three 
acrids, " or *^ Ushana-chatu-rushana." Externally, pepper is 
used as a rubefacient and stimulant of the skin. In obstinate 
intermittent fever and flatulent dyspepsia, the Hindus administer 
white or black pepper in the f oUoAving manner : — A tablespoon- 
ful is boiled overnight in one seer of water, until the water is 
reduced to one-fourth of its bulk, the decoction is allowed to cool 
during the night, and is taken in the morning. The pepper is 
then again boiled in the same manner and the decoction taken 
at night. This treatment is continued for seven successive days. 
A compound confection of pepper (Pranada gudiJid) is given as 
a remedy for piles ; it is made in the following manner : — Take 
of black pepper 32 tolas, ginger 24 tolas, long pepper 16 tolas, 
Piper chaha (chavya) 8 tolas, leaves of Taxiis haccata (talisa) 
8 tolas, flowers of Mesua/errea (nagkesar) 4 tolas, long pepper 
root 16 tolaSj cinnamon leaves and cinnamon one tola each, 
cardamoms and the root of Andropogon inuricatus (usira) 2 tolas 
each, old treacle 240 tolas; rub them together. Dose about 2 
drachms. When there is costiveness, chebulic myrobalans are 
substituted for ginger in the above prescription, [Chakradatta.) 

The use of pepper for the cure of intermittents is strongly 
recommended by Stephanus in his commentary on Galen, and 
recently some cases of refractory intermittent fever, in which, 
after the failure of quinine, piperine has been administered 
with advantage, are reported by Dr. 0. S. Taylor {Brit, Med. 
Jotirn.y Sept., 1886). In one case, immediately on the accession 
of an attack, three grains of piperine were given every hour, 
until eighteen grains had been taken, and on the following day, 
when the intermission was complete, the same dose was given 
every three hours. 

Mahometan physicians describe black pepper as deobstruent, 
resolvent, and alcxipharmic ; as a nervine tonic it is given 
internally, and applied externally in paralytic affections; in 
toothache it is used as a mouth-wash. As a tonic and diges- 
tive, it is given in dyspepsia. With vinegar it forms a good 



stimulating poultice. With 

colds. Moreover it, is rlinT'c 


stimulant in cases of bites by venomous reptiles . Strong friction 
with pepper, onions, and salt is said to make the hair grow again 
upon the bald patches left by ringworm of the scalp. They 
notice the use of the unripe fruit, preserved in salt and water 
as a pickle, by the natives of Malabar. 

Do Gubernatis draws attention to the following passage from 
the travels of Yincenzo Maria da Santa Caterina (iv., 3) with 
reference to white pepper being offered by the Hindus to their 

"Da Malavari h tenuto in stima grandissima, 
eli Gentili d'ordinario I'offrono a 'loro Dei, si per la rarita come 
per la virtu, salutifera e medicinale, che da quello sperimentano, 
riportandolo poi alii infermi." For the early history of pepper 
in Europe, the Pharmacogyajihia may be consulted. 

Cultivation. — Its cultivation is very simple, and is effected by 
cuttings or suckers put down before the commencement of the 
rains in June. The soil should be rich, but if too much moisture 
be allowed to accumulate near the roots, the young plants are 
apt to rot. In three years the vine begins to bear. They are 
planted chiefly in hilly districts, but thrive well enough in the 
low country in the moist climate of Malabar. They are usually 
planted at the base of trees which have rough or prickly bark, 
such as the jack, the erythrina, cashewnut, mango-tree, and 
others of similar description. They will climb about 20 or 30 
feet, but are purposely kept lower than that. During their 
growth it is requisite to remove all suckers, and the vine should 
be pruned, thinned, and kept clean of weeds. After the berries 
have been gathered, they are dried on mats in the sun, turning 
from red to black. They must be plucked before they are quite 
npe, and^ if too early they wiU spoil. White pepper is the 
same fruit freed from its outer skin, the ripe berries being 
macerated in water for the purpose. In this latter state they 
are smaller, of grepsh-white colour, and have a less aromatic or 
pungent taste. The pepper-vine is very common in the hiUy 
districts of Travancore. especially in the Cottayam, Meenachel, 
and thenganacherry districts, where, at an averac-e calcidatlou, 



about 5,000 candies are produced annually. It is a Government 
monopoly. {Dniry, ) 

Description. — The immature fruity known as Black 

Pepper, is globular, about ^ of an incb in diameter, muck 
wrinkled, and of a brown-black colour ; on one side are tbe 
remains of tke peduncle, and on tbe other of the style and 
stigmas. The pericarp is closely adherent to the seed. The 
latter consists of a thin reddish^brown testa and a copious 
albumen, the exterior portion of which is horny and the 
interior farinaceous. The embryo is undeveloped. The mature 
seed, known as White Pepper, is less acnd than Black, as the 
pericarp has been removed ; it is also rather smaller and of a 
grey colour, striated from base to apex by about a dozen light 

The transverse section of a grain of black pepper exhibits a 
soft, yellowish epidermis covering the outer pericarp. This is 
formed of a closely-packed yellow layer of large, mostly radially 
arranged, thick-walled cells, each containing in its small cavity 
a mass of dark-brown resin. The middle layer of the pericarp 
consists of softj tangentially-extended parcnchyme, containing 
an abundance of extremely small starch granules and drops of oil. 
The shrinking of this loose middle layer is the chief cause of 
the deep wrinkles on the surface of the berry. The next inner 
layer of the pericarp exhibits towards its circumference, 
tangentially-arranged soft parenchyme, the cells of which 
possess either spiral striation or spiral fibres, but towards the 
interior, loose parenehyme free from starch and containing very 
large oil cells. 

The testa is formed in the first place of a row of small yellow 
thick -walled cells. Next to them follows the true testa, as 
a dense, dark-brown layer of lignified cells, the individual out- 
lines of which are undistinguishable. 

The albumen of the seed consists of angular, radially arran<>- 
ed, large-celled parenehyme. Most of its cells are colourless 
and loaded with starch ; others contain a soft, yellow, amorphous 
mass. If thin slices are kept under glycerine for some time, 



tliese masses are slowly transformed into needle- shaped crystals 
of piperin. [Fharmacograph ia) 

Chemical compodtion. — Black pepper contains an acrid resin, 
a volatile oil, starch, gum, a small quantity of fatty oil in tlie 
mesocarp, and about 5 per cent, of inorganic matter, besides the 
2L[k'Aoidi piperine y and a volatile alkaloid wbicli is probably iden- 
tical -with. j)i2)eridme. The acrid resin is dark-green, soluble in 
alcohol, ether and alkalies, and, in connection with other 
constituents of pepper, also in w^ater. C. Heisch (J.;m///5^, xi., 
186-190) has shown that pepper should contain not less than 50 
per cent, of starch, which is characterised by the smallness of its 
granules. The essential oil has been examined by L. A. Eber- 
hardt [Archiv. d. Phann. (3), XXV., 515-519) ;ithad a of 
0-87352 at 15^ C, and showed a greenjsh colour, due neither to 
chlorophyll nor to copper. At 22° the oil had a Isevorotatory 
power of 3*2° in a column 100 mm. long. On rectification 
a very small quantity passed over at 160^. Fractions obtained 
at 170°, 176° and 180° were colourless ; that obtained at 190" 
faint green, and that at 250° green, that passing over at 310 
brown-green. Above 310° a brown, tenacious residue was 

which phenol could not be detected. The 170 frac- 
tion, when rectified under reduced pressure, gave a terpene 
boihng at 164°— 165°, and showed a left-handed rotation 
of 7"6° in 100 mm.; it gave numbers agreeing with the 
formula C'^H^^ 

The composition of the other fractions was much the same as 
this. The oil consists of a Iscvorotatory terpene and isomeric 
compounds of higher boiling point. {Journ. CJiem. Soc, Oct., 
1887; Year^Book Fharm,, 1888.) 

Pure piperine crj^stallizes in colourless flat, four-sided prisms 
of a glassy lustre and almost tasteless. As 





taste. It remains unaltered on exposure, has a neutral reaction 
to test-paper, is nearly insoluble In water, and dissolves in vola- 
tile oils, in 60 parts of cold ether LMerck), in 30 parts of c(^<i 

P IP ERA C EM 173 

and in 1 part of boiling 80 per cent, alcohol ( JFittstein), and 

freely in acetic acid ; tlie last two solutions are precipitated on 
the addition of water. It is likewise soluble in cbloroform, 
benzol, and benzin. At 129° C. it melts like wax to a 
yellowish oily Kquid, which on cooling congeals to a mass 
of resinous appearance ; when fused it may be ignited, and burns 
with a bright flame, leaving a light charcoal, which is readily 
consumed by heating it in the air. Sulphuric acid colours it 
blood-red, the colour disappearing on the addition of water, 
leaving the piperine unaltered if the action of the acid has not 
been prolonged {Pelletier). The solution of piperine in sulphuric 
acid is yellow, becoming dark-brown, and finally green-brown 
{Dragendorff) . Nitric acid colours piperine successively greenish- 
yellow, orange, and redj and dissolves it with a yellow colour, 
the solution separating yellow floccules on the addition of water ; 
by prolonging the action of the acid, oxalic acid and a yellow" 
bitter compound are produced {Pelktier). The resin resulting 
from this reaction becomes blood-red on the addition, of potassa, 
and on heating the mixture pipcridine is given off {Anderson, 
1850). Piperine is a very weak base, and its salts are decom- 
posed by water ; crystallizable double salts, soluble in alcohol, 
may be obtained with the chlorides of mercury, platinum, and 
cadmium. By dry distillation with soda-lime pipcridine is 
obtained* Boiled with alcoholic solution of pptassa, piperine was 
found by Babo and Keller (1856) to be resolved into piperic 
acid, C^^H^^O*, and 2nj)eridine, O'H'^N. Piperic acid is in hair- 
like, yellowish, needles which fuse at 150° C, and at a higher 
temperature volatilize partly imaltered, at the same time 
giving off a coumai*in-likc odour. Pipcridine is a colourless 
liquid of an ammoniacal and popper-like odour, and when largely 
diluted of a bitter taste. It boils at 106^ C, has a strong alkaline 
reaction, dissolves freely in water and alcohol, and yields with 
acids crystallizable salts ; the piperate of pipcridine crystallizes 
in silky scales, which^ on being heated, give off a part of the 
alkaloid. Ladenburg (1884) obtained a small quantity o^ 
pipcridine synthetically by treating an alcoholic solution of 
pyridine with sodium. {^National Dispensatory.) Heisch 



[Analyst, 1886) gives tlie following analysis of pure and com- 
mercial peppers : — ■ 

© . 




s S 

3 . 


* 1 


r^ Mi^ 

3 ^ 


rt^ 6 



EC d 






-^ -ij 


^^^ A J 




QQ •'-' 



O 33 

^ 0:2 

1 P-C 



Black berry ... 

White berry .,, ? 

Fine ground 


Long pepper ,,, 

ground . ... 









13-901 1-5B 
12-15: 13-4S 



























77 • 68 






16-2 i9-88 



10-66 4-51 


W, Jolinstone {C hem. News, Nov., 1889) lias shown ttat 
pepper contains a volatile alkaloid probably identical witlx 
piperidine. Black pepper yielded 0-56 per cent., and the busks 

alone 074 per cent., of tbis base. White pepper yielded it also, 
but in smaller quantity, and the larger proportion of piperidiue 
in the husk, the author considers to be an explanation of the 
greater pungency of black pepper as compared with white 

pepper was found to yield 0*34 per cent, of the 



alkaloid. {Year-Book Pharm., 1889.) 

Commerce. — The exports of pei)pcr from the Malabar Coast 
for the past 6 years have been 


1884-85 91,5]6 

1S85-86 100,804 

1880-87 106,976 

1887-83 136,605 

3888-89 101,177 

1889-90 141,257 

The Travancore State exports annually about 3,000 candies of 
popper, each candy containing 500 English lbs., and this 
brings to the State an annual income of 6 lukhs of rupees. 


Adulteration. — As pepper is always sold whole in India, it is 
seldom adulterated. We have occasionally met with an admix- 
ture of the berries of Emhelia Ribcs, and the fruit of Mirahilis 
Jalap a j[s stated to be sometimes mixed with it. 

The abortive berries of P. troicium^ Roxh.^ now considered 

to be the wild form of P. nigrmn^ are known in Western India 
as Pokali-miri^ and the plant as Kokervel in Marathi and Murial- 
tiga in Telugu. Garcia d' Orta notices the drug under the 
name of Canarese pepper, and observes that it never finds its 
way to Portugal, but is valued as a medicine by the natii^es to 
purge the brain of phlegm, to relieve toothache, and as a remedy 
for cholera. 

This plant was first described by Roxburgh, who found it 
growing wild in the hills north of Samulcotta. 

It was growing plentifully about every valley among the 
hills, delighting in a moist rich soil^ and well shaded by trees? 
the flowers appearing in September and October^ and the 
berries ripening in March. Roxburgh commenced a large 
plantation, and in 1789 it contained about 40,000 or 50,000 
pepper- vines, occupying about 50 acres of land. The produce 
was great, about 1,000 vines yielding from 500 to 1,000 lbs. of 
berries. He discovered that the pepper of the female vines did 
not ripen properly, but dropped while green, and that when 
dried it had not the pungency of the common pepper ; whereas 
the pepper of those plants which had the hermaphrodite and 
female flowers mixed on the same ament was exceedingly pun- 
gent, and was reckoned by the merchants equal to the best 
.Malabar pepper. 

Pliny (12,14) mentions abortive pepper seeds known by the 
name of ^* Bregma,'* a word which in the Indian language sig- 
nifies ^^dead. '' He remarks that it is the 
of pepper. 

Lendi-pipali. Globidar catkins of a species of pepper 
occasionally found in the Bombay market, said to come from 
Singapore. They are of the size of the pellets of sheep's dung, 
hence the name Lendi-pipall. The taste is very hot and acrid. 

most pung 

1 7 6 PIP ERA CE^. 

The individual fruits are nearly as lai*ge as cardamom seeds, the 
whole catkin having much the appearance of a small hlack- 


Fig. — Miq. III. Pip., t. 34; Ilayne, Arnz., Gewaclis. xiv., 

t. 21 ; Wight Ic, t. 1927. Long Pepper {Eng.), Poivre Ion 
[Fr. ). 

Hab. — Cultivated in India and tlie Malay Islands. The 
fruit and stem. 

Vernacular.— Q}xih {Hind.), Oliai {Beng.), Chavak {Uar.). 




t 244 ; Miq. III. Pi}}., t. 30 ; Ea-h 
Wight Ic, t. 1928; PJieede, Hi 

Hab, — Hotter provinces of India. The fruit and root. 

Vernacular.— "IIlq fruit.— Pipal, Pippali {Bind.), Tippi^ 
{Tarn.), Pippallu (,Tel.), Tippali (J/a/.), Yippali (Cf/^.), Pip^ 
[Beng.), BangaH-pipali [Mar.), Pipara ( Giiz.). The root.— rip' 
pali-miil, Pipla-mul, Pipla-mur {Hind), Tippili-mulam, Tip- 
piH-ver {Tarn.), Modi, Pippali-katta {Tel), TippiH-ver (3/flZ.)* 
PipuH-mul {Beng.), PipaH-miil {Mar., Gus.). 

History , U ses , &C . — xVs we have already stated, vre think 
it highly probable that long pepper was the kind of pepper first 
known to the ancient inhabitants of Western Asia and Europe. 
(See P. nigrum.) In Sanskrit works on medicine, P. lonrjum i^ 


ChapaU, Pala, M%adhi "growing in South Bihar/' Kand, 
Shaundi, &c. It is considered to be digestive, sweet, cold, hit- 
ter emollient and light ; useful in rheumatism, asthma, cough, 
abdominal enlarffemenis ■Fo.rr.^ i^^„„„„ -u^^ r^ilfis and 

spleen. Old long pepper is to be preferred to fresh. A mixt«r« 
ot long pcpner. Ion o- r.or.T^^^ «..„+ i.i i j -^n-or in 

pepper, long pepper root 

hi JAAOHb 



equal parts, is presci-ibed by several writers as a useful com- 
bination for catarrh and hoarseness. As an alterative tonic, 
long pepper is recommended for use in a peculiar manner. 
An infusion of three long peppers is to be taken with 
honey on the first day, then for ten successive days the 
dose is to be increased by three peppers every day, so 
that on the tenth day the patient will take thirty at out 
dose. Then the dose is to be gradually reduced by three daily, 
and finally the medicine is to be omitted. Thus administered, 
it is said to act as a valuable alterative tonic in paraplegia, 
chronic cough, enlargements of the spleen and other abdominal 
viscera. Long pepper and black pepper enter into the composi- 
tion of several irritating snuffs; boiled with ginger^ mustard 
oil, buttermilk and curds it forms a liniment u^ed in sciatica 
and paralysis. In the Ooncan the roasted anients- are beaten 
up with honey and given in rheumatism ; they are also 
given powdered with black pepper and rock salt (two parts 
of long pepper, three of blacky, and one of salt) in half tola 
doses for coKc. Mahometan writers, under the name of 
Darfilfil, describe long pepper as a resolvent of cold humours ; 
they say it removes obstructions of the liver and spleen, and 
promotes digestion by its tonic properties; moreover, it isaphro- 
disiacal, diuretic, and emmenagogue- Both it and the root 
(Filfil-muiyeh) are much prescribed in palsy,, gout, lumbago^ 
and other diseases of a similar nature. A coUyrium of long 
pepper is recommended for night blindness; made into a lini- 
ment it is applied to the bites of venomous reptiles. We learn 
from Roxburgh {Flora Indica, I., p. 1^) ''that it is in. Bengal 
only that Piper hngmn is cultivated for its pepper. When the 
ament is full-grown^ it is gathered and daily exposed to the 
sun till perfectly diy ; after which it is packed in bags for sale. 

The roots and thickest part of the creeping stems, when cut into* 
small pieces and dried, form a considerable article of commerce 
all over India, imder the name of Pippali-mula, for which pur- 
pose it is particidarly cultivated in many of the valleys amongst 
the Sircar moimtains* This sort is more esteemed^ and bears 
a higher price than that of Bengal, where by far the largest 

III.— 23 

- ^H 

178 PIP En ACE JE. 

portion is cultivated. It, as well as tlie ipepper^ is chiefly 
employed mediciually^ and the consumption of both these drugs 
is very great." Fiper long urn was formerly cultivated at Poway, 
near Bombay; it appears to grow well in gardens in Bombay, 
but requires plenty of manure. 

Pippali-mula, with the synonyms Kana-mida, Katu-grantm, 
TJshana-granthika, Chataka and Chataka-shira, is described an 
the Nighantas a« having the same properties as long popp^^^- 
P. C/mba, which produces the long pepper of European com- 
merco, is the Chavi, Chavika and Chavya of Sanskrit writers. 
It is considered to have the same properties as P. longnw. ^^^ 
araents are sold in the bazars as Mothi pippali, and the stem as 
Chub, Chai or Chavak. 

The oblong black pepper of Theoi^hrastiis (H. P., i^-. 22) ^'"S 
probably long pepper. Dioscorides, in his article upon the three 
poppers, mentions a pepper root, and says itxeseuibles Costus, n 
a hot taste, and cavises salivation w^ien chewed. This drug ^^ 
probably Galangal, which is known as Pan-ki-jar or rod <^ 
rip*u^ Betle, because its odour somewhat resembles that o 
Betlc Icavca. 

Description."--The ament of P. C/iala, tlielongpepP^^ ^^ 
l^uropean commerce, consists, of a nudtitudc of minute bac^*^ 
fruits, closely packed round a common nxis, the whole forming 




a spike 1 i iuch long unci i inch thick. The spike is supported ufl 
a staljv 4 nn iuch long; it is rounded above and below, and tafCW 
^^'o'litly towards its upper end. The fruits are ovoid, -^ ^ 
an inch long, crowned with a ulpple-like point (stigma), a»^ 
ar..aigefl spirally with a small peltate bract beneath each- 
Boiuath the pericarp, the thin brown testa encloses a colourle** 
albumen, of winch the obtu .r end h occupied b%' the smJ»l' 
embryo. The colourof cununercial long pepper Is greyish-'^ Wt*^ 
as if it had Ix .n rollcfl in some carthv powder When wo^htd 
the spikt .r*. rea.lUb-brott n. The drug huo u burning aronK«- 
Uc tu>s snd jm agreeable o<1out. 

'IIh at of r. r,- .. ,„ h„ ^ ^.^^^^ • , vKturo Ud i^ "Hort*-^- 
more acudwr and I. . puu^^m. Wlun fn^^i u has hardly »ny 


aroma, l)ut m t^e process of drying it gradually developes an 
aromatiG- taste and odour. 

Pippali-mula, or pepper root, wlien fresh, is a fleshy, crooked, 
and knotted root ahout the size of a goose- quill^ with many 
smaller rootlets branching from it. The cortical portion is very 
thick, and covered by a thin smooth brown epidermis. Ihe 
central woody column is soft and divided into from 4 to 6 wedge- 
shaped portions by from 4 to G very conspicuous medullary rays. 

Microscojjic stntcturc. — The epidermis of the root consists of 
several raws of tangentially extended brown cells. The paren- 

chyme of the cortex is chiefly composed of large thin-w^alled cells 
loaded with starch, and containing drops of e&sential oil. 
Amongst them are scattered cells containing a refractiv^e yel- 
low substance (re^n). The central woody column is also loaded 
wath starch, and contains as many resin-cells as> the cortex. 
The medullary rays are abundantly provided w^ith large scalari- 
form vessels. 

Chemical compmition. — The constituents of long pepper are 
the same as those of black pepper. 

A third kind of long pepper is met with in the bazars, w^hich 
is known as Swaheli or Sugandhi-pippali, and is imported from 
Zanzibar. It has a peculiarly fragrant odour, and is adminis- 
tered with honey as a remedy for cough ; it has not the acridity 
of the other long peppers. 

The aments are from 1 to 2^ inches in length, flesuose, many 
of them barren or nearly so, onlj^ one or two fruits having come 
to maturity. These aments are almost filiform. The peduncle 
is about one inch long. The mature fruit after being soaked in 
water is j\ inch in diameter, ]3yi if orm, mucronate (the miicro 
bifurcated), sessile ;'it consists of a pulpy envelope enclosing a 
somewhat pyriform seed resembling in structure that of other 


Commerce. — Three kinds of long pepper arc met with in the 
Indian market— Isi, Singapore, which is identical with the long 
pepper of European commerce; 2iul, Banguli, the produce of 
P. longum^ cultivated in Bengal; 3rc?, Swahcli^ imported from 

180 PIPE RAO E^. 

Value, Singapore, Es. 7 to Rs. 12 per maund of 41 lbs.; 
Bengal, Rs. 9; Zanzibar, Rs. 5. Pippali-imil is also of three 
kinds : Mirzapore, Rs. 10 to Rs. 40; Bengal, Rs. 7 to Rs. 7^; 
Malwa, Rs. 50 per maund of 41 lbs. 


Fig.-~-Penil. and Trim., f, 243. Cubebs {JSiirj.), Cubebes (-Fr.) 
Hab. — Java. The fruit. 

VeniamIar.~'Ki}hab-Qhini, Kankol {Hind.), Kankola [Mar), 
Yal-Tiiilaku { Tarn.), Toka-miriyalu, Chalava-mirfyalu {Tel\ 
Val-mulaka (MaL), BaLi-menasu {C^oi.}, Chini-kabab (^^^^')' 

History, Uses^ &C.— Cubebs were introduced into 
medicine by tbe Arabian physicians of the Middle Ages, 
Masudi in the 10th century stated them to be a production of 
Java. The author of the Sihah, who died in 1006, describes 
Kabubeh as a certain medicine of China. Ibn Sina, about the 
same time, notices it as having the properties of madder, but a 
more agreeable taste, and states that it is said to possess hot 
and cold properties, but is really hot and dry in the third 
degree, a good deobstruent, and useful as an application to 
putrid sores and pustules in the mouth ; it is also good for the 
voice and for hepatic obstructions ; a vakiable diuretic, expelling 
gravel and stone from the kidneys and bladder. He concludes 
by stating that the application of the saKva, after chewing it, 
increases the sexual orgasm. Later Mahometan writers have 
similar accounts of Kababeh, and say that it is called Ilab-el-arui?, 
*' bridegroom's berry /^ and that Greek names for it are Mahilyaa 
{fi^ax^oul)^ and Karfiyun, evidently a corruption of Kapw^a-tov, the 
name of an aromatic wood mentioned by Paulus ^gineta, I* 
appears that cubebs were at one time known as Friictm carp^' 
sionnn in Europe. In the Raja Nirghanta, which was written 
about 600 years ago, cubebs appear under the name of Kankola, 
and the same name appears in the Hindi and Marathi Nighantas- 
Madanpal gives Katuka-kola, *' pungent pepper/^ as a synonym 
for it. All the Sanskrit names appear to be of comparatively 
recent origin. The authors of the Fhannacographia draw 

PIPimACEJE. 181 

attention to tlie fact that tlie action of cubebs upon the urine- 
genital organs, though known to the old Arabian physicians, 
was unknown to modern European writers on 3Iateria Medicaat 
the commencement of the pre::?ent century- According to 
Crawfurd, its importation into Europe, which had long been 
discontinued, recommenced in 1815, in consequence of its 
medicinal virtues having been brought to the knowledge of the 
Eno-lish medical officers serving in Java^ by their Hindu 
servants. {Op. cit,^ 2nd EtLj p. 585.) In earlier times cubeb 
pepper was used in Europe as a spice, as it still is, to some 
extent, in the East. 

Description, — The fruits are elevated on a kind of stalk, 


that thej^ are not really but only apparently stalked. 

The dry berries are spherical, wrinkled, of a brown colour, 
and are easily distinguished from black pepper by the pedicel 
at their base ; beneath the pericarp is a nut which contains the 
seed. The albumen is white and oily. As the fruit is gathered 
Avhon immature, the drug usually consists of little else than the 
pericarp. The mature fruit which is sometimes met with in 
the Indian Bazars should be rejected. 

Microscopic sfructure, — The pericarp consists of an ej^idernii^, 
beneath which is an interruj^ted row of small thick-walled cells. 
^Vithin this the parenchyrac is composed of cells containing 
starch and oil ; in the latter, bundles of needle-sliaped crystals 
of cubebin may be observed ; lastly, the innermost layer of the 
pericarp is formed by several rows of tangentially extended 
cells containing essential oil. 'J'he nut is yellow and brittle* 
The seed when present is seen to contain crystals of cubebin. 

Chemical compodfion. — The most obvious constituent of eubebs 
is the volatile oil, the proportion of w^hich yielded by the dru^- 
varies from 4 to lr5 per cent. The oil, when freshly distilled, is 
slightly greenish, but becomes colourless on rectification. It 
has the odour of cubebs, and a warm aromatic comphoraceous 
taste. Its density varies between 920 and 9r36 at 15° C, The 
causes of the great variation in the yield of oil may be found in 


182 FirERACEM, 

tlie coii.^itutlou of tlie drag itself, as ^vell as in tli^ iiitcrubili tj 
of the- oil, and tke fact that its prevailing constitueiats do. 
not begin to boil below 264*^ C Cnbcb oil wus^ shown by 
OglialoYO* to be a mixture of a tarpenc boiling at 1.5&° to 
]63'^, \vbii:*h \^ present to a very small amount, and two oils 
of the formula V/'W% boiling at 26:i° to 265° C, One of 

the latter deviates-- the plane of pohirization strongly to the 
left, and yields- a erystalline compound, G^'IV^CV, nielting 
at 116^0. The other hydrocarbon is less Icovogyrate, and 
does not combine with IICl. [JDeibt. Cliem. Gcs^ Ber., viii., 
1357.) Cnbcb oil mixes with glacial acetic acid in all propor- 
tions ; iodine gives a violet coloration without perceptible 
reaction } with nitric acid it becomes opaque, and on heating a 
pale red tint is afforded. {Brannf.) One ])^vt of oil,, diluted 
with about 20 parts of bisulphide of carbon, assumes at first a 
greenish, and afterwards a blue coloration, if one drop of a 
mixture of cqxsal weights of concentrated sulphiuuc and nitric 
acids Is shxiken with the solution. The oil distilled from old 
cubcbs, on cooling after a time, is stated to deposit large, trans- 
parent, inodorous octohedra of aunphor of ciileds^ C^*^TI^'' + 20H , 
belonging to the rhombic system, which melt at 60^9 ^^^^^ 
subhme at l4b^. But the authors of rharmacographia failed 
to obtain ciyi^tals after keeping the oil (;f fresh cubobs for two 
years in couiact with water, to which a little nitric acid had 
been added* 

Another constituent of cubcbs is CuhebtU'. crvstals of which 
may sometimes be seen in the pericarp cA^en with a common lens. 
It was discovered by Soubeiran and Cupitaine in 1 839 ■ it is an 
inodorous substance, crystallizing in small needles or scales, 
melting at 125^, havin^; a bitter taste in alcoholic solntion. I^ 

dissolves freely in boiling alcohol, but is mostly dej)osited tipon 
cooling; it requires 30 parts of cold ether for solution, and is also 
abundantly soluble in chloroform, riiickiger and HanburV 
found this solution to be slightly Ijxivogyre, and to turn red on 
addition of concentrated sulphuric acid. If the solution of 
cubebla in chloroform is shaken with phosi^horic anhydride, 
it turns blnr^ and gradually becomes red on absorption of 


moisture. Cabebiu is 


soluble in liot water. Beruatzik (18G6) obtaiuccl from cubebs 
0-40per cent, of cubobin, Schmidt {1870} 2'D per cent. The 
cijstals, which are deposited in an alcoholic or ethereal extract 
of cubebs, consist of impure cubebiu. Cubebiu is devoid of 
any remarkable therapeutic action ; its composition, according- to 
Weidel (1877), answers to the formula C'lI^^O'' ; by mcltino" it 
with .caustic potash, it is resolved into acetic and proiocatechuic 

The resin e:s:tracted from cubebs ^consists of an indifferent 


AcMy amoxmting 

1 per cent, of the drug. Both are amorphous, according 
to Schmidt, like the salts of cubebic acid. Bcrnatzik, however, 
found some, as the barium salt, to be crystallizable^ Schulze 
(1 873^ prepared cuhebic acid from the ^crystidlized sodium-salt, 
but was unable to obtain it crystalline, Tlie resins, the 
indifferent as well as the acid, possess the therapeutic 
properties of the drug. Schmidt further pointed out the 
presence in cubebs of gum (8 per ^ent.), fatty oil, and malatcs 
of magnesium and calcium. The yield of ash, accordiup; to 


Gommcrce. — Bombay is supplied with the driig from Singa- 
pore. There is a good demand for it, and tlie consumption in 
natiTO practice appears to be increasing. Value— Formerly 
cubebs was obtainable in the Indian markets at from 4 to 5 
annas per lb., but for the last eight y^ars the price has been 
seldom less than He. 3 per lb. 


Fig.~mff/d Ic.,t. ^926; Miq. I/L Pij)., /. 39^ Bot Mag., 

t 3132 ; Meede, Hort. Mai vii., t 15. Bctle Pepper (Ena ) 
Poivrier de Betel {Fr.). ^ J^h 


Malav Islands. The 


Venmcidar.—V^ciTi {Hind., Benrj., Gnz., iUar.), Vettilai (Ta/;^.), 
Naga-valU {Tel), Velrila {MaL), Yiledele {Can.). 


History, Uses, &C. — According to tlie Hitopadcsa, tlie 
Betle-leaf (tambula) has thirteen properties ^Tamhulasya trayo- 
daslia gunali svarge'pi te duiiabhah). It is sour, bitter, heating, 
sweet, salt, astringent; it expels flatulence (vataghna), phlegm 
(kaphanasana), worms (krimihara) ; it removes bad odours; 
beautifies the mouth, cleans it, and excites voluptuous sensations. 
According to Hindu tradition, the plant \Naga-valli) was 
brought from heaven by Arjuna, who stole a branch of it, which 
he phmted on his return to earth. The leaves with Botle-nut and 
spices form the rira, or pan-supurij so much used by the natives oi 
India as a token of civility or affection. It is also given in confirm- 
ation of a pledge, promise, or betrothal, and, among the Rajpoots, 
is sometimes exchanged as a challenge ; thus the expression hra 
uthana signifies "to take up the gauntlet,'^ or take upon one 
self any enterprise ; &/>a dahia, *'to propose a p 
the performance of a task : the phrase originated in a custom 


'' for 


in token of an invitation to undertake some difficult affair ; lor 
instance, in the first story of the ''Vetalapanchavinshati," the 
king, when he sends the courtesan to seduce the penitent ^vho 
was suspended from a tree, nourishing himself with a smoke, 
gives her a hira. Bira dena signifies ''to dismiss'' either m a 
courteous sense or otherwise. A hlra is sometimes the cover 
of a bribe, and a bira of seven leaves {mt pan ka bira) is ^^'^^ 
by the father of the bride to the bridegroom as a sign of 
betrothal. At marriages the bride or bridegroom places a riri or 
cigarette-shaped vira between the teeth, for the other party to 
partake of by biting off the projecting half ; one of the tricks 
played on such occasions is to conceal a small piece of stick W 
this tin, so that the biting it in two is not an easy matter. 

The betle-leaf was probably the Malabathron or Indian leaf 
of the Greeks, sometimes called simply ''leaf" (<fvAAdi/), and sold 
in rolls in a dried state. Dioscorides .speaks of its being thread- 
ed on strings to dry, a practice which, before the introduction 
of steam caniago by soa, was common in Bombay among the 
Indian traders who sent the leaves to their friends at foreign 
ports. Ihe passage in Dioscorides cV ro) ^xcXavi'^nV t* atf^av<rro»' «al 

PIPER ACEm. 185 

oUicXripov is probably corrupt, and sbould be as suggested by his 

commentator^ M. VergiliuS, fV rw fiaXaKl^eiv T€ /Wpavarov koI okoK\r}poVy 

a reading which he found in one manuscript. As regards the 


7nay possibly have originated from a confused account of the 
method of ripening betle leaves followed in some parts of India. 
The author of the MaMzan states that the leave-s, which, when 
plucked, are always green, are packed in a large kind of basket 
and covered with riee or wheat straw. A hole is then dug in 
the ground, of the size of the basket, and a fire lighted 
in it until the ground becomes warm. The fire is then removed, 
and the basket of lea^^es is placed i\\ the hole and covered with 
stones or any heavy weight so as to press the leaves together; 
it is kept in this position for 24 hours, and after removal the 
basket is exposed to the night dew, if it is the hot season, or 
kept in a warm place, if it is the cold season, until the leaves are 
of a pale yellow colour and become brittle. That Malabathron 
was not a cinnamon leaf, is, we think, clear from Dioscorides 
in his chapter on Cassia, describing its leaves as like those of 
the pepper plant, thus showing that he was acquainted with 
cinnamon leaves as distinct from Malabathron. 

Ibn Siaa describes Tambul as cold and dry, astringent and 
desiccative, and notices its use by the Hindus- The author of 




and of 

their properties and uses. 

{Hind. Mat. Med., p. 244) has the following concise 

account of their uses: 

well known, masticated by the natives of India. Tke poorer 
classes make their packet of betle with tbe addition of lime, 
catechu, and betle-nuts. The rich add cardamoms, nutmegs. 

acts as a gentle stimulant and exhilarant. 



accustomed to 
The ancient 

Hindu writers recommend that betle-leaf should be taken early 
m the morning, after meals and at bed-time. According to 

III.— 24 

186 riPEEACEJE. 

Susruta, it is aromatic, carminative, stimulant, and astringent. 
It sweetens tlie breath, improves the voice, and removes all 
foulness from the mouth. According: to other writers it acts 
as an aphrodisiac. Medicinally it is said to be useful in diseases 
supposed to be caused by deranged phlegm, and its juice is 
much used as an adjunct to pills administered in these diseases, 
the pills being rubbed into an emulsion with the juice of the 
betle-leaf and licked up. Being always at hand, Fan leaves are 
used as a domestic remedy in various ways. The stalk of the 
leaf smeared with oil is introduced into the rectum in constipa- 
tion and tympanitis of children, with the object of inducing the 
bowels to act. The leaves are applied to the temples in headache 
for relieving pain, to painful and swollen glands for promoting 
absorption, and to the mammary gland with the object of 
<5hecking the secretion of milk. Pan leaves are used as a 
ready dressing for foul ulcers, which seem to improve under 

The spittle, after chewing jxin siq^driy is red, and is freely 
ejected by natives, preferably over recently white- washed 
walls ; the dry stains are often mistaken by the police for blood 
stains, and pieces of plaster, leaves, grass, &c., thus stained 
have frequently been forwarded to the Chemical Examiner, 
Bengal, for detection of blood ! 

Of late years the medicinal properties of betle leaves have 
been investigated in Europe. Dr- Kleinstuck of Zwatzen, near 
Jena, has found that the essential oil is of much use in catarrhal 
affections, inflammations of the throat, larynx and bronchi ; it 
has an antiseptic action. He has also used it in diphtheria as a 
gargle and by inhalation. The dose is one drop in one hundred 
grams of water. In India the juice of four leaves may be used 
similarly diluted. 

Ctdiivation,~'l\iQ betle garden {]^an-mala) is a work of art. 

The best 

fatal to it. 



be perfectly 

«^ .^ .V. ^ ut- >v i^^ix luuat last tnroughout the year, be periecuv 
.a, nnd not more than forty feet deep, otherwise the cost of 

PIPER A CEjE. 187 

raising tlie water eats up tlie greater part of tlie profits. The 
betle-leaf, it is said, cannot be grown from channel water, whicli 
is very cold. After the site has been chosen, the next j)oint is 
to fence it from cattle^ thieves, and strong winds. First is an 
outer line {kumpan) of substantial wicker-work, split bamboos, 
Zizyphus twigs, or other pliable material. Inside of this fence 
is a thick milk-bush hedge.* Then comes a belt of the large 
castor plant, and last of all, a row of plantains. The garden is 
laid out in an invarying pattern. The whole, crosed by water 
channels and roads, forms beds of different shapes and sizes. 
Each bed, known by a particular name, such as the cheritang^ 



be calculated with great nicety. After the ground has been 
laid out and properly levelled, tree seeds are sown for the vines 
to train on. Round the edge of each bed is a line of shevri{Ses^ 
hania (egt/ptiaca)^ and in the centre from two to three feet apart, 
the seeds oihadga (Seshama grandiflora) andpanr/am (En/thrma 


from four to six feet apart, sinsrle seed 

In addition to these, thejyopai 

{Oarlca Papaya), singly, and plantains in pairs are dotted about, 
according to the amount of shade required. These seeds are 
sown in the first week in June {mriga nakshafra), and after 
that, hand- weeding and watering every eight days is all that is 


up to the end of December {pushy a nahshatra)^ when 
the nurse-trees are eighteen inches to two feet high, or large 
enough for planting the vines. From the tops of the best ripened 
shoots, in the old plantations, seven-inch 


They are first made into small bundles, wrapped in plantain 
leaves, soaked in the water they have been accustomed to 
carried to the new plantation, soaked in the now water, and all but 
the tips buried in the ground. For some time water is given 
daily; later on oace in two days ; and afterwards, except durin 

the hot months when it is given every other day, once in six 
days. From each unburied tip a shoot springs. When they 
are a few inches long, the shoots are led up the st ems of the 

* Euphorbia neriifolia. 


nurse -trees, and li^ttly tied with strijos of a dried sedge 
(path)^ so elastic that, without untying it, the pressure of 
the gro%^'ing' vine keeps it loose. When the vine has grown 
to the proper height, it is turned back and trained down 
until it reaches the ground, where it is layered in the earth 
and again turned up. This is repeated until the tree-stem i^ 
fully clothed with vines, when the whole is firmly tied wi-th the 
dried reeds of the lavala^ grass^. After this the management of 
the plantation closely resembles the cultivation of the grape vine 
in Southern Europe. Leaf -picking may be begim eighteen 
months after planting, but in the best gardens it is put ofi till 
the end of the second year. The leaves may be gathered green 
amd ripened artificially, or they may be left to ripen on the 
vine, though this reduces their value. Theleaf-picker uses both 
hands, the thumbs sheathed in sharp-edged thimble-like plafeg^r 
which nip the leaves clean off without wren-ching the plant- 
The vine- grower is either himself a leaf-dealer, or he sells his 
crop in bulk to a leaf-dealer. Their table of measures is: 40O 
leaves make a l^avU\ 44 Tzavlh at 'kuricm\ and four hurtam or 
70,400 leaves an ojhe. In retail the leaves are sold at from 
I — 2 annas the hundred. {Khandesh Gazetteer, p. 174.) 

Description. — The leaves are about five inches long, 
broadly ovate, acuminate, obliq^uely cordate at the base, 5 to 7 
nerved^ coriaceous,, and glossy on the upper surface ; they have 
a burning,, aromatic and bitter taste. 

Chemical compodtian. — 1>. S. Kemp of Bombay (1885), by 
di-stilling the fresh leaves with water, obtained two pale yellow 
essential oils, one heavy and the other light, both having the 
peculiar odour of the leaf, but the light oil being more aromatic?- 
These oils oxidised rapidly,, losing their characteristic ethereal 
odour. The heavy oil was freely soluble in alcohel and ether, 
sparingly so in chloreform. It had a specific gravity of 1'04(> 
at 84^ F., and was slightly laevogyre, (a) j=— '54 for a eolumB 
100 m m, long. Prof. J. F. Eijkman's results with oil of betle, 

* Scirpus suhulalus, Vahl., and Ct/perus perienuis, Rasb., are both kno^vn 
by thiii uame. 


« ■ 

distilled by himself from fresh, leaves, which had been in part 

reported in 1888, have been communicated to the GrenBan 

Chemical Soc 

The oil was 

pale gi*eenish-yellow^ became golden-yellow and brown on 

was slightly laevogyre, and had the sp. gr. 0*969 at 


15*^0. Caustic potash removed from the oil chavicol, a phenol of 
sp. gr. 1-030 at 15^C., boiKng between 236° and 238'' C, and 
having a peculiar odour^ somewhat resembling that of creasote ; 
its composition is C^H^*^0 \ its aqueous solution is coloured 
blue by ferric chloride, the colour disappearing on the addition 
of alcohol ; its constitution is expressed by the formula 

H^ 0H(1) 
■^ ^ C^H^ (3). 

The crude cha^dcol seems to contain a i^mall quantity of 
a phenol of somewhat higher boiling point, and in alcoholic 
solution becoming blue with ferric chloride, Betle oil, 
freed from phenol, did not yield, on fractional distillation, 



fraction between 173*^ and 176*^ contained several terpenes, but 
no pinene, and had a very agreeable lemon-like odour, while 
a mint-like odour was observed in the fraction between 19< 
and 220°. From the higher boiling fraction a hydrocarbon, 
sesquiterpene, was obtained, having a slight odour, boiling at 
260° C, and in acetic solution acquiring a deep indigo-blue 
colour with bromine. Eijkman calls attention to the betle oil 
obtained by Schimmel & Co. from dried leaves, and shows that 
the oil did not contain the above compounds to which the fresh 
leaves owe their characteristic odour, and which must have been 
dissipated by drying, or oxidised by exposure, or lost by 
remaining dissolved in the water ; the use of steam under pres- 
sure may have volatilized more of the high-boiling phenol than 
is obtainable by ordinary distillation. 

The oil distilled from the dry leaves by Messrs. Schimmel 
& Co. was a slightly brown-coloured liquid, sp. gr. 1024 at 15°C. 
It consisted up to about § or f of a phenol^ the boiling 
point of which in partial vacuum, under a pressure of 12 mm.j 
lay at 131° — 132° C, ; under ordinary atmospheric pressure it 


1 go FIFERA GE^j. 

underwent decomposition on boiling. The sp. gr, of the phenol 

was 1-067 at 15° C. Examination of the oxidation products, 

acetyl compound and methyl ether^ showed that this compound 

was not eugenol, but an isomer, the composition of the new 

compound (iso-eugenol) and of eugenol being represented aa 
follows : 

Iso-eugenol. Eugenol. 

rC^ H» (1) #0^H^ (1) 

C H^ A OH (3) C W \ OCH (3) 

LOO H^ (4) t OH (4) 


il boiled practically between 
areeable tea-like odour, and 

consisted for the greater part of a sesquiterpene C H'\ 
cubebene, which is characterized by its dihydrochlorate melting 

at 117''— 118° 0. 



reported that among the constituents of the essential oil distilled 
from fresh betle leaves, he had found a characteristic compound, 
having the odour of the leaves and the constitution of parallyl- 
phenol, which he designated "chavicoV About the same time 
Messrs. Schimmel announced that the phenol present in the 
higher-boiling factions of the oil distilled from air-dried betle 
leaves corresponded completely with eugenol, though sub- 
sequently they made the modified statement that the phenol obtain- 
ed by them was not eugenol, but an isomer {F/mrm. Jouni. [3], 
xix., 803.) With a view to clearing up the apparent contra- 
diction. Prof. Eijkman has re-examined the oil distilled by 


by Messrs. Schimmel, with the result of confirming the presence 
in the former of chavicol, boiling at 236° to 238° C, and in the 
latter of the isomer of eugenol, boiKng at 254° to 255°, which 
proved to be orthomethoxychavicol {Benchte, xxii., 2735). 
At would ^em probable, therefore, that both phenols occur in the 
leaves, and that chavicol being the more volatile, had practically 

disappeared from the dried 
tion adopted by Messrs. Schi 

oured the more complete 


PIPERACEj^. 191 

removal of the higher-boiling compound. Some experiments 
made with chavicol are said to have shown it to be a powerful 
antiseptic, it being five times stronger as a bacteriacide than 
carbolic acid, and twice as strong as eugenol. {Fharm. Journ.^ 
Nov. 30th, 1889.) 

A sample of oil distilled from fresh betel leaves in Manila, 
at the request of Messrs. Schimmel, is described as of a golden 
yellow colour, possessing a pronounced odour of betelphenol 
and having a specific gravity of 1*044 at 15° C. The phenol 
was separated from the oil by the method of Bertram and 
Gildemeister, and during the purification by distillation at a 
pressure of 11 mm, it passed over quite regularly between 128' 
and 129^, a behaviour that pointed to a homogeneous body. 
By treatment of the phenol with benzoyl chloride a benzoyl 
compound was obtained that crystallized in scales and melted 
at 50°. It was evident that this was not a mixture of benzoyl 
compounds, as the portion that crystallized first had the same 
melting-point as that which crystaUized last ; it followed, 
therefore, that it represented no other phenol than betelphenol. 
Other constituents occur in this oil only in a small quantity, 
and of these, to judge from the boiling point, terpenes form 
only a small fraction. The results of the examination of betel 
oil up to the present time may therefore be summed up as 
follows : 

(1) Oil distilled from fresh leaves from Java (Eijkman), 
contained besides terpenes and other bodies, chavicol and 

(2) Oil from dried Siam leaves consisted of sesquiterpene and 

(3) Oil distilled from fresh leaves (Java) contained terpenes, 
betelphenol and a small quantity of another phenol (probably 
chavicol), the nature of which could not be determined, from 
want of material (melting point of the benzoyl compound 


(4) Oil from fresh leaves distilled in Manila contained no 
other phenol than betelphenol. 


Betelphenol was contained in all the oils, whether derived 
from Java, Siam or Manila, or from fresh or dry leaves ; it 
would therefore appear to be a characteristic constituent of 

betle oil. 




"Fig.— Bentl and Trim,, t 218 ; Ueichh. Ic. Exot, t. 276-277; 
Nees, PL Med., t. 133 ; Bumjjh. Herb. Amb., iL, t 4. Nutmeg 
(Eng.), Muscade {Fr.), Mace {Encj.), Macis {Fr.). 

Hab. — Moluccas. Cultirated in Penang, Malay Island, 
and Zanzibar. The seeds and arillus. 

Vernacular. — T^utmegs — Jaiplial {Hind., Beng., Gm., Mar.), 
Jadikai {Tarn.) Jsiji-kaja (Tel), Jdjikayi {C an.), J a.tikk^i^f'^- 
Mace— Javitri, Japatri(fi'mf/.), Jadipattiri (T^w.), Japatri [Oan., 
Tel.), Jdtipattiri (Ma/.), Jotri [Beng.], Jayapatri {Mar.), Ja- 
vantari, Japatri {Guz.). 


History, Uses, &C.— Natmegs, in Sanskrit Jati and 
Jatiphala, are mentioned by Susruta, and in tbe Nigbantas bear 
various synonyms, sucb as Jdti-kosba, Jati-sara, Sbaluka, an 
Majja-sara ; they are considered to be hot, digestive, carminative, 
expectorant and anthelmintic. Mace is called Jati-pattri, and is 
said to have similar properties. Both of these spices probably 
became known in India through the Hindu colonists in Java and 
the Eastern Islands. From India they would appear to have 
reached Persia and Eastern Europe. The authors of the 
Pharmacographia remark that nutmegs were probably known at 
Constantinople about the year 540. The Arabs evidently 
first became acquainted with nutmegs through the Persians, 
as their name Jouz-bawwa is a corruption of the Persian 
Gauz-i-buya, " fragrant mit.^' Masudi, who travelled in the 
East in A.D. 916—920, discovered that they were obtained 


from the Zerbad Islands. Ibu Sina describes both nutmegs 
nu^ mace (Basbaseb). Edrisi, who wrote in the middle of the 
!2th century, mentions both nutmegs and mace (Basb^seh) 
as articles of import into Aden. By che end of the 12th 
centur}^ both of these spices were well known in Continental 

Mir Muhummad Husain says that the Dutch keep the trade 
in their own hands, but that he has heard that the tree is now 
cultivated in Sounda in Southern India. Whether he was rightly 
informed with regard to Sounda^ we are unable to say. But 
that his information was substantially correct, there can be no 
doubtj as Ainslie tells us that in his time the true nutmeg tree 
was growing in the Tinnevelly District, and produced pretty 
good fruit. The tree has also been introduced into Ceylon and 
Zanzibar, and appears to flourish in the warm moist climates of 
those islands. 

Mahometan doctors describe nutmegs and mace as stimulating, 
narcotic, digestive, tonic, and aphrodisiac, useful in choleraic 
diarrhcea, especially when roasted ; also in obstructions of tho 
liver and spleen. A paste made with nutmegs is used as an 
external application in nervous headache, palsy, &c.; applied round 
the eyes it is thought to strengthen the sight. The expressed 
oil of nutmegs is imported into India from Banda, and is known 
as Jawitri-ka-tel (oil of mace). It was formerly exclusively 
brought into European commerce via Holland, in oblong cakes 
having nearly the form of common bricks, but somewhat 
smaller, and packed in monocotyledonous leaves, commonly 
called '' flag leaves.'* At the present time much of the oil is 
manufactured in Europe, and put up iii tho same shape, but 
packed in paper. When discoloured and hardened by age, the 
oil is called ^^ Banda soap.^^ Oil of mace is manufactured by 
exposing imperfect and broken nutmegs, reduced to a paste 
and enclosed in a bag, to steam, and then pressing the bag 
between heated iron plates. The yield is about 20 to 23 per 
cent. {Brannt.) The bark of the tree is astringent {Pereira, 
Mat. Med., ii., p. 475.) We have found nutmesrs and their 



essential oil a valitaLle adjunct to otlier drugs in tlie treatment 
of diarAoea and dysentery ; they appear to relieve the pain. 

Description. — The following excellent description of the 
nutmeg fruit is taken from the Pharmaco(jrcq)hia :—" The fruit 
of Myristka fmcjram I's a pendulous, globose drape, about 
2 inches in diameter, and not unlike a small round pear. It is 
marked by a furrow which passes round it, and by which at 
maturity its thick fleshy pericarp splits into tvo pieces, exhi- 
biting in its interior a single seed^ enveloped in a fleshy folia- 
ceous mantle or arillus, of fine erim-wn hue, which is mace. 
The dark-brown, shining ovate seed is marked with impressions 
corresponding to the lobes of the arilks j and on one side, which 
is of paler hue and slightly flattened, a line indicating the 
raphe may be observed. 


the so-called nutmeg being merely the kernel or nacleas of the 



with a corresponding diminution in size. The London dealers 
esteem them in proportion to their size, the largest, ' which are 
about one inch long by /^ of an inch broad, and four of which 

will weigh an ounce, f stchiug the highest price. If not dressed 
with hme, they are of a greyish-brown, smooth yet coarsely fur- 
rowed and veined longitudinally, marked on the flatter side 
with a shallow groove. A transverse section shows that the 
inner seed coat (endopleura) penetrates into the albumen in 
long, narrow brown strips, reaching the centre of the seed, 
thereby imparting the peculiar marbled appearance familiar in 
a cut nutmeg. At the base of the albumen, and close to the 
hilum, is the embryo, formed of a short radicle with cup-shaped 
cotyledons, whose slit and curled penetrate into the 
albumen The tissue of the seed can be cut with equal facility 
m any ^ direction. It is extremely oily, and has a delicious 
aromatic fragrance, with a spicy rather acrid taste." The 
expressed oil of nutmeg is of the consistence of taUow, but 
more friable, orange-coloured, and of a fragrant, spicy taste 
and odour. It has a sp. gr. of -990 (5>«,,;,ot 


Microscojyic structure. — The brown covering of the nntmeg is 
formed by the endopleura, which also dips in and form^ numer- 
ous processes which divide the albumen in every direction; it 
is composed of soft- walled brown cells, which on the external 
surface are small and flat, but much larger in the processes 
already mentioned. The cell- structure of the albumen is load- 
ed with starch and fatty matter,, some of which is crystalline. 

Herr A. Tschirch states that the- aril of Myrhfica fragrans 
furnishes a good illustration of the presence of amylodextrin as 


It is distinguish- 

ed from true starch by being stained reddish-brown instead of 
blue by an aqueous solution of iodine. The grains of amylo- 
dextrin are from 2 to 10 /x in diameter, and do not appear to 
contain even a nucleus of starch. They have usually some- 
what the form of a rod, and are often curved or coiled ; less 
often they are roundish or disc - shaped ; they da not usually 
exhibit any evident stratification. 

Ghemic%l composition, — !N"utniegs contain from- 2' to 8 per- 
cent, of volatile oil, 25 to 30' per cent, of fat, starch, protein 
compounds, &c. The most volatile portion of the oil, after treat- 
ment with sodium, was found, by Cloez, to be a laevogyre hy- 
drocarbon, C^^H^^, having the odour of the nut, and boiling at 
265^ C. It is the mijristicene of Gladstone,, who named the oxy- 
genated portion myristicol^ O^^H^^O ; this is dextrogyre, boils at 
224° 0;, and does not, like menthol and carv^ol, yield a crystalline 
compound with H-'S. The nuimeg camphor of John, or mijristicin 
of Q-melin, which separates sometimes on standing, was ascer- 
tained by Fliickiger to be myristic acid. From the expressed 
oil of nutnieg^ or nutmeg butter, cold alcohol dissolves about 

6 per cent, of volatile^ oil and 24 per cent, of fat, accompanied 
by brown-yellow resinous matter, which has not been further 
examined. The remaining pulverulent white fat is myrMiw^ 
C'H*{C^^H^'0')', which crystallizes from hot alcohol or ether 
and fuses at 31^0. Heintz found the melting-point of 
myrhtk acid to be 53*8'^ C. Schmidt and Hoemer found 3 to 4 
per cent, of free myristic acid, with a little stearic acid. 



of mace Is tlie volatile o3 

whicli is present to the amount of about 8 per cent., but 

occasionally as much as 1 7 per cent, may be obtained. 

{FharmacofjrajyJua.) Scbacbt found it to consist mainly of a 

terpene, C'^H^°, called maceney wticlx yieltfo a cxystallizable 

compound with bjndrocbloric acid ga&^ and appears to be related 

to, but, by Koller, considered identical with, the myristicene of 

oil of nutmeg. The oxygenated portion of the yolatile oil 

is still less known than the terpene. Hemy found red fat 

soluble, and yellow fat insoluMe, in alcohol, but the 24'0 per cent. 

residue obtained by Fliickiger {P/iarmacograpIiia} with boiHng^ 

ether and drj^ng at 100"^ 0. appeared to have consisted solely of 

resin and semi-reunified volatile oil. The same author obtained 

with alcohol 1 04 per cent, of uncrysta^Uizable sugar, and with 

hot water ]'8 per cent, of a body which turned blue, and after 

drying reddish -violet, with iodine, and is probably intermediate 

between starch and mucilage. {National D-isp,) J. Seraml^ 

{Benchfe, 25, 1803) has isolated, by fractional distillation from 

mace or rather nutmeg oil, a body possessing the peculiar odour 

of mace, which he calls mj/ri&ticin; and which has the composition 

represented hy CH^'O'. The correctness of the formula was 

controlled by the preparation of a bromine derivative dibrom- 


H^^Br^ 0% which melts at 105^ 

Wamecke, powdered nutmegs 
m boiled for two hours in a ] 

powder gives 3*77 per 

of ash. Mace yields 1'39 per cent, of ash, and after removal 

of 30-13 per cent, of fat, 274 per cent 

old Mahomp 


mcnts upon 

tan physicians liave been confirmed by Bontius, 
obel, Schmid and Cullen, and more recent expen- 
man and animals ag^oe in showing that they 
have a narcotic and intoxicating action. In a case related by 
Cullen, two drachms of powdered nutmegs produced drowsiness, 
which gradually increased to complete stupor and insensibility- 
The pationt continuod for several hours alternately dciiiious 
and sleeping, but ultimately recovered. 

^*- ^ 


Commerce. — Value, Ee. 1-4-0 to Ee. 1-8-0 per lb. The nut- 


larger seeds never make their appearance in this market. In- 


weight and sell by number 


Fig.—Bedd. Fl. Sf/Iv., t 269 ; Ehe^de, Hort. Mai iv.,>. 5. 

Hab. — Concan, Canara^ N. Malabar. The seed and arillus. 

Vernacular, — Ean-jaiphal> Ramphal (Mar.), Panam-palka 
(MaVj. The Mace — Rampatri {Mar., Guz.), 

History, Uses, &C. — This drug does not appear to have 
been known to the older Hindu and Mahometan medical writers, 
but the following extract from the Makhzan-el-Adiviya seems 
to apply to it. Speaking of true nutmegs, the author says : 
' Latterly the English have discovered a kind of nutmeg in 
Southern India, which is longer than the true nutmeg and 
softer, but is much inferior to it in oiliness, odour, and medicinal 
properties," {MakhzaUy article " Jouz-hatcwaJ^) 

It is the iVtA;r myridicamasoi Clusius, and the Panani-pakaoi 
Rheede, who says that the Turkish and Jewish merchants use 
the nutmegs and mace for adulteration. Rumphius (i.,185) 
notices it under the name of Mannetjes-nooten, and states that it 
is used by the Javanese and Malays as a remedy for headache and 
as an aphrodisiac, and is worn round the neck as a protection 
from boils. It is also used by the Indians in Amboyna, com- 
bined with opium and roasted unripe plantains, in dysentery. 

According to the editor of the Pharmacopoeia o/ India^ the 
seed is used medicinally in the Madras Presidency ; it yields, 
when bruised and subjected to boiling, a considerable quantity of 
concrete oil, analogous to expressed oil of nutmeg, which is said 
to be an efficacious application to indolent ulcers, allapno- pain 
and establishing healthy action. An ointment may be made by 
melting it with sweet oil. The seeds are used for similar pur- 
poses in Bombay in the form of a ?e>, and the oil is also extracted. 


'Recently, the arillus^ under tlie name of ^Bombay mace^ has 
made its appearance in tlae European markets, for the purpose 
of adulterating true mace. (Confer. A. Tschireh in FhavmacenL 
Zcifimg, 1881, No. 74.) In Bombay it is used as a spice. 

Description. — M. malahanca bears an oblong, tawny, 
tairy fruit, 2| to 3 inches long, witL a lucumose arillus, the 
lobes of which are twisted and folded into a cone at the top, 
and are longer and thinner than those- of true- mace, ihe 
arillus is of a dark brownish-red colour^ and on the inside has 
adhering to it a thin papery membrance of a light-brown colour. 
The shell is hard and brittle, and contains an elongated kernel 
resembling a nutmeg, and from li to 2 inches long; when cut 
in two it is seen to have the same ruminated structure, but the 
odour is fruity, with hardly any aroma. Similarly, the mace 
is deficient in odour and flavour* 

Microscojnc structure. — The epidermal cells of the arillus are 
radially elongated, narrow, and twice as high as those of true 
mace, which are tangentially elongated ; their w^alls show the 
cellulose reaction with iodine and sulphuric acid, and with chlo- 
ride of zinc and iodine swell and turn faintly blue. The oi 

cells are very numerous, located near the epidermis on 


sides, often close together in groups of two or three, oval la 
shape, somewhat i^dially elongated, and contain a dark-yello\^j 
usually, resinified oil, frequently alsa a brownish resin. {A- 
Tschireh.) The external covering of the seed is formed by the 
compressed cells of the endopleura, and is thicker than that oi 
the true nutmeg ; the processes which penetrate the albiuu^^ 
are composed of very large cells loaded with a viscid reddish- 
brown substance, which has an astringent and somewhat aoid 
taste. The albumen is composed of large cells loaded with 
starch ; some of the cells and their contents are of a reddish- 
brown colour. There is no crystalline fat visible. 

Toxicology/.— ll^xmphi^xs relates that in 1683 a minister of 
Amboyna was given by his wife three roasted nuts, in mistake 
for nutmegs, to cure a chronic diarrhoea ; in a few hours he 
became giddy, making strange gestures and talking wildly, nor 


did lie get any relief until he had taken several cups of tea and 
been blooded. He then slept profoundly and perspired very 
freely. On waking, no bad effects remained, and the diarrhoea 
had ceased. Runiphius remarks that if he had taken three real 
nutmegs, he would have suffered much more. 

Commerce. — Rampatri is now worth about Es. 10 per maund 
of 37| lbs. ; formerly it was much cheaper. The nutmegs fetch 
Rs. 2 per maund of 37^ lbs. According to Dr, Hefelmann, the 
adulteration of powdered mace in Germany generally consists 
in the addition of Bo^nbay mace, or of other vegetable material 
(leguminous fruits) coloured with turmeric. The presence of 
the latter is shown by the presence of starch cells which are not 
present in mace. Bombay mace may be detected by boiling the 
suspected sample with alcohol and filtering through a white 
filter; in the case of pure mace, the filter is stained a faint 
yellow, but in the presence of Bombay mace, the filter, especially 
the edge, is coloured red. x^Lnother more delicate test is to 
add Goulard's extract to the alcoholic filtrate; with pure mace 
only a white turbidity is occasioned, but when Bombay mace 
is present, a red turbidity is obtained. The reaction given by 
turmeric is similar, but it may be distinguished from that of 
Bombay mace in the following manner :- — A strip of filter 
paj)er is saturated with the alcoholic solution, the excess of 
fluid removed, and the strip drawn through a cold saturated 
solution of boric acid; when Bombay mace is present, the paper 
remains unchanged, but in the presence of tui-meric it turns 
orange-brown. If a drop of potassium hydrate solution is now 
placed on the strip of paper, it causes a blue ring if turmeric 
is present, and a red ring if the adulterant is Bombay mace, 
{P/iarm. ZeiL, 1891, 122.) 



Fig.^-BentL and Trim., t. 222 ; Woodv. Med. Bot., f. 236; 

Nees, L 130 ; Benj. et ScL, t 10, e. ; WigJd Jc, t. 1818. Cam- 
phor {Eng.)y Camphre {Fr.y 



Hab. — China, Japan. Camphor and Oil of Camphor. 

.Vernacular,— K.Qi'^T (Hind.), Karppiiram, Shudan [Tarn.), 
Karpuram {Tel., Mai.), Karpura ( Can.), Kapur, Kaphur ( Bcng.), ^ 

Kapdr {Mar., Guz.). 

History, Uses, &C. — As has been already mentioned 
(see article " Dryohalanops"), Sanskrit writers, under the name 
of Karpura, speak of two kinds of cam2:>hor, Pakva and Apakva. 
It is generally supposed that the former term, which means pre- 
pared by the aid of heat, refers to ordinary commercial camphor 
obtained from the wood of C. CaDipJiora. The researches of 


early times was that found in the trunk of Dri/oLalanops aroinntica- 
Early Chinese writers on'y speak of C. Camphora as producing 
a valuable wood, and we have no information as to the date of 
the first extraction of camphor from it. Garcia d'Orta, who 
wrote at Q-oa about the middle of the sixteen century, was well 
acquainted with both kinds of camphor, and mentions that the 
China camphor is the only kind exported to Europe. 'Hio 
medicinal uses to wliich camphor is pat in the East have been 
already noticed under '• Dryobalanops." With the exception of 
a small quantity of refined camphor imported from Jap:m, the 
bulk of the drug used in India is imported in the rav7 
state and resublimed in the country. The process of resuh- 
limation is a peculiar one, the object being to get as much 
interstitial water as possible into the camphor cake. Tho 
vessel used ia a tinned cylindrical copper drum, one end 
of which is removable; into this is put 14 parts of crude 
camphor and 2i parts of water ; the cover is then luted with clay, 
and the drum being placed upon a small furnace made of clay, is 
also luted to the top of the furnace. In Bombay four of these 
furnaces are built together, so that the tops form a square 
platform. The sublimation is completed in about three hours ; 
during the process the drums are constantly irrigated with cold 
water. Upon opening them a thin cake of camphor is found 
lining the sides and top; it is at once removed and thrown into 
cold water. Camphor subHmed in this way is not stored, but 



distributed at once to the sliopkeej)ers before it has time to lose 
weight by drying. It is sold at the same price as the crude 
article, the refiner's profit being derived from the introduction 
of water. Experiments by Olautrian {Beriehte, xxiv., 2612) 

have proved that camphor possesses considerable hygroscopic 
properties which are not shared by thymol, 40 grains of cam- 
phor will absorb "054 gram of water from air saturated with 
aqueous vapour at 16*^0. The absorption oE moisture by cam- 
phor would appear to be a purely physical phenomenon. Both 
China and Japan crude camphor is imported into Bombay, 
but the latter is preferred, as it is cleaner. From Japan is 
also imported refined camphor in large square cakes an inch 
and a half thick, with a hole in the centre ; it is nearly equal 
in quality to that refined in Europe. The method of 
obtaining crude camphor in Japan will be found fully described 
by H. Oishi in the Journ. Soc. Chem Ind.^ 1884, p. 353. Cam- 
phor is largely used in India in performing the arti (^^rfr), a 
ceremony performed in adoration of some god by waving, in a 
circle before the imige, a platter containing a five-wicked burn- 
ing lamp, flour, and incense ; the lamp being fed with camphor. 
The same rite, only substituting a bridegroom for the idol, is 
called ciria^ and is performed on the arrival of the bridegroom 
at the house of the bride. In Sanskrit this light is called 
^KTft^ (aratrika). 

Description • — Crude China camphor is in small dirty- 
white or brown grains, more or less moist from the presence of 
water ; it arrives in tin-lined boxes which hold one quintal. 
Crude Japan camphor is also in grains, which often adhei-e 
together in masses ; it is dry and often quite free from dis- 
coloration ; sometimes it has a pinkish tinge. It is imported 
in double butts. 

Eefined Japan camphor is imported in tin-lined, cases, which 
hold about 90 lbs. Bombay refined camphor is in porous cakes 
a quarter of an inch thick, and contains much water. Owing 
to the method of preparation already described, the cakes have 
no particular form. 


202 LAUR TNE^. 


Chemical compof^ition. — Camplior^ C^^PI^^O, by treatment witli 
various reagents, yields a number of interesting products ; thus, 
Avhen repeatedly distilled with chloride of zinc or anhydrous 
phosphoric acid, it is converted into Cymene or Cymot, C^^H^*, 
a body contained in many essential oils, or obtainable therefrom. 
Camphor^ and also camphor oil, when subjected to powerful 
oxidising agents, absorbs oxygen, passing gradually into 
crystallized Camphoric acid, C'^H^^O* or C'H'* (COOII)', water 
and carbonic acid being at the same time eliminated. Many 
essential oils, resins, and gum-resins likewise yield these acids 
when similarly treated. By means of less energetic oxidizers, 
camphor may be converted into Oxy- camphor, C^^H^^O^ still 
retaining its original odour and taste. [Pharmacographia.) For 
a full account of the reactions of camphor audits derivatives, the 
reader is referred to Waits'' Diet, of Chem., 2nd Ed., Vol. I-, 
p. 669. The constituents of camphor oil found up to the present 


Boiling point. 



158°— 162° 





Qio H"5 





Dipentfne. ^ 




Qio H'^0 

2lu° 218° 










Qis H'^* 

Tbm-o/o^^.- -Instances of poisoning by camplior are rare, 
and, as far as \re are aware, no cases have been reported o 
by Chemical Examiners in India. In large doses camphor 
causes excitement and delirium with dilated pupils and some- 
times convulsions. The mucous membrane of the sfomac 
may be inflamed, but characteristic lesions appear to he 

Co»?>»c;tp.— The crude camphor of commerce is largely niaiui- 
factured in Central China, Formosa, and Japan, and is exported 


from Canton in chests lined with lead or tinned iron weiirhino' 


about 1 cwt. each, and from the Japan ports in double tubs 
which contain about the same quantity. The imports into 
India have an average annual value of seven lacs of rupees. 
Refined camphor from Europe now forms an important item 
in these imports, and some years ago refined camphor was 
also imported from Japan, but lately it has disappeared from 
the market. The price of camphor in India is now regulated 
by the European market^ and of late has been extremely 


Fig. — Benti. and Trim., t. 223. China cinnamon, Cassia 
(Eng.), Cannelle de Chine (Fr.). 

Hab. — China, The bark and essential oil. 

Vernacular.— BaYohini {Hind.), Dalchini {Benrj., Mar.^Guz,), 
Lavanga-pattai {Tarn., Tel., Mai.), Lavanga-patte {Can,). 

History, Uses, &C. — Cinnamon and Cassia are men- 
tioned as precious odoriferous substances in th(5 Mosaic writ- 
ings and by Theophrastus and many other writers of antiquity. 
1 he Greek names 'cti^m/ixtu/ioi/ and '^«o"«'« or Koo-crm are derived from the 
Phoenician, and are the same as those used by the Hebrews. 
From Gralen we learn that these two spices were of a similar 
nature, but that cassia was inferior to cinnamon. It is im- 
possible to say for certain what these substances were, but it 
seems probable that Kiwaiiwy^ov was Chinese cassia, and Kaa^a the 
bark of the Indian cinnamon trees. Dioscorides describes 
several varieties of cinnamon and cassia, and we know that 
several very distinct varieties of Cinnamon bark are still sold in 
Indian bazars. That Ceylon cinnamon was not known to the 
ancients appears to be certain, as the sacred books and old 
records of Ceylo.n make no mention of that spice, and when tlie 
bark began to be collected in the island is unknown. Kaz 



was not cultivated before 1770. 

204 LAURINE.^. 

Cassia, unclcr the name of Kwei, is mentioned in the earhcst 
Chinese herbal, said to have been written 2700 B.C., and also 
in the Chinese classics. In the Hei'^ao-pen-tsao, written in the 
8th century, mention is made of Tien-chu-kicei, Tien-chuis the 
ancient name for India. [PharmacograpJna.) 

The bark of several species of cinnamon growing in differ- 
ent parts of India was known to the ancient Hindus as 
Tvach, *'bark,'' Guda-tvach, *^ sweet," or **sngar bark," 
and the trees producing it as Tvak-sara, "having excellent 
hark," and Tvaksvadvi, '^ having sweet-hark/' The aboriginal 
tribes still scrape the bark from these trees and use it to 
season their food, and have probably done so from prehistoric 

The Arabians, through whose hands most of the cinnamon of 
the ancients reached Europe, called the spice Kirfat-ed-darsini, 
or more shortly Kirfah (the bark^ar excellence), and it is curious 
to observe that the same word in the corrupted formof Kalfahis 
still the commercial name of Malabar cassia in Bombay. Dar- 
sini is the Arabic form of the Persian Darchini, and signifies 
*' China tree," ddr being an old Persian name for a tree; it is 


thoi-efore probable that tbe Arabs first obtained the spice from 
the Persians by the overland route from China. The same name 
is still current in India for Chinese cinnamon, whereas the 
Indian bark is properly called Taj, a word derived from the 
Sanskrit Tmch, although in popular language Dalchini and Taj 
are loosely applied to any kind of cinnamon. Ibn Sina follows 
Dioscorides in his description of the different kinds of cinnamon 
{ddt'sini) and cassia {salikheh), but later Mahometan writers are 

better informed, and are evidently well acquainted with the 
difference between Ceylon cinnamon, China cassia, and Indian 
cassia. Haji Zein (1368), speaking of Darchini, says "the best 
is that which comes from Ceylon" ; concerning Salikheh, he 



tree called Salhh ; there are several qualities, the best is of a 
reddish colour, thick, and a little bitter to the taste, astringent; 
when broken it has a fracture like China rhubarb, it is in long 


folded sticks with a small central hollow like hirfah; that which 
is dark-coloured is had." Of Kirfah he says, '*it has not the 
sweetness of China cinnamon, and tastes like cloves/^ In 
Southern India cassia is called ** clove-bark'' in several of the 


The author of the Mahhzan remarks :—'' From Ceylon to 
the Dekhan the quality of the cinnamon grown gradually 
deteriorates, the hark getting thick and mucilaginous/' 

For the history of cinnamon and cassia in Europe, we would 
refer our readers to ihePhcmnacogrrq^Ma, where much interesting 

information will be found. 

Cassia and cassia oil imported from China are used medicin- 
ally in India in much the the same manner as they are in 
Europe. Ceylon cinnamon is not an article of commerce 

in India. 

Description, — Chinese cassia arrives in Bombay packed in 

boxes, which are covered with matting. Each box contains 
about 60 lbs. The bark is tied up in bundles with strips of 
bamboo, which weigh about 1 lb. each^ The greater portion 
of each bundle consists of single quills of a light-brown colour, 
with here and there portions of the external bark still attached ; 
in the centre of the bundle is small collection of fragments 
of bark and rubbish. Cassia bark is thicker than true cinnamon, 
but has a similar taste and odour. 

Microscojnc structure. — Externally the bark is furnished with 
a suberous layer. Within this is a parenchymatous portion in 
which may be seen an irregular zone of stony cells. The 
remainder is mostly composed of liber, in which are situated 
numerous large cells which contain the essential oil. Latici- 
ferous vessels containing a gummy substance are also present 
in the parenchyme. 

Chinese cassia oil is imported in tins, which contain 12| 
catties each ; it has a similar odour and colour to oil of cinnamon, 
but is less agreeable. 

Chemical composition.' — The authors of the Pharmacographia 
remark: "Cassia bark owes its aromatic properties to an 


essential oil, large quantities' of wHicli are shipped from 

Canton. In a chemical point of view, no difference can 
be pointed out between this oil and that of Ceylon cinnamon. 
The flavour of cassia oil is somewhat less agreeable, and, as at 
exists in the less valuable sorts of cassia, decidedly different m 
aroma from that of cinnamon. We find the sp. gr, of a Chmese 


long, only 01*^ to the right, differing consequently in this 
respect from that of cinnamon oil. 

"If t^iii sections of cassia bark are moistened with a dilute 
solution of perchloride of iron, the contents of the parenchy- 
matous part of the whole tissue assume a dingy brown colour ; 
in the outer layers the starch granules even are coloured. 
Tannic matter is consequently one of the chief constituents of the 
bark; the very cell- walls are also imbued with it. A decoction 
of the bark is turned blackish-green by a per salt of iron. 

** If cassia bark (or Ceylon cinnamon) is exhausted by cold 
water, the clear liquid becomes turbid on addition of iodine; tne 
same occurs if a concentrated solution of iodide of potassium is 
added. An abundant precipitate is produced by addition oi 
iodine dissolved in the potassium salt. The colour of iodine 
then disappears. There is consequently a substance present, 
which unites with iodine; and, in fact, if to a decoction of 
cassia or cinnamon, the said solution of iodine is added, itstriKCS 
a bright blue coloration, due to starch. But the colour quickly 
disappears, and becomes permanent only after much of the te» 
has been added. "We have not ascertained the nature of the 
substance that thus modifies the action of iodine ; it can hardly 
be tannic matter, as we have found the reaction to be the satne 
when we used the bark that had been tireviouslv repeatedly 



spirit of wine and tlien several times witH 




of cassia is easily dissolved by cold water, and may be precipi- 
tated together with taimln, by neutral acetate of lead, but notb)' 
alcohol. In the thicker barks it appears less soluble, merel}' 
swelling into a slimy jelly." 

LAUBINE^. 207 

Oil of cassia, like oil of cinnamon, consists chiefly of 
Cinnamic aldeliydey C^H^(CH)'^COH, togetlier with a variable 
proportion of hydrocarbons. The oil easily absorbs oxygen, 
becoming thereby contaminated with resin and cinnamic acid, 
C^II5(CIt)''^C00II, In a sample examined by Messrs. Schimmel, 
the cinnamic aldehyde amounted to 77 "7 per cent., the distilla- 
tion residae to 5"5 per cent., and the cinnamic acid to 0*7 per 
cent. After one year's free exposure to light, warmth, and air, 
the percentage of cinnamic acid in this oil had increased to %'^^ 
and of distillation residue to 12*6, whilst the cinnamic aldehyde 
had decreased to 68-5, showing that the most important change 
in the oil is the conversion of cinnamic aldehyde into cinnamic 
acid, and a slight increase of resinous matter, to the extent of a 
few per cents., namely, of one part of the 7 per cent, increase of 
the residue remaining after distillation at 290^ 0. This point 
is of importance, as interested parties have attempted to explain 
the presence of 30 to 40 per cent, of resin in the commercial oil 
as formed by a natural process. Messrs. Schimmel have shown 
that in good samples of oil, such as the Gheong Loong and Yan 
Loong brands, we may expect to find from 6 to 8 per cent, of 
soft distillation residue, and in adulterated oils from 20 to 30 or 
even 40 per cent, of a hard residue, indicating adulteration with 
colophony. E. Hirschsohn {P/iann. Zeitsch. /, Russ,, 1890) has 
proposed the following simple test for the oil:— If to a solution 
of cassia oil in 70 per cent., alcohol in the proportion of 1 : 3 is 
added, drop by drop, to half its volume, a solution (saturated at 
the temperature of the room) of lead acetate in alcohol of the 
same strength, it should show no precipitate, otherwise colophony 
or a similar resin is present. For further information on the 
adulteration of this oil, the reader is referred to the Berichte von 
Schimmel 8f Co., Oct. 1890. 

Commerce. — The annual imports of Chinese cassia range from 
about 15 to 20 thousand cwts. in alternate years. The greater 
part of it is shipped from Hong-Kong to Bombay, some goes to 
Calcutta, and a very small quantity to Madras. The following 
tables show the imports and re-exports for 1884-85 : 




Presidency to 
which imported. 



Country from 
vphich imported 



Bombay ... 
Bengal ... 
Madras ... 

- Total 



















14,769 2,48,344 


Presidency from 

which exported. 



Country to 
which exported. 

Quantity. Value. 



Turkey in Asia 
Other countries 














[Dlrtionary of Econ. Prod. India, Vol. II., p. 323.) 
Chinese cassia fetclies in Bombay from 3^ to 4 annas 

pound. Malabar cassia about Es. 5 for tbe maund of 37^ lbs 

Chinese oil sells for about Rs. 24 per catty. 



chiefly the 

product of C. Tamala, and C. incrs and niUdiun, considered 
by some botanists to be only coarse forms of C. ze//lanicu»i 




C. Tamala is a native of the tropical and subtropic 
Himalaya from the Indus to Bhotan, and supplies the T^if 
of the N.-W. Provinces, Punjab and Bengal, whilst C. incrs 
and Hitidam .supply Southern and Western India. The bark of 



than the Chinese bark and of a deeper colour ; it has a stron 


cnmamon odour 


It 13 

now often sent into the nnirkot, tied up in bundles, io innate 

lAVRlNEM. 209 

CKina cassia, the outer layer of tlie bark Laving been to a great 
extent removed ; tbis is probably prepared for exportation as 
cassia Ugnea. Some trees of cassia lignea are cultivated by tbe 
Madras Forest Department in tbe "Wynaad. Indian cassia may 
readily be distinguished from tbe China bark by its yielding 
a glairy mucilage when infused in cold water, which gives 


a ropy precipitate with corrosive sublimate and neutral acetate 
of lead, but not with alcohol. 

No oil is distilled from these barks in India. 

Xajpat or Tamalpatra, and in Southern India only 
Talisha-pattiri, is the leaf of the species of Cinnamoniian^ 

already mentioned as yielding Taj or Indian cinnamon. The 
drug is the TamdK of the Raja IS^irghanta^ and is considered to 
be hot and light, and useful for the expulsion of phlegmatic 
and rheumatic humors ; it is prescribed in flatulence and 

Cinnamon leaves are the SazaJ-i-Hindi of the Indian 
Mahometans, and are much used both as a condiment and 
medicine in India. The author of the Makhzan describes them 
as yellowish, coriaceous, ovate-lanceolate leaves, with five nerves 
extending from the base to the apex, and says that they are 
produced by a large tree growing in the mountains of Sylhet, 
the bark of which is used as cassia. He considers thera to be 
carminative, stimulant, diuretic, diaphoretic^ iactagogue and 

Description. — The leaves vary a good deal in size, the 
largest are 6 inches long or more,, and 1| inch broad, oblong, 
obtuse-pointed, entire, with three principal nerves and two 
smaller ones which are sometimes quite marginal ; the venation 
between these nerves, which run from base to apex of the leaf, 
is finely reticulated. The leaves are of an olive- green colour, 
the upper surface is polished. They have a pleasant odour like 
-a mixture of cloves and cinnamon. Value, Re. 1| per 37^ lbs. 
Accordingto Professor E.Schniidt((?^^m. Zeit., Sept. 26, 1891, 
p. 1376), the essential oil of cinnamon leaves consists of almost 
pure eugenol, with a little terpene and cinnamic aldehyde, 

III.— 37 


while the oil from the root also contains eugenol and terpene^ 
together with much safrol and benzaldehyde. Both of these 
oils, therefore, diUer from the essential oil from the bark, which 
consists of cinnamic aldehyde and terpene- 

Kala Nagkesar. — Under this name the immature fruit 

of the trees yielding cassia is imj)orted into Bombay from China 
and Southern India. 

Kdld Nagkesar (known in Europe as cassia buds) consists of 
a sniall brown mucronate berry, tbe size of a grain of millet, 
enclosed in a 6-partite calyx balf an incb long, wbicb is articu- 
lated to a slender pedicel j tbe calyx and pedicel are of the dark- 
brown colour of tbe clove, and bave a strong cinnamon odour 
and taste. Tbe properties of tbe spice would appear to be tbe 
same as tbose of cinnamon. Two kinds are found in tbe Bombay 
market, Chinese and Malabar ; they are used as a spice by the 
Mabometws. Mohideen Sheriff says that the native druggists 
in Madras substitute cassia buds for Ndykesar-ke-phtd, the 

'folius; the latter 


drugs being never met with in the bazars. For an account oi 
the use of the Chinese buds as a spice in Europe from the 1 4th 
century up to tbe present time, see ThannacograpMa, 2nd Ed., 
p. 533. Hamburg in 1876 imported 1,324 cwts. [Op. ciL) 

Pishin-puttai (Gum-bark). Several mucilaginous barks 
are sold and used under this name in Southern India. Mohideen 

Madras drug 

d by Dr, Mootoosawmy 

Tan j ore had a very pleasant and lasting aroma, and appeared to 
belong) to an arboreous cinnamon. It is used for its muci- 
laginous and demulcent properties in medicine, and aiso^ oy 
Mabomedan perfumers for making incense or fiavouring-sticks 
("Samburany-vatbe") from tbe powdered bark. We ha^re 
also received three other drugs of this name from Travancore. 
One was a thick red fibrous bark like that of a Litsaea, and was 
an article of trade among sugar and jagary makers on the 
Western Coast. Tbe second was a lighter coloured bark and 
quite free from odour and taste ; this was recognised as Kydv* 

lAVRINEM. 211 

calycina. The third sample was sent by the Conservator of 
Forests for Travancore, who supposed it to he from a species of 
Cordia. It was light coloured, very fibrous and free from odour 
and taste, and is used in native medicine in the State under its 
Malyalim name avi-thoU. Mucilaginous barks are largely em- 
ployed in India by arrack makers in regulating the fermentation 
of toddy and precipitating albuminous matters. 

The Tanjore phMn-puttai gave no reaction indicating the 
presence of an alkaloid, but i\ie red bark from Travancore gave 



mg,—Bot. Reg., i. 893 ; Roxh. Cor. PL il, t 147. S^/n.; 
Tetranthera laurifolia, Jacq. 

Hab.— Throughout the hotter parts of India. The bark. 

Fernacif^ar. — Maida-lakri [Hind.], Mushaippe-yetti, Maida- 
lakti (T^m.), Naiamamidi, Meda {TeL), Kukur-chita {Benj.), 
Meda-lakadi {Mar.), Maeda-lakari (Guz.). 

History, Uses, &C. — We have been unable to trace 
the history of the use of this bark as a medicine. It is one of 
the best known and most popular of native drugs, being used 
internally, on account of its demulcent properties, in diarrhoea 
and dysentery, and externally as an emollient application to 
bruises, &c. Maida-lakri, as far as we know, is not men- 
tioned by Sanskrit writers, but from the vernacular names it 
would appear to be used as a substitute for the 31' la of the 
ancient Hindu physicians, one of the Ashtavarga, and unkaown 
to the modern Hindus. In Bengal A-wagaudha is used. In 
Mahometan works it is briefly noticed under the names of 


The author of the Makhzan-d- 

Adwiya states that it has the same essential properties as 
Mao-hath, being resolvent, astringent, and a nervine tonic useful 
in paralysis. It would appear then to have been adopted by 
Mahometan physicians in India as a substitute for an Arabian 
drug called Maghath, the botanical source of which is uncertain. 

212 ^A VRINB^. 

L. sehifera is called Miri by the Maratlia peasantry^ from the 
resemblance of its globular fruit to a corn of black pepper. 
The seed is oily and yields a solid white fat. The leaves have 
a pleasant odoiir of cinnamon. 

Description. — The bark varies in thickness from ^^ to 
-^Q of an inch ; externally it has several layers of whitish, 
scabrous, corky tissue, the remaining portion is of a chocolate 
brown colour. I'he odour is feebly balsamic ; when placed lu 
water it affords a large quantity of bland mucilage, having a 
faint agi-eeuble aroma. If the bark is old, the aroma disappears, 
but the mucilaginous qualities remain unimpaired. 

The parenchyma, which is chiefly composed of mucilage cells, 
contains abundance of reddish-brown colouring matter. There 
is a zone of atony cells, but no distinctive characteristics* 

Chemical compodtion.—IYim bark, an authentic specimen of 
which was supplied by Mr. Hollingsworth of the Madras Medi- 
cal College, giive, on an air-dried sample, 4*6 j>er cent, of ash, 
and 14-2 per cent, of alcoholic extract, affording very strong 
reactions with alkaloidal tests. On separating the alkaloid it 
was found to agree with the charactei-s of Jynirafetamne, au 
alkaloid which has been discovered by M- GreshoS in three 
species of Litsica in Java, and in several other plants o 
the natural order Laurinege. Laurotetanine ts crystalline, an 
has a strong tetanic action on animals ; it is sparingly solub^ 
in ether, more readily in chloroform. It is precipitated 
by sodium carbonate from solutions of its salts, but reaaiij 
redissolves in au es;cess of potash or soda, and is precipjtatea 
by the usual alkaloidal reagents. It gives a dark indigo-blue 
coloration with Erdmann's reagent, a pale rose-red with pure 
sulphuric acid, and a reddish-brown with nitric acid. A 
base, which seems to be ideutioal with laurotetanine, is also 
found in the varieties of Tetmnthem, Noloj^JK^he, Aperul^^ 
Adinoclaphne and Il/igera pulchva. It is also possible that 
Laurotetanine is the alkaloid discovered in 1886 by J^ijkmaU 
in Ilaamx squanma, Z. et M. [Medecl nit S'Lands Flantentm^h 
vii., p. 77-101.) 

LAURINE^. 213 

Commerce, — The bark is largely collected in the Central 
Provinces, and comes to market in large half quills from one 
to two feet in length and two to three inches in diameter. As 
met with in the retail shops, it is generally broken into small 
pieces a few inches in length. Value, Es. 6 per maund of 
41 pounds. 

Litsaea Stocksii, Hook.f.y in Marathi Pm, is a tree of 
the hilly districts of the Concan and Canara ; when in fruit 
its scarlet berries make it a conspicuous object. A cold infusion 
of the leaves is mucilaginous, and is used in irritation of the 
bladder and urethra. The oil of the seeds, P^sa- if ae/a, is used 
as an application to sprains and itch. 

Description.— Leaves 4 to 6 inches, penninerved, coria- 
ceous, oblong'lanceolate or oblanceolate, rarely obovoid acute 
or acuminate, glaucous beneath, greenish above with impressed 
nerves, petiole | to i inch. Berries apiculate, scarlet, about 
the size and shape of a small acorn, pulp yellow, seed brown, 
polished, oblong, testa thin, brittle ; kernel oily, white, the cut 
surface turning red on exposure to the air ; taste aromatic, 
pungent like cubebs ; the expressed oil solidifies into a white 
solid fat ; as prepared by the natives it has a reddish colour, 
due to admixture of resinous matter. The bark and leaves are 
mucilaginous and not aromatic, 

■* Chemical composition. — The dried and powdered red fruits of 
this tree yielded to ether 31'6 per cent, of extract consisting 
mainly of crystalline fats. Petroleum ether separated this 
extract into a soluble fatty portion, and an insoluble neutral 
reddish resin. The petroleum ether solution left on eva- 
poration some fatty acids melting at 39° and solidifying 
at 35^, but which, on crystillization from boiling alcohol 
and pressure between filtering paper, afforded some purely 
white crystals melting at 42'5. The fatty acids would 
appear to consist of lauric acid with a small admixture of 
oleic acid. 

The resin in the fruits was associated with a volatile oil to 
which the fragrance is due. The alkaloid detected in the 


spirituous and the watery extracts of the drug had the reactions 
of lanrofetanine. The dried fruits left after ignition 4*77 per 
cent, of mineral matter. 


Fig.—Bentl. and Trim., t. 221. Laurel Bay [Eng), 
Laurier {Fr.). 

Hab. — Southern Europe. The berries. 
Vernacular. — Hab-el-ghar [Ind. Bazars). 

History, Uses, &C. — Bay berries were introduced into 
India by the Mahometans, and are still kept by their druggists 
in all the larger towns. The Bay or ISToble laurel is the Daphne 
{Sacfivrj'j of Dioscorides, which he describes as hot, demulcent, 
astringent and stomachic, and recommends the berries in </>(5'o-« 
and chest affections, and as a stimulant adjunct to wine and 
ointments. This shrub was held in great esteem by the 
ancients, who relate that the nymph Daphne, when pursued by 
Apollo, and on the point of being overtaken by the god, prayed 
for aid, and was changed into a Bay tree. Prof. Max Miiller 
compares this Greek myth to the Vedic myth of Urvasi and 
Pururavas. The Bay was also used in conjuration ; the young 
girl, who had been forsaken in the second idyl of Theocritus, 
says : 

AtPca. j(^ ft>j avTO. Xuxel /x/ya, KaTnTvpi<racra, 
Kj^^airiVay a(f)6rj, Koiibe o-jroSof eibofjifs airas, 
OvTco Tai KoX At\(f)is (PL 0Xoyl a-dpK dfiaBvvoi. 

The priestesses of Apollo consulted the tree and ate of its 
leaves before delivering the oracles at Delphi. Hesiod tells u3 
that the muses held branches of it in their hands, and poets 
are stiU nominally crowned with a laurel wreath. It was also 
an emblem of victory, and was used by the Romans in many of 
their ceremonies. 

^ Uii of Bay berries, the 8ac^.Aa.o. of Dioscorides, is still used 
m Wouthern Europe as a nervine stimulant. A medicinal oil is 
also prepared with the leaves and olive oil, which is much used 


in tlie soutli of France. The leaves a^e also considered to be 
febrifuge, and are used in all European countries for flavouring 
pastry. In America the dry leaves are largely distilled for 
the essential oil, which ia used for the preparation of Bay 
Rum, a favorite hair- wash, the disinfectant action of which 
is due to the eugenol contained in Bay oil. Bayberry oil 
or expressed laurel oil is obtained from both the fresh and 
dried berries- The fresh berries are bruised, boiled in water, 
and pressed in a sack. The expressed oil is then mixed with 
the decoction, and when cold the oil is found floating on the 
surface. Dried berries are first exposed to steam, and then 
subjected to pressure between heated metallic plates. The oil 
has a butyraceous consistence, and granular appearance. Its 
colour is greenish, taste bitter and aromatic, with an odour like 
that of the berries. It melts at 86^—95° F. It is wholly soluble 
in ether, but alcohol only dissolves green colouring matter and 
the volatile oil. The solubility in ether affords a test of its 
purity ; if admixed with lard, the ethereal solution is turbid and 
milky, (Br mint.) 

Description. — Bay berries are oval or subglobular 

drupes about | to ^ an inch long. W 


fragile, the 

gUlllt;iXtO, iXAV>XUL^X^5 

iwn endocarp 

and brittle. The loose oval seed is easily separated into the 
two plano-convex brownish cotyledons, which have an aromatic, 

oily, and bitter taste. 

Chemical comjyosition. — The leaves and fruit contain a volatile 
oil. The volatile oil of Bay berries is pale yellow, sp. gr, 
0-9], it congeals at a low temperature, contains oxygen, 
and is easily soluble in alcohol ; it contains hydrocarbons, 
C^^H'^, boiling at 171° 0. and 250° C, and four oxygenated 
constituents (Staub). Gladstone (1863) had found eugenol, 
while Bias (1865) could not detect this, but proved the 
presence of a little lauric acid. Bley (1834) obtained 
from old berries '22 per cent, of volatile oil. The seeds 
contain, according to Bonastre (1824), about 20 per cent. 

216 LAVRINEm. 

of fat, 2 per cent, of volatile oil, and 1-5 per cent, of 
resin. The expressed fat was analysed by A. Staub (1879), 
wbo determined, besides volatile oil and cblorophyll, tte 
presence of a little acetic acid and tbe glycerides of oleic, 
linoleic, lauric, myristic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Laurie acid, 
QiiJH'^-^O-, discovered by Marsson (1842), bas been foimd in 
niany vegetable and a few animal fats ; it melts at 43-5° 0.,and 
volatilizes with tbe vapours of boiling water (Goergey, 1848). 
Schmidt and Roemer found little free acid in the freslily- 
expressed oil, but the fruit contained 2 to 3 per cent, of fatty 
acids. (National Disp.) 

Cassytha filiformis, Linn., Bheede, Hort Mai tii., 
t. 44 ; A'kasvel [Mar.), Amarbeli [Hind.), A'kasavalli [Sans-l'i^ 
a common parasite on bushes ; it consists of a tangled mass oi 
tough dark- green stems, branched, marked longitudinally with 
delicate pale green lines, the largest are- the size of a crow-quill; 
the branches are provided with small round suckers, like those 
of the common dodder. Sections of the stem show a strong 
fibro-vascular layer and loose central pith. The iruit i 
globular, of the size of a pea, and surmounted by the remains 

of the sepals ; on removing the outer envelope, which is toug , 


an inner envelope is exposed, which consists of two layers, t^ 
outer cartilaginous, the inner fleshy and lined with wmte 
hairs, each containing a delicate spiral filament; within t i 
central cavity is a third delicate membranous envelope covere 
with hairs, of a similar description, and containing the ovui • 
The whole plant is used in native practice as an altera- 
tive in bilious affections and for piles. In Southern Africa 
it is said to be used for washing the' head, destroying 
vermin, and making the hair grow. In Senegarabia it i' 
employed in urethritis, and in Cochin-China as an anti- 

Chemical composition.—M. Greshoff has detected an alkaloid 
in this plant, having the followino- colour reactions : sulphuric 

o -^ ^^...^„j.^^ 

acid faint red, Erdmann's reagent (sulphuric acid mixed 
with a little nitric acid) blue, nitric acid red-brown 

TH YMEL^A CE^. 217 

Frolide's reagent dirty blue. Dr. Greshoff believes that on 
a closer investigation of tbis alkaloid, it wall be found to 
be identical with laurotetanine jdescribed under Lits^a 




Fig. — Bo,vh. 8f Caleb, in Trans. Linn. Soc. xxi.y (. 21 ; 

ItoylellL, t 36,/ 1. 
Hab. — Eastern H 


Hills, Martaban Hills 


Fig. — Lamk, IlL^ t. 356 ; Cav. Diss, vii., f. 224 ; EumpJi. 
Anih. it., t. 10. 

Hab. — Malacca, Malay Islands, Eagle or Aloe wood 
(Eng.)^ Bois de Calambac [Fr.). 

Vernacular. — Agar, Agaru {Indian Bazars). 

History, Uses, 8lC. — The use of this precious wood as 
a perfume and medicine is of great antiquity. Together with 
myrrh, cassia, and other products of the East, it is mentioned 
in the sacred writings of the Jews {Num. 24, 6 ; Psalm. 45, 8 ; 
Prov. 7, 17 ; Cantic. 4, 14) under the name of Ahalot or Ahalira. 
Ifc is the ayaWoxov of the ancient Greeks, which is described by 
Dioscorides as a wood brought from India and Arabia. Later 
writers, from Aetius' time, call it ^v\d\or^ or **aloe wood/' the 
name by which it is still known in Europe. The same sub- 
stance is the Agaru of the Hindus, the Garu of the Malays, and 
the Chin-hcang of the Chinese. In Sanskrit medical works it 
bears the synonyms of Rajdrha ^^ worthy of a prince,'' Visva- 
rupa ^* taking all forms," Krimi-ja "produced by worms,^* 
Krimi-jagdha, Anarya-ja ''produced in a non -Aryan country,** 
Kanaka ^^ golden/' Kaliya ^' black," &c., and is described as hot, 

III.— 3S 


Hglit, and cholagogue ; removing diseases of the ear, nose and 
eyes. In native practice Agar is used as a deobstruent, stimu- 
lant, carminative, and tonic ; it is said to relieve the pain ia 
gout, and to check vomiting. Susruta directs Aguru, Guggula* 


and salt to 

be made into a paste with gh( to form au anodjme fumigation 
for surgical wounds, culled in Sanskrit Vcuandrcdcs/mghnaif- 
(Ihupaih. As aloe wood bears the Sanskrit name of Anarya-ja, 
it is probable that it was used by the aborigines of Eastern Asia 
before it became known to the Hindus, but that at a very 
early date it was carried overland to Central Asia and Persia, 
and from thence reached Arabia and Europe. 

The early Arab travellers appear to have collected a good 
deal of information concerning the commerce and sources of 
supply of the wood, 

Yohanna-bin-Scrapion mentions four kinds, Hindi, JfandaH, 
Si/iji and Kuinari, and Ib?i Sina in the 10th century has 
the following account of it : — " The best is called Mandali from 
the more central parts of India ; next is the Indian [or Hill 
aloe wood, which has the advantage over Mandali of preserving 
clothes from lice. Some say that Mandali and Indian aloe 
wood are the same. One of the best kinds is Sarnandun 
from Sofala in India; again there is the Kamari and the 
8amfl from the same parts, and there is KakuU, and Kism'iri 
which is moist and sweet ; and the worst kinds are Hfdin, 
JTamtdi, Mabatui, Luimthi, or Rabat uthi. Mandali is the 
best ; then Samanddri, of a grey colour, fat and oily, heavy, 
without any white streaks, and which burns slowly. Some 
consider black aloe wood better than grey, and the best black is 
the Kamiiri, without white streaks, fat and oily, which burns 
slowly. In short, the best aloe wood is black, hard, and heavy, 
sinks in water, is not fibrous when powdered ; that which docs 
not sink is bad. The tree is said to be buried to promote the 
formation of al oewood ^^' The Arabi antravellers give muchjhe 

Uesin of Boswellia serrata. 
t Rc«'.n of Shorea robusta. 
X Acoru« Calamus. 

TH y MEL .^A C W^. 219 

same names to different liinds of the wood. Ibn Batuta speaks 
of Kamfiri as soft, like wax. Abu Zaid calls it Ivamaruni, and 
says it is the best kind. Abulf eda states that it comes from the 
Kamardn Mountains. Kakuli is said to derive its name from 
Knkaleh in Java. The epithets Mawardi, Saimuri and Jawi 
are also applied by some writers to aloe wood. As regards the 
idenLification of these localities, we would remark that Sanifi is 
probably derived from Champa, a province in Cambodia ; 
Mandali, from Mount Mandar or Mandul, south of the modern 
town of Bhagalpur in Bengal ; Kamari or Kamaruni, from 


Karaarun, the Arab name for Cape Comorin ; Saimuri, from 
Saimur or Samar, an island in the Eastern Archipelago ; Halai 
may possibly be derived from the Ilala Mountains between Sind 
and Beluchistan, as Abu Zaid savs that the best aloe wood is 
brought for sale by Multanis, 

Haji Zein-el-Attar (1338) calls aloe wood Ood-el-juj, and in 
Persian, Ood and Balanjuj. After translating Ibn SLna'a 
article on Ood, he gives his own opinion in the f olio sving terms : 
'^The author of this work [Ikhtiarat-i-hadiaa) says the best is 
called Kalambah {^S.^if)^ and comes from the port of Jena, which 
is ten days^ sail from Java; it is sold for its weight in gold ; you 
would think it odourless, but when warmed in the hand it has a 
very sweet persistent odour; when burnt, the odour is uniformly 
sweet until the wood is consumed. Xext is Mandali and 
Samanduri, both from Sofala in India, the best of these is of a 
golden colour and heavy. KuknU is like the Indian, and is 
generally in large pieces, marked with black and yellow lines ; 
then there is Kaman, golden-brown, without white streaks, it 
comes from Kamariln and Sofala ; then Samfi, from Samp, 
it is very hard and sweet ; then SahaU and Afasi, a moist 
kind from China ; then 3Iantai, Randi, Halai, and Lanji^ all 
of about equal value. And in Manta there is a tribe who call 
the wood Ashhah, and it is of two kinds: one of these is in 
large pieces weighing from 5 to 50 maunds, without much 
odour, and used for making combs, knife handles, &c. 

Mir Muhammad Husain (1770) writes:— " Ood, in Hindi 
Agar, is the wood of a tree which grows in the Jaintiya hills 


near Sylhet, a dependency of the Sdbah of Bengal, situated 
towards tlie nortli-east of Bengal Proper. The tree is also found 
in the islands to the south of Bengal, situated north of the 
Equator, and in the Chatian islands belonging to the town of 
Nawaka, near the boundaries of China. The tree is very large, 
the stem and branches generally croolced, the wood soft. From 
the wood are manufactured walking sticks, cups, and other 
vessels; it is liable to decay, and the diseased part then 
becomes infiltrated with an odoriferous secretion. In order to 
expedite this change it is often buried in wet ground. Parts 
which have undergone the change above mentioned become oily, 
heavy, and black. They are cut out and tekted by being thrown 
into water ; those which sink are caUed Gharki, those which 
partly sink Nim Gharki, or Samaleh-i-aah, and those which 
float Samdkh ; the last kind is much the most common. Gharki 
is of a black colour, and the other qualities dark and light- 

• The best kind for medicinal use is Gharki Ood from Sylhet ; 
it should bo bitter, odoriferous, oily and a little astringent ; 
other kinds are considered inferior. In most receipts raw Uo 
(Ood-i-kham) is enjoined to be used to prevent the use of wood 
from which the oil has been abstracted by crushing and mace- ^ 
ration in water, or by crushing and admixture with almon s, 
which are afterwards expressed.* This precaution is the more 
necessary as Ood shavings are an article of commerce m in 
under the name of Chura agar ; they are often adulterated \M 
chips of Sandalwood, or Taggar, an odoriferous wood, commo 
in India. 

Eiumphius describes two kinds of true, and two of false, al 
wood ; the first kind of true aloe wood, he says, is called Kuan^ 
or Ho-Kilam by the Chinese, and Calambac by the Malays, and 
is produced by a tree growing in the provinces of Champa and 
Coinam, and in Cochin- China. This tree has been described by 
Loureiro under the name of Aioexylon Afjallochum. The second 
kind, called Ga>o, la the product of Aquilaria malaccensis, Lan ' 

• Nicolau 




which he figures. This is the Chin-heang of the Fun-isaou- 
kang-miih or great Chinese HerbaL (See Hanhury Science 
Papers, p. 263.) His two kinds of false aloe wood he attributes 
to Michelia Champaca and Exccecaria AgaUocha. 

Roxburgh and other botanists have examined the Aquilaria 
in Sylhet, and recently an Aquilaria has been ascertained to be 
the tree which produces aloe wood in the islands of the Mergui 
Archipelago. Gramble says that ^^ Ahjau (the Burmese name 
for aloe wood) is the most important produce of the forests of 
South Tenasserim and the Mergui Archipelago. It is found in 
fragments of various shapes and sizes in the centre of the tree, 
and usually, if not always, where some former injury has been 

Aloe wood is used throughout the East as an incense and as 
a perfume, and was formerly used as a medicine in Europe 
for the same diseases for which it is still prescribed in 

Colkctmi. — In Sylhet, the collection of aloe wood is a preca- 
rious and tedious business ; those engaged in it proceed some 
days^ journey into the hilly districts, where they fell any trees 
they may find, young or old, and then^ on the spot, search them 
for the Agar, as the valued wood is called. This is done by 
chopping off the bark, and into the wood, lintil they observe dark 
coloured veins, indicating the proximity of wood of valuable 
quality, which generally extends but a short distance from the 
centre of a trunk or branch. In this manner a whole tree is 
searched through, the collectors carrjdng away only such pieces 
as are rich in odoriferous resinous matter. In some districts it 
is customary to facilitate the extraction of the resinous wood by 
burying portions of the tree in moist ground, or by allowdng 
the entire tree to remain a length of time after it is cut down, 
the effect of which is to cause decay in the non-resinous wood, 
and thus render it easily removable by an iron instrument. 
Aloe wood is sorted by the collectors into various qualities, 
the finest of which, called Gharki, is worth in Sylhet from 
6 to 8 rupees per pound. {Sanbury Science I^apers,) 



Description. — The wood occurs in irregular pieces, wTiicli 
vary in colour from grey to dark-brown, according to the amount 
of resin which they contain ; both light-coloured and dark 
pieces are marked with longitudinal veins of a darker colour. 
The best pieces show numerous cavities and sinuses produced 
by the cutting away of wood less impregnated with resin ; they 
sink in water. When a portion is chewed, it softens between 
the teeth ; the taste is bitter and aromatic ; when burnt, it 
diffuses an agreeable odour. 

Mr. J. G. Prebble has kindly furnished us with the following 
interesting remarks upon the aloe woods of the Bombay 
market: — ^'The true Agar woods are imported into Bombay, m 
boxes holding about 1^ cwt., from Bankok, and usually via 
Singapore or Bataiia. Some of the Parsee dealers in Chinese 

silks also import Agar from Hongkong, in small rectangular 

parcels holding about 1 lb. each, and bearing a yellow label with 
the name of the packer In the Chinese character. This Agar 
which I have examined is the Gaguli variety {A, AguUocha)i 
and has been carefully dressed, and polished or painted black. 
One or more false Agars composed of heavy resinous woods are 
also imported from Singapore. The true Agars vary considerably 
in the amount of resin they contain ; old and decayed samples 
consist largely of resin. A good specimen yielded to Hanbury 
48 per cent, of matter soluble in rectified spirit. Compact and 
not apparently very resinous s'amples of Gaguli and Mawardi 
Agar, treated successively with petroleum ether, ether, and 
alcohol, gave : 

V olatileoil. 

Ilesin soluble 
in ether. 

Resm soluble »n 
alcohol, insoluble 
in ether. 


per cent. 

Mawardi 1-5 per cent. 


13*8 per cent 
11 '6 per cent 

9'4 per cent. 
9-0 per cent 

The volatile oil is of a yellow colour, and possesses the 
characteristic odour of the woods. It eives a reddish-brown 

* Science Papers, page 265. 

TR YMELj^A CE^. 232 


coloration with sulphuric acid. The ether resin is soluble in 
aqueous solution of potash, with a reddish-brown colour, from 
which the resin is precipitated by acids. The two true Agars 
Gaguli and Mawardi are composed of rather thin-walled wood- 
cells, traversed with numerous one -celled rows of medullary 
rays which are frequently interrupted by large cellular passages 
or medullary spots. These structures appear as elongated spots 
of cellular tissue with their greatest diameter following the 
periphery of the stem.* In Mawardi Agar the vessels are 

much larger and more 

guli Agar. The 

vessels, rays and cellular passages are filled with resin. On 
comparing sectloas of the stems, | inch thick, of herbarium 
specimens, kindly sent by Dr. King from the Calcutta Herbarium, 
of Aquilaria Agallocha and A. malaccensis with the Agars, it 
was observed that the structure of Gaguli Agar was apparently 
identical with that of A. Agallocha^ and I thiuk there is little 
doubt that this tree is the source of this variety of Agar. 
Mawardi Agar is also probably derived from A, malacccnsis. 
The false Agars have thick-walled wood-cells, less numerous 
vessels than in the true Agars, and no well-defined medullary 

" Taggar wood is a heavy, dark- coloured, oily and 
resinous wood, the botanical origin of which is unknown, 
imported into Bombay from Zanzibar. It sinks in water, and 
its aqueoas infusion has a yellow colour with a greenish 
fluorescence From Bombay it is sent to the large cities of 
Northern India, Delhi, Lucknow, iS:c., where it is distilled with 
other ingredients to form some of the compound attars, so much 
esteemed b}^ the natives. 


According to Dr, Royle's Catalogue, Taggar wood was sent 
from Delhi to the great Exhibition of 1851. Twenty pounds 
of the ground wood submitted to distillation with water during 
three consecutive days, with frequent cohobation, pelded six 
fluid ounces, equivalent to two per cent, of a yellowish oil 

* De Bary, Comparative Anatvwy tf the Phanerogons and Ferns, 
pige ^92. 

2 24 THY ME L^ A CEM. 


colour. The oil is 
neutral, of sp. gr. '9546, bitter, and with an odour resembling, 
but distinct from sandal wood oil. It dissolves in all propor- 
tions of alcohol, ether, chloroform, benzol and petroleum ether. 
It dissolves iodine without violent reaction^ and yields no 
characteristic reaction with sulphuric acid, being only darkened 
in colour. Exposed to the air in a thin layer, it acquires a 
crimson colour. At a low temperature, by keeping in ice, the 
oil remains clear and free from any deposit, but becomes very 
thick and viscid, and develops a strong greenish fluorescence 
which vanishes or nearly so at a higher temperature, 85 F, 
The finely powdered wood, treated successively with petroleum 
ether, ether, and alcohol, yielded to the petroleum ether 8'75 
per cent, of a mixture of volatile oil and resin, which deposited 
on the sides of the evaporating dish a few small tabular crystals. 
On dr5dng at 110 C, this mixture of oil and resin lost volatile 
oil equivalent to 5'75 per cent. The ether extracted a resm, 
6'4 per cent., soluble in aqueous solution of potash, with a deep 
reddish -brown colour and greenish fluorescence, in solutions of 
ammonia and of carbonate of soda. The resin is precipitated 
from these solutions by acids. Strong sulphuric acid dissolves 
the resin with a red colour, from which it is precipitated by 
water in yellowish-brown flocks. It is readily soluble in glacial 
acetic acid, but no crystals were obtained on the spontaneous 
evaporation. It is insoluble in benzol and petroleum ether 
and in boiling alum solution. The resin probably contains a^ 
anthraquinone derivative allied to Emodin and Chrysophanic 
Acid, but I have not yet succeeded in isolating it. Alcohol 
extracts a resin, 4-12 per ceut., insoluble in ether. Taggar 
wood is valued in Bombay at about Es. 3 per maund of 28 lbs.' 

Mazariyun* — The Mezereon of Mahometan physicians is 
described in their works upon Materia Medica as a leaf. 

It is considered by C. Bauhin to be the Gneonnn iricoccon, 
and is probably the same as the Chama^ka of Scribonius, of which 


>portet." {Comp. l^'^) 



Apuleius Plutonicus lias the following notice of it : — "Alii pyros 
agnen, alii heracleon, alii bdelyram, alii coccon gnidion, 
Homani citocaeium, nonnulli oleaginem, quidam oleastellum 

vocant/' {De Vir. Herb. y2Q.) 
Mir Muhammad Hueain 6 

three kinds^ viz., 

white with large thin leaves, called AshkhiSy jellow with 
yellowish thick leaves, smaller than those of the olive^ called in 

Haft'barg and Musht 


acrid : but even the 


vinegar, which should be several times changed, to make thein 
fit for medicinal use. Having been thus prepared, they are to 
be washed and dried^ and pounded with almond oil. This pre- 
paration may then be given in combination with purgatives, 
bitters and aromatios, in dropsy or in such ca^s as are benefited 
by hydrogogue and dra&tic cathartics, to the extent of 24 grains^ 
Mulla Ahmad Nabtf, in his Tarikh^el-hukamaj tells a story of a 
dropsical patient, who was cured by eating locusts which had 
been feeding upon Mezereon leaves ; they acted as a hydro- 
gogue cathartic. 

Lasiosiphon eriocephalus, Dcne.^ Wight ic. 

it. 1859-60; Jacq. Voy^ Bof., L 150, a native of the Deecan 
Peninsula and Ceylon, is a shrub with leaves like the willow, and 
terminal heads of flowers, surrounded by an involucre of oblong, 
rather hoary leaflets. It is common on the hills of Western 
India, and the bark is a powerful vesicant, which has not, as 
far as we are aware, been inentioned in native medical works. 
The peasantry are, however, acquainted with its properties, and 
when they have a lean ox or cow to take to market, rub the skin 
with a deeoetion of the bark, which causes swelKng and an 
appearance of plumpness, which disappears in a few days much 
to the discomfiture of the purchaser^ 

Dr. J. Y* Smith, in his Matheran Rill, its People, Plants 
end Animals (p. 35), says ^*the Bametha bushes are often 
seen stripped of their bai'k, which is used for poisoulag 



III.— 29 


The bark consists of an outer suberous portion which is of 
a light-brown colour and divided by numerous transverse and 
longitudinal fissures, so that it can be easily separated, and of an 
inner layer which is white, tough, and silky like Mezereon. The 
wood-cells are easily separated and form pretty microscopic 
objects, as they are beautifully transparent. The taste is acrid. 

Chemical comiJosition . — The fresli bark was beaten into a 
paste in -a mortar, and the mass divided and placed m two 
bottles, one containing ether and tlie other spirit of wine ; tney 
were both shaken occasionally and the mixture allowed to 
macerate for 24 hours. The ether extract was filtered off and 
evaporated at a very low temperature until a thick, green, 
greasy substance was left. This was washed with warm water 
and a small piece placed upon the skin of tke arm and spread 
so as to cover a space the size of a rupee. In about two hours 
irritation of the skin was produced, and, on removing the 
co\eringof the arm, it was found that several small blisters had 
formed under the extract and -extending beyond it. J-"® 
alcoholic tincture was then removed by Alteration and carelully 
evaporated at a gentle heat. The residue contained very bttle 
of the green- coloured resinous matter, but a large quantity o 
saccharine substance, which was non-cryStalline. This extrac 
was applied to the skin as in the previous experiment, but the 
application was followed by only a slight reddening due to tne 
small amount of resin in the dried extract. The resin appears 
to be the source of the vesicating principle of the bark. 1* ^ 
an acid reaction in neutral solvents, is soluble in ammonia 
with a yellowish-brown colour, and is associated in the etherea 
extract with a fatty base which facihltates its use as a blistering 

The roots of Daphne oleoides, Schreh., Eoyle Bly i^ »!' 
are used in Afghanistan as a purgative. Aitchison {'Flora of 
Kuvam Valky) says : '* Camels will not eat this shrub except 
when very hungry. It is poisonous, producing violent 
diarrhoea. I feel certain that much of the mortaUty of camels 
in the Kuram Division was due to the prevalence of thii 




Fig. — Eng. Bot. xxi.^ t 1470 ; Wooch\ Med. Bot., suppl., 
(. 270, White Mistletoe {ETng.); Gui {Fr.). 

Hab. — Temperate Himalaya. Westward to the Atlantic. 
The berries^ 

Vernacular. — Kismish-kawali (Ind. Bazars)^ 


History, Uses, &C. — Mistletoe is the ^^oy of Theo* 
pTirastus and Dioscorides, and was considered by the ancients to 
have discutient properties. It was applied to disperse tumors 


of the spleen, Matthiolus and Paracelsus lecommend it in 
epilepsy, and Kolderer, Cartheusar, Colbatch, Loseke, Yan 
Swieten and others have stated that they found it beneficial not 
only in this disease, but in other convulsive 

in this disease, but in other convulsive affections. This 
plant was formerly held to be sacred in Europe, and in ancient 
Britain it was cut with a golden sickle by a Druid in white 



Thus obtained, the Givid was considered a heal-all, a charm 

gainst disasters 

As such it was 

a special object of worship with the ancient Britons, who called 



the lofty shrub, aicyrhren, the ethereal tree, preupuraur, the 
tree of pure gold, &c.~names still surviving in the Welsh 

93, 94, 95) describes the Yiscum, and the 
method of making birdlime f /om it ; he also notices the super- 
stitions held concerning it by the Gauls, and its worship on the 


fifth day of the moon, the day which is the beginning of their 
months and years. A festival in honour of the mistletoe called 
Guilanleu or Guilannei(f {^m de Fan neuf) was held in France as 
late as the 16th century, and in England the plant still hangs 
in the hall at Christmas. 


berries sold in the bazars as Kisinish-hucaU, of 
V Kismish'i'kdu'aliudn. are also called Muizak-i-usli, 


Kawali or Eauli i» tlie name of a gipsy tribe in Persiai. 


(Vol, II,, p. 100), mentions his being shown in the forests of 
the Zagros mountains, on the road from Kirmanshah to Baghdad^ 
a fruit called by the natives Angur-d-Kauli, or grapes of the 
Kauli, which grow on the Mazu or gall-tree (oak), of a yellow-^ 
ish transparent colour^ sometimes used as glue. 

The hakim I>awtid says of Dibk (in a passage Ivhich i» 
imperfect in the Tdjel A^'us) '^it is found upon the tree in like 
manner as lichen (<^*-!A''), but i» a berry, like the chickpea 

^tjfi^a.) in roundness > • . . • the best thereof is the 

smooth, soft, with much moisture, inclining, in its e:xterior, to 
greenness, and it is mostly found upon the oak ; when it i» 

eooked with honey and tr*J »3 ( j^^ice of fresh dates, &c.) 

and draw^n out into longish strings, and put upon trees, the 
birds become caught by it.'' (Madd el Kdmns .) The author of 
the Mak/izan-el-Adaif/a has the following account of it:—* A 
berry ^smaller than the seed of Cicer arietinnm, green whea 
fresh, but when dry shrivelled and of a brown colour, the con- 
tents are moist and viscid, the seeds about the size of poppy^ 
seeds. The plant is parasitic upon the pear and other treeSi 
and consists of several branches, the leaves are like those of the 
pomegranate, and of a pale gfeett. Properties resolvent ana 
laxative, a solvent of corrupt humors which it withdraws from 
the system. When steeped in hot water, strained, and beaten 
up with the kernels of the walnut or castor oil (w^hich is the 
usual form of administration), it clears the system of adust bile 
and phlegm, removes obstructions, and is a remedy for lumbagOf 
piles, &c. Applied externally it promotes the suppuration, or 
causes the dispersion of tumors or enlargements. Sportsmen 
use it as birdlime, and dyers as a mordant for crimson.'' 

Of recent years, mistleloe hjis again attracted attention as » 
toedicme. Dr. W. H, Long (iY... Eemedies, 1878, p. 112) after, 


ten years* experience of it as an oxytocic, arrived at the conclu- 
sion that it is superior to ergot- He ^sed it also in the fomiff 
of infusion^ tincture, decoction and fluid extract in many cases 
of menorrhagia and post-partum h^morrliage with gratifying 
tesults. He conceived that it incited the natural, rather than 
the tonic, contraction of the uterus* A physician in South 
Carolina refers to three cases of ahortion in negroes produced 
by this plant- {3Ied. Rec, xvii., 276 ; Stille and Mmsch., NaL 
Disj)., 1884, p. 1617.) Br. K. Park speaks cf a tincture pf 

Viscum album as* a valuable substitute for Digitalis ; the ecbolic 
action of the plant, he says, is more energetic than that of 

ergot. Dose, 10 — 60 grains. 


Description, — The dried berries are about | of an inch 

in diameter, soft, brown, and shrivelled ; they contain a small 
seed about the size of a poppy-seed. When crushed they are 
very sticky. 

Chemical composition. — M* Pavlevsky {BttlL Sac. CMm. (2), 
xxxiv.^ 348) has obtained from the leaves of V* album a 
crystallizable acid corresponding to the formula CH*0* or 
(CH^O^) HO. It forms large prisms insoluble in alcohol 
and ether, slightly soluble in water, and fusing at 101—103^0. 
It is obtained by boiling the leaves with water acidulated with 

acid- and allowino' the decoction to cool- The silver salt 


of this acid is explosive. ( Year- Book of 



90 per cent, alcohol as long as it coloured that liquid yellow, 
after which it was boiled repeatedly with alcohol to remove 
wax. The remaining yellowish- brown mass, when treated five 


woody fibre remained undissolved. The ethereal solution was 
then evaporated, and the viscid yellow mass thus obtained 
kneaded with alcohol so long as it gave off colouring matter. 
It was then kneaded under water, and heated to 120°, without 
access of air, until the whole of the water was expelled. 
Viscin is a clear transparent mass, of the consistence of honey 


at ordinary temperatures> and capable of being drawn out into 
long threads; fluid at 100^, like oil of almonds; sp. gr. 1. 
It produces a greasy stain on paper, is nearly inodorous and 
tasteless^ and bas an acid reaction. Formula C^'^H* 0^ . 
Viscaoutcbin remains behind, together with woody fibre^ after 
the extraction of viscin by ether as above, and is taken up by oil 
of turpentine. After distilling off the turpentine, the yellowish 
mass is dissolved in ether, in which it has now become soluble; 
the ethereal solution is evaporated, and the residue is washed 
with alcohol and water, and dried at 120°, At ordinary 
temperatures it ia viscid, and resembles vegetable wax ; at 1^0 
it is of the consistence of olive oil. It is very elastic, and 
may be drawn out into long threads; sp. gr. 0*978. It is 
tasteless, of faint odour and neutral reaction. Formula 
04og370^ {Gmelin, xvii,, p. 352.) 

Viscum et Loranthus, sp, var. In the Pharma€op(^i(^ 
or India, the leaves of a Yiscura, doubtfully referred to 
V. monaieum (Kuchila ke molung), growing on Nux Vomica 
trees in the neighbourhood of Cuttack, are stated to possess 
poisonous properties similar to those of the tree on which the 
plant grows. The subject was investigated in 1837 by Sir W. 
O'Shaughnessy, who is said to have detected in the powdered 
leaves the presence of strychnine and brucine : and the leaves 
were for a time used by Dr. Duncan Stewart and others as a 
substitute for Nux Vomica, A case of what is stated to 
have been fatal poisoning by the leaves is mentioned by 
Norman Chevers in his work on Indian Medical fhms2)rudence. 
The symptoms were those of strjxhnia poisoning. In lot>J- 
Mr. Leon Souberain {Pharm. Journ., p. 568) published an 
account of a poisonous species of Loranthus found on the 
Nilgiris, growing on Nux Vomica trees, and known to 
natives as Poiilmtrivi, 



In Pudukota, a decoction of a species of Loranthus call 
Pillooroovi or Kooroonthoo, probably the same plant, is applied 
to skin diseases to relieve itching. 

Under the name of Banddkpushj^, the flowers of Loranthm 
hugijlonis, Desrouss., RhPiuJe, IFort. Ual, x., t 4, have been seat 


to us from Poona as having a reputation among the Hindus 
as a remedy in consumption, asthma, and mania ; they are 



Dr. Buchanan-Hamilton, when m Mysore, was shown the 
Loranthus falcatm^ Linn. ( ^ Wotu,' Canarese)^ the bark of which 
was used by the poorer natives in place of betel-nut; with 
quicklime it tinges the saliva and mouth of a fine red, brighter 
even than that communicated by the Areca. 

In Travancore^ the Loranthaceous parasites on the Nux 
Vomica are called ^(X/i;V>um-^/.Y^/^fl7 in Malayalira, and are used in 
medicine by the natives, but when the parasites are scarce, the 
young leaves of the Nux Vomica tree are used as a substitute. 

A contribution by M. A, -Chatin to the Paris Academy of 
Sciences entirely contradicts the statement we have extracted 
from the Pharmacopceia of India ^ and the belief of the natives 
that these parasites partake of the nature of the plants upon 
which they grow ; so that the old ideas concerning the non- 
elaboration of sap by parasitic plants will have to be abandoned. 

M* Chatin finds that the tannin of the mistletoe is not 
identical with that of the oak on which it grows, but gives a 
green colour and not a blue-black with iron salts ; that the 
LoranthuSy which grows on 8trychnos Nux Vomica^ does not, as 
has been asserted, contain a trace of either strychnine or 
brucine, and that the Balanophora parasitic on Cinchona Calimya 
does not contain any of the alkaloids of cinchona barks. The 
Loranthus growing on orange trees never partakes of the yellow 
colour of the wood of its host plant, nor does the Orohanche of 
the hemp possess the odour of the latter ; while Hydnora 
africana^ used as food in South Africa by the Hottentots, grows 
on an acrid and even vesicating Euplwrhia. It is evident, 
therefore, that the sap absorbed from the host plant must be 
modified by the parasite to form its own peculiar products. 
(Pliann, Journ.j May 2nd, 1891.) 

The Forest Officer of Ganjam, a district where the Strychno3 
grows so plentifully, sent to one of us a specimen of a species 
of Viscum taken from these trees, which was identified as 



r. articidatum. The sample was a small one, but it was sufficient 
to determine by analysis that the trace of alkaloid present was 
neither strychnine nor brucine. The leaves contained a pecu- 
liar tannic acid, giving a green precipitate with ferric salts, and 
a resin soluble in ether and alcohol, striking a blood-red colour 
with strong sulphuric acid. The chemical constituents of the 
leaves of the parasite were altogether different to those of tha 
leaves of the Nux Vomica tree. 



Fig.— J5«M. Fl. Sylv., t, 256 j Hayne, Arm. Gewachs. t., 
f[;Bentl and Trim., t. 292 ; Rumph. Amb. ii.,t. H- San- 
dalwood [Eng.), Santal blanc {Fr.). 

Hab. — Deecan Peninsula. The wood and essential oiL 

rer«ac«Zar.— Chandan, Suf ed- chandan {Eiyid.), Sandanak- 
kattai ( Tarn. ), Qandliapu- eliekka ( Tel. ) , Chandana-mutti ( Ma I ] , 
Gandhada-chekke {Can.), Chandon, Sada-chandon [Ben;/-), 
Chandana, Sukhada (Guz.), Chandana, Gandlia-che-klior 

History, Uses, &C. — Sanskrit writers make two kinds 
of Chandana : the darker, heartwood, they call Pitachandana, or 
yellow Sandal ; and the lighter wood, Srikhandn, or white Sandal. 
Chandana is mentioned in the Nirukta, or writings of Yaska, to 
oldest Vedic eomraentary extant, said to be written not later 
than the 5th century B.C. It is also referred to in the ancient 
epic poems of the Hindus, the Ramayana and MahabJiarafa. 
According to the Kathdsaritsdgara, it is one of the trees of the 

Buddhie paradise, and the chariot of the sun is made of its 

wood bound with gold. 

Sanskrit medical writers describe sandalwood as bitter, 
cooling, astringent, and useful in bilious fever and heat of body ; 


a paste of the wood is directed to be applied externally to in- 
flanimatory affections of the skin, and is a domestic remedy for all 
kinds of pains and aches. Under the name of gandh (perfume), 
it is largely used in Hindu ceremonial, being smeared upon 
idols and upon the foreheads of their worshippers. The wood 
is chiefly consumed at the eJtita or funeral i)ile, even compara* 
tively poor people spending as much as iifty rupees upon it. 
The Parsees also use it at their funeral ceremonies. Mahometan 
medical writers, commencing with Masih and Ibn Sina, call 
the wood Sandal, and follow the Hindus in distinguishing^ the 

dark-coloured portion from the light. The author of the 
Jl/i^M^an describes it as cold and dry, cardiacal, tonic, astringent, 
alexipharmic, antaphrodisiac, a resolvent of inflammatory 
swellings, &c. He recommends an emulsion in bilious fever, on 
account of its cooling and protective influence over the heart, 
brain, stomach, &c. As an external application a paste made with 
rosewater and camphor, or with sarcocolla and white of egg, may 
be applied to relieve headache, or to any kind of inflammatory 
swelling or skin affection. Sometimes the paste is made with the 
juices of herbs, such as purslane^ nightshade, &c. Ainslie states 
that in Southern India sandalwood given with milk is regarded 
as a valuable remedy in gonorrhooa. Rumphius (ii., p. 42) 
mentions a similar use of it at Amboyna. In the Concan 
sandalwood oil with cardamoms and bamboo manna is given in 
gonorrhoea, and mixed with limejuice and camphor it is usedaa 
a cooling application to eruptions, &c. A conserve of sandal- 
wood is also made by boiling the wood cut in small pieces in 
bangar-khar (impure carbonate of potash) and water (4 seers 
sandal, half a seer bangar-khar, and 32 seers water), until it is 
quite soft* It is then preserved in a thick s^^rup. Sandalwood 
was known to the Greeks from the time of Alexander. Arrian 
mentions ^i^^a a-ayaXlm among the Indian imports into Oman in 

the Persian Gulf. Constantinus Africanus, a physician of 
the School of Salerno, appears to have been the first to use 
it medicinally in Europe, In the Thannacopceia of India, 
Dr. M. Ross is stated to have subjected the wood to trial, and 
found that whilst its effects as a stimulant were very slight, its 

III.— 30 


secondary effect was that of a sedative on the circulation, Tn 
remittent fevers In which it was administered, it acted as a 
diaphoretic, diminishing at the same time the rapidity rather 
than the violence of the heart's action. Dr. Henderson, of 
Glasgow, and, m France, Drs. PaBas, Guhler and Simnionet, have 
directed the attention of European physicians to the valuable 
properties of the oil as remedy for gonorrhoea, in doses of from 
30 to 40 minims three times a day, and there i^ now som« 
demand for it in India for this j)urpose. 

Bi\ Henderson asserts that he always found it inoffensive, even 
in strong doses ; that at the expiration of forty-eight hours com- 
plete relief is effected ; besides, it has the important qnalification 
of pleasing the patient and being agreeable to the stomach ; it is 
superior to copaiba and cubebs, succeeding where the latter have 
failed, and with a delicate subject it is to be highly valued as a 

r ^ 

-remedy uniting a real stomachic to a great specific action, 
and that, in short, during the last five years, he is indebted to 
it for a great number of successful oases. {Medical Times and 
Gaz., Jnne 1865.) In a communication to the Paris Chirurgical 
Society, Dr. Panas (1865) equally advocated its use. Oleum 
Santali has also been prescribed in chronic catarrh of the bladder, 
where it performs the same offices as oil of turpentine, without 
its injurious effect on the kidneys and alimentary canal, * In ^^1 
cases it is best administered in the form of Midy's Capsules, ten 
to twelve of which may be given daily at first, divided into three 
doses, each of which may be taken a quarter of an hour before 
meals ; the number of capsules taken daily may be gradually 
increased to 24, but as soon as the discharge becomes serous, the 
dose should be gradually diminished. M. C. Mdhu has observed 
that after the internal administration of oil of sandalwood, a 
resinous substance is found in the urine having the odour of the 
wood, which appears to be kept in solution by phosphate of 
soda, and which has the properties of a very weak acid. This 
resinous substance can only be obtained in very small quantitie 
by shaking the urine with ether ; to obtain it in larger quantity, 
«in acxd must be used (phosphoric or tartaric), which makes the 
urxue turbid from separation of the resinous matter. If tbe uriua 


is now shaken witli ether, and the ether evaporated, the resinous 



«f sandalwood. This substance in contact A^'ith concentrated 
sulphuric acid affords the same yellow-brown and red colours as 
pure oil of sandalwood, M. Mehu has also observed that the 
pure sandal oil does not communicate a violet odour to i^xo urine, 
as is the case when the oil is adulterated ^vith copaiba and tur- 
pentine. {Journ de Pharm. et cU Chim,, Sept. 1st, 1886.) The 
fact of a resin being precipitated by acids from the urine in 
cases in which sandalwood oil lias been adminis tcred, has 

therefore to be remembered in testing for albumen with nitric 

Description. — Sandalwood logs are about a yard in length 

and 5 to 6 inches in diameter ; they are stiipped of the bark 
and a portion of the sapwood. Andreas Petersen of Copen- 
hagen, who made in 1886 a very careful investigation of the 
wood, says: — ''It is very homogeneous, rather hard and pon- 
derous, although it does not sink in water. The heartwood is 
pale reddish, with darker reddish-brown and brighter yellowish 
concentric zones, which, when examined under the microscope, 
prove to be annual rings. In the inner part of the wood they 


seven millimetres. Possibly, therefore, they do not correspond 
to one year's growth, but to that of a longer period. 

" The transverse section, examined by means of a lens, dis- 
plays the numerous narrow medullary rays ; the vessels are 
partly empty, partly loaded with yellow resin. In the bright 
yellowish sapwood both vessels and medullary rays are lesa 
distinct. The sapwood is scentless, whereas the heartwood, 
especially when freshly cut, is in a high degree possessed of 

the very agreeable and remarkably persistent odour of sandal 

'' The miseroscope shows the prevailing part of the tissue of the 
wood to be made up of ligneous fibres (libriform), the thick walls 
of which are marked with small annular pits (behofte Tiipfel). 
The woody tissue is traversed by medullary rays consisting of 


one or two rows of somewLat irregular cells. On a transverse 
section, the distance of tlie medullary rays from eacli other is 
very different. According to the size and j30sition of the 
vessels^ the medullary rays are somewhat undulated. Most of 
the vessels are very large, the largest as much as 89 mkm. m 
diameter. They are very regularly distributed^ either isolated, 
or in groups of two or three, very seldom more. Their walls 
are very thick, being marked with numerous annular pits, 
communicating with those of the surrounding cells. There is 
also to be met with in the wood, parenchymatous tissue to some 
extent, which is made up either of isolated cells or of short 
tangential or oblique rays of two to five cells ; these parenchy- 
matous layers very seldom run from one medullary ray 
another. Crystals of oxalate of calcium are also found ; and 
in longitudinal sections they are seen to be enclosed in long 
ducts, containing each 10—15 crystals. As to the concentric 
zones of darker and brighter tint, as mentioned above, the 


vessels of the latter zones are much smaller and less numerous 
than those of the dark ones ; the librif orm cells likewise show 
the same diSorence, although less distinctly. Thus the dai 
zones in all probability represent the wood built up m spriiio- 
The vessels have an average diameter of 74 mkm., those of the 
vessels in the other rings being only 47 mkm. 
- " The darker colour is due partly to the actual cell-walls, partly 
to the resin contained in numerous vessels. On the whole, 
concentric max^kings or zones are more distinct to the nakecL e^ 
than under the microscope. On a vertical section the medullary 
rays are seen to be built up of usually less than eighteen layers, 
each consisting of two or three rows of cells. The position o 
the medullary rays and pits does not allow this wood to be classed 
among the woods which wore described by Ilohnel as showing 
the remarkably regular arrangement of layers or series like 
Btories, which he termed a 'stockwerkahnliche ' structui^e. ^ 
those slices of the wood are boiled for some minutes with nitric 
acid (M85), a little chlorate of potassium being added, the 
single cells arec...ily isolated. The Hbrif orm cells are then 
distinctly seeu to exhibit the tvpic form alluded to above, a ft-^ 


of tliem reminding one extremely of tlie fibres, of which the 
pinewood is made up. I have also noticed intermediate 
fibres, marked with both true annular and laterally extended 
pits (IToftiipfel and Spalttiipfel). The vessels are short, 
somewhat obliquely truncated, and perforated with a great 
annular hole, the ends of the vessels being more or less 

" Only the heartwood is valuable, the sapwood and branches 
being not used. I failed, in fact, in demonstrating the 
presence of oil in the sapwood, the tissue of which is nearly 
colourless, and exhibits no contents at all in its cells. In the 
heartwood, on the contrary, the cell- walls are very rich in yel- 
low colouring matter. The parenchymatous part of the wood^ 
the medullary rays and numerous vessels are loaded with a 
yellow-brownish resinous matter. Thin slices, examined under 
water or glycerine, display a great many smaller and larger 
drops, soluble in alcohol and reducing osmic acid (1 part dis- 
solved in 100 parts of water) ; no doubt they are drops of essential 
oil. These drops, flowing out of the ducts, on thin sections are 
seen most abounding along the primary membranes of the cells 
and in their pits. But if rather thick sections are treated with 
osmic acid, the woody parenchyme and the medullary rays also 
assume a black colour, due to reduced osmium. If, on the con- 
trary, the sections, before being treated with osmic acid, have 
been well washed with alcohol, the just mentioned parenchyme 
is not at all or but extremely faintly blackened. The cells 
under notice contain no tannic matter, as shown by means of 
bichromate of potassium and chloride of iron, the reduction of 
the osmic acid is consequently not due to tannic matter. Small 
pieces of the heartwood were further treated for some days with 
a solution of osmic acid, then extracted by means of alcohol and 
dx'ied. When sections were made from these pieces, I ascertained 
that nearly all the parenchymatous parts had assumed a black 
colour. Sometimes also the libriform cells contain a small 
amount of oil, but the experiments just mentioned prove the 
parenchymatoiis tissue of the wood to he the principal scat of the 
essential oil. When treated with a mixture of equal parts of 

238 SANTAlAcnjS. 

glycerine and solution of potash (5 per cent.), oil drops are also 
distinctly seen in tlie parenchyme. I ascertained that 
there is no corky membrane in the walls of these cells, like 
that occurring in many other cases. From a physiological 
point of view, the absence of corky walls of the cells of 
the heartwood might be expected.'^ {Fharm. Journ. (3)^ 

xvi., 757.) 

Chemical comjwsition. — The wood treated with boiling alcohol 
yields about 7 per cent, of a blackish extract^ from which a 
tannate is precipitated by alcoliolic solution of acetate of lead. 
Decomposed by sulphuretted hydrogen, the tannate yields a 
tannic acid having but little colour, and striking a greenish 
hue with a ferric salt. The extract also contains a dark resin. 
{Pharmacographia,) The most interesting constituent of sandal- 
wood is the fragrant essential oil. It is a yellowish, remark- 
ably thick liquid, having a high specific gravity (usually more 
than 0-960); and is a mixture of hydrocarbons and oxygenated 
oils, boiling at a very high temperature. The specific gravity 
of a pure sample of oil distilled at Ilunsur from the roots was 
0-9745 at 15"=*-5. M. Chapoteaut {Bull Soo. Chim., sxxiv., 
303) has shown that it is composed of two oils, one hoiliag 
at 300° and the other at 310°, and that the composition of 

the oil boiling at 300° is C^^H'^^0, and of the oil boiling 

at 310° C^^H-^O. This chemist has been able to obtain 
with the latter oil a series of ethers under the influence 
of the different acids he brought to act upon it, and has 
announced the important fact that the oil C'^H'^O is an 
alcohol, the aldehyde of which is the oil C^^'H^^O. Phosphoric 
anhydride absorbs water from both, converting them into 
hydrocarbons of the formulae C^^H'^^ ^^^j C'«H''^*, respectively.. 
By the Indian process only 2*5 per cent, of oil is obtained from 
the wood, but the powerful apparatus of Messrs. Schimmel & Co. 
of Leipzig affords as much as 5 per cent. 

Collection and Oommerce.^Mv. C. E. M. Russell, Superinten- 
dent of Forests in Mysore, in a Report upon sandalwood (1889), 
Bays :— " Sandalwood is the most important source of For^^* 



revenue In Mysore. It is a monopoly of the Mysore Government, 
and, except by Government Agency, no sandal tree can be 
uprooted or cut down even upon land wbich is private property* 
The only exceptions are the Jahglrdar of Yelandur and the 



of the sandalwood of their own Jahgirs, The tree is plentiful in 
the Mysore country^ and occurs also, but in far less quantities, 
in those portions of the Madras territory which border upon 
Mysore ; for practical purposes, hoAvever, Mysore may be 

ipoly of the sandal supply. It is a 
somewhat delicate tree, is killed outright by fire, is very im- 
patient of injuries to the roots and bark, and requires shade 
and protection while young. The value of the wood is depen- 
dent upon a volatile oil which is_ contained in the heartwood 
only, and in order that this oil may be developed in the highest 
possible degree, it is necessary that the growth of the tree 
should be slow, consequently sandalwood grown in arid 
situations on poor stony soil is, though small, of far more value 
than is that produced by large w^ell-grown trees growing in 
moist situations and in richer soih The maturation period of 
the sandal tree is variously stated at from 40 to 60 years. 
Sandalwood is not eaten by white ants, and its contained 

ants, and its contained oil 
preserves it from decay in a remarkable degree, of which the 
present collection of old sandal roots left in the ground for 
many years past is a conclusive proof. In former times it was 
the custom not to uproot, but to fell, sandal trees, whereas for 
many years past the trees have been uprooted, and the roots, 
which contain a higher percentage of oil than the w^ood, are in 
great demand and command high prices. 

Even in periods of depression of the sandal market, a fair 
demand for roots has always been noticeable. The method of 
preparation is as follows : 

" The trees having been uprooted are roughly deprived of bark 
and of some of the sapwood on the spot, and are then carted 
into the nearest of the sandal Kothis, of which nine exist in the 
Mysore Province, 




" The distribution of the various sandal Kothis and their 

names are : 



Mysore •.. 






Hunsur and Seringapatatn 



Anatitapur, and 





'* On arrival at the Kothis, the trunks are sawn off above the 
roots, cut into lengths, all the white wood removed, the billets 
adzed and subsequently planed and smoothed, the roots adzed 
and freed of all adhering bark, mud, and white wood, and the 
various products— billels, chips, small pieces, hollow wood, saw 
powder, &c.— collected and classified according to the classes 
represented by the specimens forming the sandal trophy. 
About the months of iN^ovember and December auction-sales oi 
the various classes are held in all the Kothis of the Province, 
and are so arranged, as regards the dates fixed for holding the 
same, that purchasers may, if they choose, attend the sales m 
Shimoga, Kadur and Hassan, and yet be in time for those m 
Mysore and in Bangalore, 




18S2— 83 









1 o 










































39311 1,15,032 



454 1,57,308 








23 li 




,824 i 


2,28,215 798| 









Tons Tons 


















184 159! 

3,993| 13,0i,788 










21 li 












l,333i 1,291 










O i 



i 1 






Rs. ITonsTons 

47, 180 225 


63,489 681 




91,218 78i,145f 









39, 644 









g i 


. ?iw 




20,220 ci 5' 



§ S 

pJ '^ 


o '^ 



CD "-^ 













Average Summary calculated on the 6 T/ears. 






Shitnoga District 
Mysore do. 
Hassau do. 
Bangalore do, 
Kadar do. 





1 21 1 



1, 523 1 
1 ,3B4i 



Average rate 

per ton sold. 










Average rat® 
per ton soii- 














329 i 




" Thus, the revenue from sandalwood in 1887-88 amounted to 
no less ttan Rs. 6,82,445, while the average revenue for the 
6 years reaches Rs. 5,05,856. 




for the various classes of sandal at the sales held in the various 
Kothis of the Province, so the prices obtained last year in tU 
Mysore District, though somewhat lower than those obtained m 
certain other Districts, will afford a fair idea of the value of 
the (bftcrcnt classes. 



Hates obtained in auction in tlie Mysore District in December 


Rs. per ton. 

1st class (selected logs) ' 614 

2nd class (do) 496 



5th class (logs) 471 

Roots . 383 

3rd class (do) 

4tli class (do) 

Jajpokal (ordinary commercial) 352 

Bagaradad (do. inferior) 372 

Powder 322 

Ain Bagar( inferior wood) 311 

Ain Chilta (common chips) 187 

Hutri Ohilta (coarse do.) 168 

Basola Bukni (adzed do.) 47 

Milva Chips (mixed do.) 85 

"The yield of sandalwood from the Mysore Province is cap- 
able of expansion. Until recently little attention was paid to 
artificial reproduction and the encouragement and artificial 
enhancement of natural reproduction, the supply being obtained 
solely from natural growth. Now, however, extensi ve measures, 
having for their object Sandal reproduction throughout the 
Province, are being carried out, and no practical limit to the 
possible supply of this valuable tree, beyond the necessary 
question of demand, is conceivable. 

" Chief Mirkeh for Sandulivoocl.—lt will be matter for surprise 
that so valuable a wood, and one of which a -single Province 
may almost be said to hold the monopoly, should be so little 
known outside India. 

" The fact is that the trade in Mysore sandalwood has hitherto 
been confined to a ring, consisting chiefly of Muhamniadan Seits, 
who either as principals or as agents of Bombay Firms, attend 
the local sales and send the sandalwood purchased by them to 
Bombay. The transit to Bombay from the coast is"^ by sea in 
native craft. The Railways might perhaps secure this traffic 
if they offered special rates. 



*^The carts that convoy the sandalwood to the coast are hired 
at low rates, as they are certain of return loads of salt and other 
merchandise to Mysore, XJntil recGntlyy nearly all the sandal- 
wood sold in the auctions held by the i^Iysore Government, went 
to Bombay^ but a demand haying lately arisen for vandal oil for 
medicinal purposes, some direct shipments of wood for extrac- 
tion of oil to France and Germany, and, probably, also to 
America^, have been made/' 

A small quantity of sandalwood is produced in the Madras 
Presidency, and in the Bombay districts of j^orth Canara and 
Bharwar, The following figures show the revenue obtained 
from the wood in the Madras districts in 1889-90: 

North Arcot , Us. 5,688 

South Arcot 

Areri^o-c price. Us, 4: per cwt 

Jforth Coimbatore 






] , 386 























Total. 18,562 

Sfatment of SancMicood colkded in the North Canara and 
Dkancav Dietrich in 1889-00 and m^d hy micfion at Kuinpta. 

No. Class of Saudalvrood. 

billets, i Q«ai>Uty. 
















1st class 

2ti.} <?o 

3ra do. 

4th ila 

5th do 

6th do 

Roots ,.,., 


Small pieces 

Tiimunni;s Bags 

White wood 

K. m. lb.* Rs. a. p. Ks- a. P 





• «« * 







18 7 20 

13 s Jy 

7 2 
12 10 

4 11 

5 6 

9 12 26 


10 9 
3 7 16 

4 17 

8 7 7 

82 15 3 

142 4 

140 1 

r3n 6 

138 6 















8 1,663 








2 3 

8 H^ 
7 5 

9 11 
4 7 






9,907 12 2 

* The Bombay kandy of 20 mauiuls of 28 lbs. 


lu 1889-90 the total quantity of sandalwood ofEei^ed for sale 
in Mysore was 2,384 tons, 3 cwts,, 63 lbs. Of this quantity only 
2 tons, 16 cwts., 105 lbs., were placed in the first class. The total 
revenue yielded was Ks. 8,82,031. 

The quantities sold at the different Kothis were — Hunsur 
Kothi, 673 tons, 13 cwts., 58 lbs, ; Seringapatam Kothi, 439 
tons, 11 cwts., 28 lbs.; Hassan Kothi, 180 tons, 9 cwts., 28 lbs. ; 
Chikniangalur Kothi, 132 tons, 14 cwts., 70 lbs.; Jirthahalli 
Kothi, 233 tons, 13 cwts., 48 lbs.; Shimoga Kothi, 471 tons, 14 
cwts^j 6 lbs.; Shikapur Kothi, 252 tons, 7 cwts, 49 lbs. Of the 
673 tons, 13 cwts., 58 lbs. offered for sale at Hunsur Kothi, 
only 148 tons, 4 cwts., 28 lbs., consisted of logs, which were 
classified as follows : 

Tons. cwts. lbs. Price given. 

1st class ..• 10 28 Es. 601 per ton. 

2nd „ 6 5 84 „ 596 

,, ^VV' ,, 

3rd „ 60, 4 84 „ 575 to 582 per ton 

4th „ 21 3 56 .. 570 to 574 

5tli .. 6 

,, tj I KJ i,\J rj , -I ,, 


The roots fetched prices ranging from Hs. 416 to Rs. 449, the 
sawdust Rs. 420, and the chips and trimmings from Rs. 70-8 to 

Rs. 301. 

Sandalwood oiL — The Mysore Government has long had 
establishments for extracting the oil, which is sold at the 
annual auction along with the wood, and chiefly bought up for 
exportation to China and Arabia. It is procured from the wood 
by distillation, the roots yielding the largest quantity and 
finest quality of oil. The body of the still is a large globular clay 
pot with a circular mouth, and is about 2\ feet deep by 6 i in 
circumference at the bilge. No capital is used, but the mouth 


of the still, when charged, is closed with a clay lid haying a small 
hole in its centre, through which a bent copper tube about 5^ 
feet long is passed for the escape of the vapour. The lower end 
of the tube is conveyed inside a copper receiver, placed in a large 

porous vessel containing cold water. When preparing the san- 
dal for distillation, the white or sap wood is rejected, and the 

246 ^ SANTALACE^. 


heartwood is cut into small chips, and distillation is slowly 
carried on for ten days and nights, bj which time the whole of 
the oil is extracted. As the water from time to time gets low in 
the still, fresh supplies are added from the heated contents of 
the refrigerator. The quantity of oil yielded by wood of good 
quality is at the rate of 10 ozs. per maund, or 2*5 per cent. 
It is transparent and of a pale yellow colour, and has a resinous 
taste and sweet peculiar smell, w^hich is best appreciated by 
rubbing a few drops of the oil on the warm hand. Its specific 
gravity is about 0'9S0. [Bidic.) The average price in India is 
about Rs, 8 per lb. 


From Mr. EusselFs report we learn that recently Messrs. F. 
Smith, of Bangalore, and W. F. Petrie Hay, of Hunsur, have, 
with permission, been, making experimental distillations. Their 
samples were cleai*and good, but it has been brought to notice 
that the use of iced-strainers w^ould be necessary to prevent the 
oil becoming thick or cloudy when expoi'ted to colder regions. 

False Sandahcoods of Eastern Commerce. — The wood of 
Santalum Preissii (Soutli Australian sandahyood) is dark- 
brown in colour, with unusually close tenacious texture, and 
extraordinarily hard and heavy. It is much sought for in 
China, where the oil is used for medicinal purposes and to 
jj^rfume soaps. Messrs. Schimmel & Co. distilled 75 kilos of 
the wood and obtained 3 kilos, 800 grams, of oil. The wood, 
therefore, is one of the richest sandalwoods for oil. In many 
respects the latter is characteristic and interesting; it is 
viscid, of a cherry- red colour, and specifically heavier than 
water. At 15° C. its sp. gr. is 1-022. The oil possesses the 
property of solidifying at medium temperatures and separatin 
acicular crystals, so that in the process of distillation the 
cooling must be very carefully effected, otherwise the con- 
densing tubes become blocked. This phenomenon occurs espe- 
cially in the medium fractions of the oil. The rasped wood has 
an agreeable balsamic odour with a suggestion of rose oil which 
is not perceptible in the normal oil. By separating the oil into 
a number of fractions, the rose odour can be recognised in some 



of the middle fractions. 

8( Co., 1891.) 

Santalum cignorum 


sandalwood. The oil, which has the same peculiarity, has a sp. 
gr. of 0-953, rotation +5° 20. 

African Sandalwood (botanical origin unknown) is 
reddish-hrown in colour, and very hard and close. Distilled 
wath water it yields 3 per cent, of a ruby-red oil having the 
consistence of true sandalwood oil. Its sp. gr. at 15° C. is 
0-969. The odour resembles that of West Indian sandal oil. 
{Bcn'chte von ScMmmel ^ Co., 1891.) This wood is largely 
imported into Bombay; a sample kindly supplied by Messrs. 
Schimmel & Co. was found to agree exactly with that sold in 
the bazaar. It is used in India as a cheap substitute for true 




Fig.— /acy. Icon,, t. 478 ; Bunn. Thes. ZcyL, tt. 104-105, 


H;ab. Throughout the hotter parts of India. The herb. 

Fcyvmc?(to'.— Dudhi {Hind.), Bara-keru (JBcng.), Goverdhan, 
Mothidudhi, Xayeti (Mar.), Dudheli [Guz.), Amurapatchai-arissi 
[Tarn.), Bidari, Nanabala {Tel.}, Gentikasa, Barasu {Can.). 

History, Uses, &C.— This plant is not mentioned by 
Hindu medical writers, nor does there appear to be any Sanskrit 
name for it. It is known, however, as a popular remedy for 
worms, bowel complaints, cough and gonorrhoea, and as a local 
application for the cure of ringworm, the Marathi name Naydi 
si <5-nifies ringworm. Ainslie (ii., 99) remarks: — "If we may 
believe Piso {De Med. Brazil), and Barham (p. 180), it possesses 
most extraordinary qualities, such as a few drops of the juice 


of it killing serpents ; its efficacy in venereal complaints and 
dry bellyache ; and its being an antidote to poisons." 

Bfecent investigation ias, however, thrown more light upon 
the properties of the plant, Marsset has discovered that it kills 
small animals by paralysing the respiration and the heart, 
through its direct action on the respiratory and cardiac centres. 
The active principle is eliminated by the liver, for in all the 
animals which died during the experiments the gall-bladder 
was found to be distended with bile. He has published 
excellent results obtained with it in the dyspnea of asthma, 
emphysema and bronchitis, these good results depending upon 
a particular modification of the functions of the pneumogastric. 
(Coiiinb. a Vetmle hot. phjs. ei therap. de rEuphorh. pH 
Paris, 1884.) Tison and Beaumetz obtained very satisfactory 
results from it in dyspnaja of cardiac origin. It appears to act 
beneficially upon spasmodic dyspna^a, from whatever cause 
arising, and it unquestionably is a remedy of great power and 
promise. {WMtia.) Its action is not cumulative. The active 
principle being soluble in water and dilute alcohol, an abundant 
watery vehicle should therefore be ejnployed. An extract n^ade 
with water or weak spirit keeps well. In decoction, 1 oz. of the 
fresh plant or -^ oz. of the dried plant may be used with 2 quarts 
of water, and be reduced by simmering to one quart ; the addition 
ofl| to2ozs. of alcohol will prevent it from spoiling in a cold 
climate, but in India the decoction should bo made fresh every 
2 days. The extract may be given in 1 gram doses, dissolved in 
syrup or water ; it should not be prescribed in pill, on account of 
its HTitant action on the gastric mucous membrane. The decoc- 
tion is given in doses of a wine-glassful three or four times a 
day ; both preparations are best given after meals or immediately 
before them. Attention has been redirected to this drug, as of 
value in the treatment of hay asthma and coryza, by Dr. Rose- 
crans Workman (r/,^r«^,. Gaz., July 15, 1890), who states that 
m thirteen cases of hay asthma, prompt relief was obtained In 
ume m one of the other eases partial relief was obtained, and 
in the remamiug three cases the results were negative. The 
fluid extract was administered in doses of 30 to 60 minims every 


four hours. In nearly all the above cases iodide of potassium 
and arsenic had been previously used. In nine cases of coryza, 
good results were obtained in six, the sneezing and rhinal 

r within thirtv-six hours after the 

ff or diminishin 

administration of the drug was begun. The doses were repeated 
every three or four hours. In five cases of asthma of frequent 
recurrence and long standing, marked relief was experienced 
in one case : the dyspnoea soon disappeared and the attacks 
were always shortened. In the other four cases no good effects 
were obtained. 

Description. — Annual^ t^airy^ obliquely-erect, with the 

apices recurved; leaves opposite, obliquely-oblong, serrulate; 
flowers small, numerous, in globular, axillary, shortly -peduncled 
clusters ; seeds ovoid. The acute leaves, hispid hairiness, and 
small fruit render this species easily recognizable. 

Chemical composition. 


Bunting [Amer. Journ. PJiarm., 1888, 652), whose analysis 
shows the presence of the following constituents : wax, caout- 
chouc, chlorophyll, resin, tannin, sugar, mucilage, carbo* 
hydrates, albuminoids, calcium oxalate, and other salts. 

Nothing is known of the active principle beyond the facta 
that it is soluble in water and weak spirit, and insoluble in 
alcohol of 90^3 ether, chloroform, bisulphide of carbon and oil of 
turpentine ; it is supposed to be a gum-resin. The watery 
solution on evaporation to dryness leaves a deep reddish -brown 
substance, having a vitreous fracture, hardly any taste and a 
strawberry odour. {Bardet et Erjasse, Form, des Nouv. Memedes, 
Paris, 1886.) 


Fig. — Burm. Thes. Zeyl, t 105, /. 2; Rkeede, Hort. 
MaL x.y t. 33. 

JJab. — Throughout India and Ceylon, Central Asia, and all 
hot countries, except Australia. 

III.— 33 


Vernacular. — Chhoti-dndhi^ NigacLuni {Hind.), Rakta-keni, 
Dudhiya {Beng.)y Cliin-amam-patcliai-arissi, Bittva'palidi [Tarn.) , 
Bidari-ndna-biyyam {TeL)^ Ddkti-dudhi^ Lahan-nayeti (Mar,), 

Dodliuk, Hazardana {Punj\). 

History, Uses, &C. — This plant is not mentioned in 
the standard Sanskrit medical worksj but, along with the allied 
species B, gramdafa, Forsk., E. micropkyUa^ Heyne, and 
E. ChrJ^eana^ Hook/., which the natives do not distinguish from 
it, it is used medicinally in most parts of India and the East, 
The author of the KhulamUel-tajarib states that it is a small 
milky prostrate plant with slender reddish stems, and opposite 
leaves about the size of a split lentil seed, very common about 
Merv in sandy ground. It is hot and dry in the first of the 
third degree; the expressed juice or powdered plant with wine 
is given as a remedy for the bites of venomous reptiles, and is 
applied externally to the bitten part ; with milk it i 



ing to Ainslie, the Sanskrit name is Rakta-vindu-chhada, which 
would imply that it is a remedy for iJr/ A: 2f a -iu'y^/fw, '* gonorrhoea 
with sanious discharge." He remarks: — " The very small leaves 
and seeds of this low-growing annual plant, which, in their 
dried state, are slightly aromatic and a little astringent, are 
given by the Tamool doctors, in worm cases, and in certain 
bowel affections of children ; they are commonly administered 
in the form of powder, and in buttermilk, to the quantity of 
one pagoda and a quarter weight in the course of the day on an 
empty stomach. The leaves when carefully dried smell some- 
thing like tea," (Ma^. Ind,, ii., 75.) Irvine states that it is used 
as a stimidant and laxative in Northern India. In the Concan 
the juice is used to cure ringworm, and mixed with chloride of 
ammoniuui for the cure of dandriff, O'Shaughnessy says that 


the Arabs, applied to wounds. In the Diet. Econ. Prod of 
India, it is stated, on the authority of the Eev. A. Campbell, 
that the Santals use the root of this plant, which they call 
Nanha-pusi-toa, as a remedy for amenorrhcBa. 

EUPROmiAGE^. ' 251 

Description. — A much branclied annual prostrate plant, 
more or less hispidly pubescent, leaves opposite, -^ to J inch, 
petioled, obliquely- oblong, obtuse, crenulate, glabrous or pubes- 
cent beneath, stipules elongate, involucres subsolitary, very 
minute, axillary, especially in the crowded terminal branchlets, 
lobes short ciliate, glands very minute, stipitate; capsules erect, 
obtusely keeled, pubescent ; seeds with 5 to 6 shallow transverse 

Chemical comjwsitwn. — An alcoholic extract of the whole 
plant was mixed with water acidulated with sulphuric acid, and 



rendered alkaline 

sodic carbonate. The petroleum ether extract contained a 
large amount of colouring matter ; it had a very faint bitter 
taste ; on standing, dark, and what appeared to be crystalline. 

points separated, but which, on microscopic examination^ were 
destitute of regular structure. Euphorbon was specially 
sought for, but we arrived at no definite conclusion relative to. 
its presence. 

The acid ether extract was of a greenish colour, and partly 
soluble in water, the solution giving a greenish coloration with 
ferric chloride, and precipitating gelatine, but giving no 
reaction with cyanide of potassium. 

After washing off by cold alcohol the extractive adhering 
to the sides of the capsule, and which was insoluble in water, 
a sulphur-yeUow deposit was left, which, on microscopic 
examination, consisted of very minute needles. This principle 
was present in only minute traces, and was soluble even, 
in warm alcohol with diflSculty; it gave the reactions of 

The aqueous original acid solution, before the addition of 
sodic carbonate, was of a bright claret colour ; on the addition 
of the alkali sage-green flocks separated, the addition of acida 
causing solution, and reproducing the original claret-coloured 
solution: but after standing* the flocks became insoluble in acids. 


and only a faintly yellowish-red tint was produced by their 

The alkaline ether extract contained an alkaloidal principle 
which crystallized in fine colourless feathery crystals ; it 
possessed no bitter taste. With Frohde*s reagent in the cold 
a very faint-yellow tint was produced, which was changed to 
greenish on gently warming. Concentrated nitric acid gave a 
yellowish tint. Sulphuric acid and potassium bichromate no 
colour reaction. 


Fig,—B/ieede, Hori. Mai. iL, t. 44. Milk-bush {Eng.), 
Euphorbe antivenerien {Fr.). 

Hab.— Africa. Cultivated in India and the East. The 
juice and bark. 

Vernacular.--Biv-\i-t\ohsLr, Bar-ki-sehund {Hind.), Kdda- 
nivali {Mar.), Netrio-thora, Thora-danaddlio [Guz.), Kalh- 
kombu [Tarn.), Kada-Jemudu [Tel.), Bonta-kalli, Kada-nevali 
{Can.), Tiru-kalli [Mai), Lanka-sij [Beng.). 

History, Uses. &c.— This shrub has been introduced 
into the East from Africa, and is much used for making fences 
round cultivated fields, as cattle will not break through it 
owing to the acrid nature of the milky juice. The earliest notice 
of E. TirucaUi that we know of is in the Karmis, which was 
written about the middle of the 14th century; it is there called 
\ih^ (dihan), the name by which it is still known in Arabia 
(Forskahl), and is described as a noxious plant, used to poison 
wild beasts. The plant is not mentioned in the Nighantas, 
but the juice is in general use among the natives ol India as a 
purgative, and, applied locally, as a counter-irritant. Rheede 
states that a decoction of the root is given in certain cases of 
coHc, and that the milky juice mixed with melted butter is 
prescribed as a purge. It is the Ossifraga ladea of Eumphius, 
who says that the bark is applied in Java to fractures. Accord- 
ing to Horafield, the Javanese, who call it Kayoo-oorh, also use 


it as a vesicant. Virey (Hist. Nat.^ p. 299) says : — II gu^rit tres 
bien Tafiection venerienne ; il est aussi purgatif et vomitif /' 
Loureiro notices its caustic nature : '* Occulos si tangat ex- 

csecat/' lAmslie, Mat 

In the Concan 

1 to 4 drops of the milky juice are given with treacle or the 
flour of Cieer arietinum as a purge, and the charcoal, which is 
very light, is used in making pastilles. Dr. G, Y. Hunter 
speaks of the juice as a good application in neuralgia. In Goa 
it is used for poisoning fish. 

Description. — A shrub or small tree, 15 — 20 feet, with 

numerous slender branches, smooth, and of a bright-green colour, 
having a few, most minute leaves at the extremities, which soon 
fall off ; as the plant grows older, the stalks become stronger, and 
at length woody and of a brown colour. The wood of old trees 
is white, close-grained and strong ; it produces a good charcoal 
for gunpowder and other purposes. 

Chemical composition, — See next article, 


Fig, — BG. Plant. Grasses, ii.^ t. 46 ; Riimph. Eerh. Amh. iv., 
f. 40. 

Hab. — Deccan Peninsula, B elucMstan, Malay Islands. 
Cultivated elsewhere. The juice and root. 

Vernacular.—Sehund, Thohar {Rind,), Mansa-sij, Pdta-sij 
{Beng.), Nevadunga, Mingut [Mar.), Thohar-kantaro {Quz.), 
Ilaik-kalli (Tf?;;?.), Aku-jemudu(JeL),Yale-kalli {Can.), Elak- 




Fig. ^Wight Ic, t 897 ; Eheede, Sort. Mai. ii.y t. 42. 

Hab. Throughout the hotter parts of India and Ceylon. 

The juice and root. 

Ferwacw /ar.—Tidhara-sehund {Hind.), Tekata-sij {Beng.), 
Tridh^ri-nevadunga, Nara-seja (3far.),Shadhurak-kalli {Tarn.), 


Bomma-jemudu {Tel)y Mudu-mula-kalli {Can,), Katak-kalH 
(Mai), Tandhari-thohar {Guz,). 

History, Uses, &c.— These two plants are included 

under the Sanskrit names of Snuhi, Sehunda, Yajra, Vajra-tundi, 
Vajra-dantaka, Gandira and Maha-taru, and are supposed to 
ward ofi lightning strokes, on which account they are sometimes 
cultivated in pots placed on exposed positions in Hindu houses. 


In some 

parts of India, in July and August, on Tuesdays and Thurs- 
days, the natives approach the trees with offerings of rice, 
milk, and sugar, praying to be delivered from snake-bites. 
They also employ the root mixed with black pepper as a 
medicine for the cure of snake-bites internally and externally. 
Dutt informs us that in Bengal, on the fifth day after the full 


E. neriit\ 


cani Brahmins in connection with this plant. At the time of 
the Dewali they cut a portion of the stem, hollow it out, and 

Darried from house to house with 

fill it with oil, in which they place a wick. The little lamp 
thus formed is lighted and 
the object of depositing it unextinguished in the house of 
some friend or acquaintance, saying at the same time, " A son- 
in-law for you/' that is, wishing them good fortune (Neva- 
dunga) . The people of the house pretend not to want it, and 
try to extinguish the light by throwing water at it. These 
lamps are also placed upon little heaps of cowdung and 

In the Nighantas the plants are described as purgative, pun- 
gent, digestive , bitter and heavy, and are said to be useful in 
constipation, flatulent distention, tumours, swellings, abdominal 

enlargements, rheumatism, spleen, leprosy, mania and 

They abound in an acrid milky juice, which is a popular 
application to warts and other cutaneous affections. The 
native doctors purify arsenious acid by packing it in a hole 

E UP HO RBI A C E^. 255 

made in a piece of tlie stem, closing the hole and exposing 
the stem to the action of fire until it is charred. The milky 
juice of -E. neriifolia is usually administered internally by 
soaking other purgatives and aromatics in it, so that by 
absorption of the j uice their purgative properties become 
increased. A similar method is adopted when the Juice 
is applied externally, a tent or issue pea being prepared with 
some finely powdered drug and steeped in it. Ainslie tells us 
that the native practitioners prescribe the juice as a purge and 
deobstruent, in those visceral obstructions and dropsical affec- 
tions which are consequent of long-continued intermittent 
fever, the quantity given for a dose being about ^ of a pagoda 
weight (20 grs.). Externally, mixed with margosa oil, it is 
applied to limbs which have become contracted from rheuma- 
tism. [Mat. Inch^ Yol. 11.^ p. 97.) In Bombay the root is mixed 


with country liquor to make it more intoxicating, and the juice 
is used to kill maggots in wounds, and is dropped into the ear 
to cure earache, a practice common to many parts of India. 
In the Concan the stem is roasted in ashes, and the expressed 
juice, with honey and borax, given in small doses to promote 
the expectoration of phlegm ; sometimes the juice of Adulsa 
is added. For asthma, Miidar flowers, Aghada root, and Gol^aran 
root are steeped in the juice, powdered and given with honey 
and chebulic myrobalans. Dose about 4 grains. The author of 
the Makhzan-el'Adwiya, under the name of Zakum (Euphorbia), 
describes four Indian species, which are probably E. antiqiiorumy 
E. neni/olia, E. Nivulia and E. Tirucallu The milky juice of 
the first, he says, is mixed with the flour of Cicer arietimim, 
roasted, and administered in pills as a remedy for gonorrhoea. 
It has a strong purgative action. The juice of the second and 
third species is heated and dropped into the ear for the cure of 
earache ; heated with salt it is given as a remedy in whooping 
cough, asthma, dropsy, leprosy, enlarged spleen, dyspepsia, 
jaundice^ flatulence, colic, calculus, tumours, &c. The fourth 
species yields a milky juice, having similar properties. Spren- 
gel identifies E. neriifolia with the ^J 1*3,^^-* (Mahudaneh) of Ibn 
Sina, also called Hab-el-muluk, a purgative seed of a reddish 



brown colour and like a vetcli.* The author of the ^^^ Jocosely 
remarks that the name should be -^3ISj ^,U and says: 
J't^))! (^^3lij ^yu -^31 ^1 ^«^j ^jlS ^1 <4t is sufficientas a 
purgative without the assistance of any other drug." Ibn Sina 
describes Mahudaneh as tricoccous and like a large filbert ; he 
says, the name of the plant is Shibab. It cannot be E. neril/olia, 
which has seeds no larger than a grain of mustard. In the 
Bid, of Econ. Prod.y published by the Government of India, it is 
stated^ on the authority of Dr. J. H. Thornton, that the Juice of 
E. antiquorum mixed with burnt borax and common salt is used 
as an application to painful joints and swellings. Dr, Thornton 
says: — ^'The fresh milky Juice is a direct irritant both when 
taken internally and applied externally. Taken in very small 
quantities, it is a drastic purgative." E, trigonal Haworth, 
the Kattimandu or ''knife medicine" of the Telugus, so named 
because it is used for fixing: knife blades in their handles, and 

E. Nivulia^ Ham., have similar properties. 

Description. — E. neriifoUa is a small, fleshy, glabrous tree 
or shrub, branches jointed, cylindric or obscurely 5-angled, with 
short, sharp stipular thorns arising from thick tubercles ; leaves 
deciduous, fleshy, obovate oblong or obovate-acute ; involucres in 
small J stout, dichotomous, short-peduncled cymes from the 
sinuses, hemispheric; smooth, styles connate high up, undivided, 
cocci compressed, glabrous ; the fruit is tricoccous, but so deeply 
di\'ided that it has the appearance of three radiating slender 
follicles. The seed is about the size and shape of a grain of 
mustard, and of a greyish-brown colour. 

E. anfiquoriim is an erect, fleshy, glabrous tree or shrub, 
branches terete or obscurely 3 — 6 angled, branchlets with 3—5 
thick sinuate wings, and a pair of sharp stipular thorns in the 
sinuses ; leaves few and small, from the sides of the wings, 
fleshy, obovate oblong, tip rounded ; involucres 3-nate, 
forming short-peduncled cjTnes in the sinuses, styles free, 
2-lobed, cocci compressed, glabrous. 

E. Nitulia and E. trigona are very similar shrubs. 

• Hab-el-niuluk is the seed oi Croton Tiglium. 


Chemical composition, — Honke [Archiv/ d. P/ianti., Yol. 224 
(1886), 729 — 759) has ascertained ttat tlie dried juice of Katti- 
mandu {E, Nividia) contains 35 per cent, of Eitjj/iorbon^ 25*40 
per cent." of resin soluble in ether^ 13'70 of resin insoluble in 
ether, 1*50 per cent, of caoutcliouc, and the other constituents of 
commercial gum eiqjhorhiuni. The dried juice of E. TirueaUi 
was also found to be of a siinihir nature, and to contain 4 per 
cent, of caoutchouc. Henke examined the juice of sixteen 
species of Euphorbia and ascertained that they all contain 
euphorbon, so that we may fairly suppose itj as well as an acid 
resin, malate of calcium, and caoutchouc, to be a constant 
constituent of the milky juice of all the plants belonging to the 
genus. {8ee next article,) 


Pig^ — Jachson, Account of Morocco, t, 6 ; Berg, et Sch., t. 34 d, 
/ M~X; BcntL and Trim. 240. 

Hab. Morocco- The dried juice (Gum Euphorbium), 

Vernacular. — Farbiyun, Afarbiyun, Farfiyun [Lid. Bazars). 

History, Uses, &C. — Euphorbium was known to the 
ancients. Dioscoridcs and Pliny both describe its collection on 
Mount Atlas in Africa, and notice its extreme acridity. Accord- 
ing to the latter writer, the drug received its name in honour 
of Euphorbus, Physician to Juba II,, King of Mauritania. 
This monarch, who, after a long reign, died about A.D. 18, 
was distinguished for his literary attainments, and was the 
author of several books, which included treatises on opium and 
euphorbium. The latter work was apparently extant in the 
time of Pliny, 

Euphorbium is mentioned by numerous other early writers 
on medicine, as Rufus Ephesius, who probably flourished 
during the reign of Trajan, by Galen in the 2nd century, and 
by Vindicianus and Oribasius in the 4th. ^tins and Paulus 
-ffigineta, who lived respectively in the 6th and 7th centuries, 




Arabian scliool of medicine. In dcscribiuo: the route from 
Aghmat to Fez, El-Bekri of Granada, in 1068, mentioned the 
numoroua plants of El-Farhlyan growing in tlie country of the 
Beni Oaareth, a tribe of the Sanhadja. [Phannacographia^) 
Ibn Sina notices the drug nnder tbe name of Farbiyun; Haji 
Zein states tbat it is called Farbiyun, A farbiyun, Farfiyun 
and Takdb, and that the men who collect it have to tie up their 
faces to prevent the dust entering their mouths, as it would 
cause all their teeth to fall out. He says that as soon as it is 
collected, it is mixed with husked beans to preserve its streugth, 
and that when fresh it is of a yellow colour, translucent, and 
easily soluble in olive oil; when old it turns, reddish -yellow, the 
odour is acrid. As regards its medicinal properties, he states 
that it is a useful application in sciatica, palsy, colic, lumbago, 
and removes phlegmatic humors from the joints and limbs; 
internally administered it acts as a purgative of bile and phlegm. 
However used, it should always be diluted with such substances 
as oil of roses (fatty extract), bdellium, extract of liquorice, 
tragacanth or gum arabic ; the dose is from one carat to one dnng. 
When given internally to women, it causes abortion, but a pessary 
containing one grain of cuphorbium causes the mouth of the 
uterus to contract and prevents abortion. Mixed with honey it 
is used in purulent ophthalmia. Three dirhams is a fatal dose, 
cau.sing ulceration of the stomach and intestines; the antidotes 
for it are sour milk, the juice of sour pomegranates, aad cam- 

The author of the Tithfat-Gl-mnminin gives almost a literal 
translation of what Dioscoridcs says about euphorbium, and 
reproduces a great part of Haji Zein's account of it; he men- 
tions its use as a snuff, when diluted with beet juice, in certain 
affections of the brain, as a dusting powder to remove proud flesh, 
and as an enema in obstructed menses. In modern medicine, 
euphorbium is n-vcr given internally, but it is still sometimes 
employed as an evrhine, after having been largely diluted with 
some im.t powder, in amaurosis, deafness, a'lid other chronic 

Its use as a counter-irritant is now almost 
entirely conhned to veterinary practice. 


^-- v^'wi Whi* 


Description, — The drug consists of irregular pieces, 

seldom more tliaii an incli across and 


yellow or brown waxy-looking substance, among wHcIl por- 
tions of the angular S2:>iny stem of the plant may be met with. 


The substance is brittle and translucent, and has a somewhat 
aromatic odour; it is extremely acrid, and the dust is 
powerfully irritant if inhaled- 

Chemical eomj:>osition. — An analysis of selected fragments free 
from extraneous matter by Fluckiger ( Vierteljahresschrift fur 
prakt. Pharm.^ xvii. (1868), 82 — 102) shows the composition of 
the drug to be as follows : — 

Amorphous resin, C^^H^^O^ 38 

Euphorbon, C^^H^^O 22 

Mucilage 18 

Malates, chiefly of calcium and sodium ...,,. 12 
Mineral compounds • 10 


The amorphous resin is readily soluble in cold 70 per cent, 
alcohol. The solution has no acid reaction, l}ut an extremely 
burning acrid taste. By evaporating the resin with alcoholic 
potash, and neutralizing the residue with a dilute acid, a brown 
amorphous substance, the Uiipliorbic Acid of Buchheira, is 
precipitated. It is devoid of acridity, but has a bitterish taste. 
From the drug, deprived of the amorphous resin ether or petro- 
leum takes up the Uuphorhon, which may be obtained in colour- 
less, although not very distinct, crystals, which are at first not 
free from acrid taste, but by repeated crystallizations, and finally 
boiling in a weak solution of permanganate of potash, may 
be so far purified as to be entirely tasteless. Euphorbon is 
insoluble in water; it requires about 60 parts of 80 per cent, 
alcohol for solution at ordinary temperatures. In boiling 
alcohol it is freely soluble, also in ether, benzole, amylic alcohol, 
chloroform, acetone or glacial acetic acid. 

Euphorbon melts at 113 to IIG^ 0. without emitting any 
odour. By dry distillation a brownish oily liquid is obtained, 


whicli requires further examination. If eupliorton dissolved 
in alcoliol is allowed to form a thin film in a porcelain capsule, 
and is then moistened with a little concentrated sulphuric aciJ, 
a fine violet hue is produced in contact with strong nitric acid 
slowly added by means of a glass rod. The same reaction is 
displayed by lactucerin, to which in its general characters 
euphorbon is closely allied. If a few drops of an alcoholic 
solution of euphorbon are allowed to dry on a piece of filtering 
paper, and then touched with a drop of nitric acid, a blue colour 
will be developed. 

Pure euphorbon, according to Henke, melts at 67° to 68 
its composition was found to be 0='°H='^0. Its rotatory power 
dissolved in chloroform was [n]D= +15*°88. Hesse i 
euphorbon the formula C^^II''*0. 

The mucilage of euphorbium is precipitated by ^ neutral 
acetate of lead, as well as silicate or borate of sodium, it there- 
fore does not aorree with ffum arable. 

If an aqueous extract of euphorbium is mixccl with spi 
of wine, and the liquid evaporated, the residual matter assumes 



of Malic Acid. Subjected to dry distillation, white scales and 
acicular crystals of Maleic and Famaric acids, produced by 
decomposition of the malic acid, are sublimed into the nee 
the retort. {P/iarmacograpIn'a, 2nd Ed. 3 p. 560.) 

Toxicology. — Euphorbium causes the eyes to weep and gro 
red, the nose to run with watery and even bloody mucus, 
and saliva to flow abundantly from the mouth. To preven 
theae effects, says Pereira, some drug-grinders enip . 
masks with glass-eyes, others apply a wet sponge to 
nose and face, while others cover the face with crape- 
Individuals who have been exposed for some time to tne 
iufluence of this dust suffer with headache, giddiness, an 
tdtimately become delirious. I was informed, he adds, of 





under bis notice a nian 


grew suddently delirious, and presently became insensible and 

fell in a fit. 


and full, and bis skin very bot. On being bled, bis conscious- 
ness returned and be complained of great headacbe. 

Under Eupborbiacea?, I^orman Chevcrs, quoting Dr. H. 
Clegborn of Madras^ sa3^s : — ^' There are seyeral species of 
Eupborbia, as tbe i?. neriifolia^ cuiiiquorum, acaidis^ and otbers 
wbicb abound in a milky juice. Tbis produces a blister wben 
rubbed on tbe integuments, and serious inflammation if dropped 
into tbe eye. Several cases bave bappened within my 
knowledge, wbere tbe sigbt has been endangered from tbis 
cause." (Indian Med. Jurisprudence^) 

Otber species of Eupborbia found in India, and occasionally 

medicinally, are E* helioscopia 

E, hypericifolia 

Linn., and E. Royleana, Boiss., a native of tbe outer 

E. Jielioscopia is used as a bydragogue cathartic, and tbe 


Dr. Baudry [BnlL Med, 

JSford, 1887) bas reported a case of severe ulceration resulting 


B. hypericifoUa bas not unfrequently been mistaken for 
B. pilulifera, but may be distinguished readily by its not having 
tbe hairy stem of the latter plant. In Reunion it is used as an 
ocfrn'Tin-o-nf in rlvfifr.-n+Ar\r nnrlpr thfi name of Jlcrbe Jcan-Iiohcrt. 



-pig,— Brand. For. Fh, t. 52 ; Bedel Fl. S?/h., t. 258 ; 
Jim. Tent. JEiiphorh.r t. 5,/. 15 ; Rhcede, Hort. Mai. i., t. 38. 


Hab.— Thro 




Veniacular. — Anvula [Hind.), Amlaki {Benff.), Avala, Aval- 
kathi (Mar.) J Nelli-kai, Toppi {Tarn.), Nelli-kaya, IJsirike-kaya 
{Tel.), Nelli-kaya {Mal.)i Nelli-kayi {Can.), Ambala {Guz.). 


History, Uses, &C. — The fruit of this tree is the 
Dliatripliala, Amritaphala, Amalaka or Sriphala of the 
Nighantas, and is described as having all the properties of the 
chebulic myrobalan. It is used both fresh and dried ; in the 
former condition it is considered to be refrigerant, diuretic aud 
laxative ; in the latter, astringent. It is pickled by the natives 


and, on account of a peculiar flavour which it imparts, some of 
the forest tribes eat it before drinking water. A sherbet of 
the fruit, s^veetened with sugar or honey, is a favourite coohng 
drink for sick people ; it is said to be diuretic. A country-side 
prescription for biliousness in the Concan is Avala, 4 massas, 
to be soaked all night in water, and in the morning to 
be pounded and mixed with a quarter seer of milk and 
flavoured with sugar and cumin. Emblic myrobalans are an 
ingredient in many compound preparations described m 
Sanskrit works. A selection of these prescriptions will he 
found in Dutt's Hindu Materia Medica; the following, translated 
from. Chakradatta, may be taken as an example : 


Dhatri lauha. —Take of powdered Emblic myrobalans 64 
tolas, prepared irou 32 tolas, liquorice powder 16 tolas, mix 
tbem together, and soak in tbe juice of Tinospova cordi/oha 
seven times successively. This preparation is given in jaundice 
antemia and dyspepsia, in. doses of from 20 to 40 grains 

Mahometan physicians esteem this myrobalan equally ^*»^ 

the Hindus ; they describe it as astringent, refrigerant, cardxa- 

cal, and a purifier of the humors of the body. It is mucn 

prescribed by them in fluxes, and is also applied externally on 

account of its cooling and astringent properties. The Arabic 

name is Amlaj, and the Persian Amala. Ainslie states that 

the flowers, which have an odour resembling that of lemon peel, 

are supposed by the Yytians to have virtues of a cooling and 

aperient nature, and are prescribed in conjunction with other 

articles in the form of an electuary, {jfat Lid, ii., p. 244-) 

In the PhnnnacopcBUi of India it is stated, upon'the 'authority 

of Dr. M. Ross, that the root by decoction and evaporation 

yields an astnugcut extract equal to Catechu, both for medicinal 


purposes and in the arts; the chips of the wood or small 
branches thrown into impure or muddy water, according to the 
same authority, clear it effectually. In the Concan the juice of 
the fresh bark, with honey and turmeric, is given in gonorrhoea. 

Description*— Fresh Emblic myrobalans are globular, 

fleshy, smooth J six- striated, of a yellowish-green colour, and 
sometimes as large as a walnut ; they contain an obovate obtusely 
triangular, 3-cellednut, each cell of which contains two triangu- 
lar seeds. The taste of the pulp is acid, astringent, and some- 
what acrid. The dried fruit is the size of a cob nut^ sub- 
hexagonal, wrinkled, of a grey-black colour if it has been 
collected when immature, but yellowish-brown if mature; the 
latter upon pressure breaks up into six parts, each of which 
consists of a section of the pulp and nut, and contains one 
triangular brown seed. 

Chemical composition. — The pulpy portion of the fruit dried 
at ]00°C., and freed from the nuts, had the following composi- 

Ether extract (gallic acid, &c.) 11*32 

Alcoholic „ (tannin, sugar, &c.) 36'10 

Aqueous ,, (gum, i&c.) 13*75 

Soda „ (albumen, &c.) 13*08 

Crude cellulose ]7'S0 

Mineral matter 


Moisture and loss 3'83 

] 00-00 

The acidity of the fruit was found to be equal to 9' 6 per 
cent., calculated as acetic acid. The amount of tannic acid, 
estimated with acetete of lead solution, was 35 per cent., and 10 
per cent, of glucose was estimated by means of Fehling's solu- 
tion on an infusion of the pulp after the removal of the tannin, 

Lowe considers this tannin to be identical with the cllago- 
tannic acid of Divi-divi, 


Commerce. — Two kinds of Avala are found in commerce, 
one entire, and the other cut up, and the nut removed. The 
fruit is collected in many parts of India. Yalue, about Ra. 32 
per candy of 7 cwts. 


Y'lg.—A. Jnss. Tent. Euiihorh. 19, t. 4, / 1 ; Wight Ic, 
t. 1899; Burm. Thes. Zeyl, t 88. 

Hab.— Throughout tropical India. The leaves and bark. 

Vernacular.— Viu]o\i {HincL), Pillagiida {Tel.), Pi^Umyr 
{Tarn.), Paukushi {Benff.), Pavana, Puvana {Mar.}, Karaohi 
{Sind.), Datwan {Guz.), Katu-niruri (MaL). 

History, Uses, &C.— Ainslie {Mat. hid., ii., 223) gires 
Krishna-kamboji as the Sanskrit name of this plant. Kamboja, 
" coming from Kamboj/' is applied in that language to several 
plants, but none of them have been identified with P. rcticulatus, 
nor does it appear to be mentioned in the Mghantas under any 
other name. The leaves and bark are used as a diuretic and 
cooling medicine and as an alterative. Ainslie says :— " i-'^^ 
bark, as it appears in the Indian bazars, is commonly m 
pieces about a foot long, and as thick as the wrist, of a 
dark colour outside, . and of a faint sweetish taste ; i* i3 
considered as alterative and attonuant, and is prescribed in 
decoction, in the quantity of 4 ounces or more twice daily. ^ 
the Concan the Juice of the leaves is made into a pill with cam- 
phor and cubebs, and dissolved in the mouth as a remedy for blee 
ing from the gums ; it is also, along with the juice of other 
alterative plants, reduced to a thin extract, and made into a 
pill with aromatics. This pill is given twice a day, rubbed down 
in milk, as an alterative in heat of blood. 

Description. -^Shrubby, climbing, primary branches 
twiggy : voung shoots pubescent ; florifcrous branchlets angular ; 
leaves oval-obtuse, bifarious; flowers axillary, aggregated, 
several males and x^sually one female; male flowers purplish ; 
berric . size of a pea, dark-purple. This plant is common near 
water, and extends to Sind, where it is found in the forests of 


great size, climliing to tlie tops of the liigTiest trees. {Bomb. 
Flora.) The flowers have a peculiar and disagreeable smell. 
The bark is dark-brown externally, and thickly studded with 
little elliptic warty rings ; beneath the suber is a deposit of 
chlorophyll, but the substance of the bark is of a dull-red 
colour. Taste sweet and astringent. Microscopically there is 
little to remark beyond masses of deep purple pigmentary 
matter and groups of large stone cells. 

Chemical comjwsition. — The leaves contained a tannic acid 
similar to that separated from other species of this genus, 
but no alkaloid. A crystalline principle soluble in ether was 
removed from the aqueous solution of the alcoholic extract ; it 
gave a yellowish-brown colour with sulphuric acid, a brown 
colour with Frohde^s reagent, and a yellow solution with alkalies. 
The powdered air-dried leaves afforded 7*83 per cent, of ash, 
and when mixed with water became very mucilaginous, and it 
was very difficult to filter this mixture through paper. 

Phyllanthus madraspatensis, Linn., Wight Ic, 

1895,/. 3, yields the Kanocha seed of the bazars. The seeds are 
polished, triangular, of a grey colour^ prettily marked with 
delicate dark-brown lines like basket-work; length -^q of an 
inch ; breadth somewhat less ; one side is arched, the other 
presents two sloping surfaces united to form a longitudinal 
ridge, at the pointed end is a small scar marking the attachment 
to the ovary; the testa is hard and brittle. When soaked 
in water thev immediatelv become thicklv coated with a semi- 


which they afEord. 

medicinally on account of the mucila 




Fig.— JFight Ic, t. 1894; lihcede, Sort. Mai x., t. 15. 


Fig.-~Wirjhf Ic, i. 1895,/. 4 ; Rheede, Eort. Mai x., U 16 
Hab. — Throughout India. The herbs. 



. VernacuIar.^'BhMmi-a'nxala iSvicl), Blim-amla [Bcnfj.), 

{Mar.), Kizhkay 

Kizha-nelli (Ifal 

Bhui-amali [Gtiz.]. 

P. urinaria is distinguislied by tTie addition of the adjective red 
to the aLove names. 

History, Uses, &C. — These plants are common weeds 
which appear in the cold season. They are called in Sanskrit 
Tamra-valK (P. urinaria) and Bhnmy-amali (P. NiruH),^ and 
bear among other synonyms those of Tamalika, Bhu-dhatri, and 
Bahu-pattra, "having many leaves." Hindu physicians consi- 
der them to be deobstraent, diuretic, astringent and cooling, and 
prescribe the dried plant in powder or decoction in jaundice. 
The dose of the powder is about a teaspoonful. Mir Muhaiu- 
mad Husain in the IfaMzan states that the milky juice is 
a good application to offensive sores, and that a poultice 
of the leaves with salt cures scabby affections of the skm; 
without salt it may be applied to bruises, &c. From Ainslie we 



with fenugreek seed is considered a valuable remedy in chronic 
dysentery, also that the leaves are a good stomachic bitter. J-D 



run IS usea as a aiurexic in guiiui x nuio, «x±«^ ^ 

The dose is 2 tolas of the juice with 2 tolas of 
ghf twice a-day. The root rubbed down with rice-water is 
given in the Concan as a remedy for menorrhagia. 

Dr. A. J. Amadeo states that the plant is known as Y(f^(i 
de qidninic at Porto-Eico, and is used in decoction in inter- 
mittent fevers ; he thinks favourably of it, and uses a tincture 
in 2-drachm doses; it acts as a gentle purgative, aud is 
especially useful when the liver and spleen are infarcted. It 

is diuretic. 

Description.— P. mniri: Annual, erect-branched; 
branches herbaceous, ascending; floriferous branchlets fili- 
form ; leaves elliptic, mucronate, entire, glabrous ; male and 
female flowers in separate axils, male on the lower ones ; 
dehiscence of anthers transverse ; glands in the female bifid 


and trifid ; capsule globose ; two smootli seeds in each cell ; 
seeds triangular. 

P. iirmaria : Root generally annual, though, in some soils 
biennial and even perennial. Stem erect, striated, of a pale 
reddish colour; branches several, ascending, striated from 
the insertions of the stipules ; leaves scattered, spreading, 
pinnate, from one to two inches long, flower-bearing; leaflets 
alternate, linear oblong, entire, smooth, f of an inch long, and 
i broad ; petioles compressed, somewhat triangular ; stipules of 
the petioles 3-fold, acute, membranaceous, those of the leaflets 
two, lateral; male flowers, exterior leaflets axillary, 2 to 3, 
subsessile ; calyx, nectary and stamens as in P. Niniri ; female 
flowers, lower leaflet axillary, solitary, sessile ; calyx and nec- 
tary as in the male; capsules scabrous, 3-celled, 6-valved; 
seeds, two in each cell, transversely striated on the outside. It 
is immediately distinguished from P. JSfmiri by its sessile 
flowers and scabrous capsules. {Boxb.) 

Ohemical composition.— Ih^ alcoholic extract from the whole 
plant -was mixed with water acidulated with sidphuric acid, 
and agitated first with petroleum ether, then with ether, and 
finally rendered alkaline and reagitated with ether. 

The petroleum ether extract was dark-coloured, and soft, 
with a tea-like odour, and extremely and persistently bitter. 
It was mixed with 3 per cent, caustic soda solution and reagi- 
tated with petroleum ether, which removed the bitter principle 
contaminated with traces of oil and colouring matter. This 
extract gave the euphorbon colour reaction when treated with 
sulphuric and nitric acids. For the bitter neutral principle, 
we propose the name oi jpseudochiratin. 

The acid ether extract contained green colouring matter, and 
was partly soluble in water with acid reaction, the solution 
giving a dirty bluish-green coloration with ferric chloride, 
sli"-htly precipitating gelatine, but affording no reaction with 



obtained in white feathery 


al taste. Witli 

light yello wish -red coloration^ cliangfng to Jjlue on heating; 
with concentrated nitric acid, yellowish. No reaction witli 



Fig.—Baill. Etudes Gen, Euphorl., t. 25, f. 25—34 ; Be(hl. 
Fl. 8ylv., i. 260 ; Meede, HoH. Mai u., t. 16. 

Hab. — Throughout the hotter parts of India. The hark. 

Vernacular. — Khaja, , Kharaka, Lamkana (Ifmr/.), Miillu- 
vengai {Tarn.), Dudhi-maddi, Kora-maddi {Tel.), A'ska^ 
Phattar-phoda, Palehasan, K^ntehasan, Hasani (i¥«r.), A's&a, 
Gurige {Can.). 

History, Uses, &c. — The astringent properties of the 
bark of this tree appear to be well known throughout India, as 
it is in general use for tanning leather. Tho wood is also much 
used, on account of its durability under water, for making 
well- curbs. In "Western India the bark has a reputation as a 
lithontriptic, and is in general use as an astringent medicine. 
The tree is with or without thorns, according to situation and 
soil ; the natives of Western India consider the thornless tree 
to bo a distinct species, and call it Palehasan, whilst tho 
thorn-bearing tree is known to them as Kantehasan. When 
wounded, the bark exudes a blood-red juice, which stains the 
hands, and is very astringent. 

Description.— The dry bark is externally of a light- 
browa colour, and has little fungous protuberances of dead suhcr ; 
internally it is smooth and fibrous, of a cinnamon colour ; taste 
purely astringent. If soaked iu ^ater it gives out much 

e. The fibrous portion of tho bark is very tough and 



ions placed under the niicr 

rtion to bo. mnrlo n-n r,f +U:« ^-11 , 


TZ^T"" 1*^"? '' ""^"^ ^^^^V fibre and numerous 

flZ^lT T "\^^'^ i^ encrusted with large 

tal3 arranged m regular columns 


Chemical composition. — Tlie bark afforded 41*7 per cent, of 
water extract, containing 39-9 parts of tannic acid. Tlie 
tannic acid gave a grey isli- green precipitate with, plumbic 
acetate, and a blue-black colour with, ferric chloride. The air- 
dried bark left 7*35 per cent, of ash on incineration* Although 
this is one of the most astringent barks in India, it does not 
appear to be known to, or used by, Europeans in the arts. 


Fig. — Beddome^ Foresters^ Ifan., 203, t 23,/. 5 ; Eo^b. Cor. 

Fh ti., 37, t. 169. Si/}?s. : Lebidiero2)'Sis orhicidaris, Miill-Arg., 
Cluijtia colUna^ Roxb. 

Hab. ^ . 

Behar. Deccan Peninsula. 

Vernacular. — Oduvan, "VVoodacha, Nachuta {Tam.)y Kadishe 
{Teh\y Kodasigina, Bodadaraga [Can.). 


History, Uses, &C. — Under the name of Andrachne 
CadishaWj Ainslie describes the poisonous properties of the nut 
of this tree, called JFodooivmighai. He says: — "About one 
pagoda weight, pounded, the Tamools believe to be sufficient 
to kill a man; the leaves and roots of the plant are also 
considered poisonous; the first, which no animal will touch, 
is, in conjunction with J5rrt<r^^^/va/(chebulicmyrobalans), supposed 
to be a good appKcation to foul ulcers. {Mat. Ind., ii., 487.) 
Roxburo^h remarks: — '' The bark or outer crust of the capsule is 


reported to be exceedingly poisonous/'^ (FL LuL, ni,, 733.) 

Description. — Capsule § of an inch in diameter, sessile, 
woody, rounded- 3-gonous, top not lobed, dark-brown, shining 
and wrinkled when dry. Seeds ^ of an inch in diameter, 
globose, chestnut- brown; albumen scanty. 

Chemical composition. — The active principle of the plant does 
not appear to be an alkaloid, but, though its chemical nature has 
not yet been fully investigated, Mr. Newman, Assist. Chemical 
Examiner, Madras, has discovered that it gives a. purple 
reaction with sulphuric acid, which disappears on oxidising with 


alkaline dicliromatej and with nitric acid a blue colour changing 
to green ; these tests serve to identify it with some degree of 
probability. An extract of the leaves and fruit acts as a 
violent gastro-intestinal irritant, {Ueporty Madras Chenu 


Examiner y 1885.) 

Toxicology. — The Madras Chemical Examiner reported in 1885 
that the poison had been found in two cases from South Arcot. 
" In one case a man being detected in an intrigue with his 
mother-in-law, her relations threatened to excommunicato her; 
whereupon both are supposed to have taken this poison and to 
haA^e died very soon — from half an hour to an hour — after talon 
it. Both vomited. In the second case vomiting and purging 
were followed by recovery." In 1886 .the same Chemical 
Examiner reported that the expressed juice of certain leaves 
(of Odiivan)^ the residue of which was sent for examination 
mixed with common salt^ was supposed to have been taken by 

a man to cure itch. H 

^ and died m a 

few hours. In 1887 Oduvan was found, in a case from South 
Canara, in the stomach of a woman who poisoned herself when 
her husband was dying. She was suddenly seized with 
vomiting and died rapidly. In 1880 a woman was suspected 
of attempting suicide by poison ; the leaves found in her 
possession were identified as those of this plant. In 1S90 a 
pregnant woman died with symptoms of gastro-intestinal 
irritation, after taking an abortifacient ; from her stomach was 



Flueggia Leucopyrus, Wdld.y Wig^i 


Ceylon, is used both in Madras and Bombay as a fish-poison. 
The sweet, white berries do not appear to have any injurious 
properties, as they are eaten by children, who call them Mcidh 
(honey). The juice of the leaves is used to destrov 



Chemical composition. -JIhe bark contains 10 per cent, of a 
tannic acid, gmng a violet-black colour with ferric cHoride, 


and the mixture becomes red on the addition of ammonia. An 
alkaloid is also present, giving a purplish-red colour, afterwards 
turning to green^ with Frohde's reagent, and a violet colour 
with strong sulphuric acid and permanganate of potassium. 
The alkaloid is soluble in excess of alkalies. The infusion was 
somewhat frothy, but no sapogenin could be isolated from it 
after boiling with acid. 

The bark of Flueggia miCfOCarpa, Bhme, Wight Ic, 

t. 1994, supplied by Mr. Hollingsworth as one of the South 
Indian fish-poisons, was in thin papery light-brown strips, and 


the powder had no odour and very little taste. Air-dried, it 
afforded 11'4 per cent, of mineral matter, and contained 8'9 per 
cent, of a tannin, giving a blue-black colour with ferric salts. 
The aqueous solution of the alcoholic extract furnished an 
alkaloidal principle similar in its reactions to that obtained 
from the bark of F. Leucopi/nis. 

Breynia rhamnoides, Milll-Arg., Wight. Ic.^ 1. 1898, is 

a shrub or small tree of tropical India. According to Ainslie, it 
was brought to Dr. F. Hamilton, while in Behar, as a medicine 
of some note ; the dried leaves are smoked like tobacco, in cases 
in which the uvula and tonsils are swelled. The bark is 

Description. — Shrubby; young shoots angiilar; leaves 

alternate, short-petioled, spreading, broad-oval ; exterior ones 
largest, below whitish, entire, half to three-quarters of an inch 
long; male flowers racemed from the lower axils ; female 
flowers in the upper axils, solitary^ short-peduncled, drooping ; 
capsule size of a pea. 

The nuts of Putranjiva Roxburghii, TTa//., in Sanskrit 

Putra-jiva or Putram-jiva^ '^that which makes the child live '* 

are hung round the necks 
health. Thev are mentioned 



the Nighantas as being also 
Garbha-kara, "productive of impregnation," and medicinal pro- 
perties are attributed to them. The hard wrinkled nuts are 
generally worn only as a charm, but are sometimes given inter- 
nally in colds on account of their suDnosed heafino- T^rnT^Ariioa • 



they are called Jivapota in Hindi, Kurupalo in Tamils Rabra- 
juYi in Telugu, Pongalam in Maliyali, and Jivanputra ia 


Hab. — Deccan Peninsnla, Bengal, Northern CircarS; and 
sparingly elsewhere. The juice, root, and oiL 

Femacular. —Vndevhihiy Ean-erandi, Tadki-erandi [Mar.), 
Lal-bhorenda {Hind,, Beng.), U'dalai (IV<r;;?.), Nela-amudamii 

History, Uses, &C.— This plant appears to have been 
introduced into India, but it is not known from whence. 
Graham, in his Catalogue of Bombay Plants, published in 1839, 
says that in his time it was only to be found at Punderpore 
in the Deccan (a place much frequented by pilgrims, who 

isit the temple of Yithoba). There is a fabulous 
legend that it suddenly made its appearance at this i^lace. 
The following is the story, for which we are indebted to 
Dr. Shantaram V. Kuntak of Punderpore : — '* A certain 




during the i-sliddlii fair ; whilst thus engaged he was 
accosted by numbers of pilgrims who were passing 
his fieldj on their way out of the town, to meet the 
palanquins of Dnyanoba, Namdeo and Tukaram, which are 
brought to Punderpore at this season from Paithan, Alandi, and 
Behu. All the pilgrims asked him what he was sowing, until 
the man got tired of answering their questions ; in a short tune 
another pilgrim came up and asked the same question,— the 
man, vexed beyond endurance, answered that he was sowing =ffZ' 
(membrum virHe). It is said that this last pilgrim was the 


of his devotees, and that, annoyed at th°e cultivator's answer, he 

him, savlnor 

So when 

harvest time camo, instead of the usual crop, the whole field was 
covered with thia ahorf. fl,;.i,_.. .1 V , „ ^ ... _-.i,:. 



the last few years tlie field was called after the strange crop 
wHch it bore. It is now cultivated by a Mabometan^ and 
produces a regular crop, but tbe Jatropba bas not been entirely 
extirpated* Since Graham's time the plant has spread rapidly, 
and may be seen on waste ground in most parts of the island 
of Bombay, probably introduced along with the Castor seed of 
commerce. An oil is prepared from the seeds by roasting 
them in a perforated earthen yessel, fitted upon another vessel, 
into which, Avhen the whole apparatus is heated in a pit filled 
Avith burning cowdung fuel, the oil drops. This oil is valued 
as an application to chronic ulcerationSj sinuses, ringworm^ &c. 
The root brayed with water Is given to children suffering from 
abdominal enlargement ; it purges, and is said to reduce 
glandular swellings, The juice of the plant is used in various 
parts of India as an escharotic to remove films from the eyes ; 
it is greenish and viscid. The expressed oil of the seeds is 
yellow, has a specific gravity of 0'963, and solidifies at b^Qi. 
{J. Lepine, Jour. VJiar. [3], xl., 16.) 

Description, — A small shrub, remarkable for the shin- 
ing reddish-brown colour of its young foliage. The leaves arc 
palmate, 3 to 5-cleft, panicles terminal, short, few-flowered; 
flowers siaall and red. The young branches and petioles of 
the leaves arc thickly studded with sticky red glandular hairs. 
Tbe caj)sules are 3-celled and 3-seeded, with an outer adherent 
fleshy epicarp, which dries up as the fruit ripens ; when 
this takes place, the three triangular woody cells of which it 
is composed divide into six pieces suddenly with a sharp report, 
and the seeds are projected to a considerable distance ; it is, 
therefore, necessary to gather the fruit before it is quite 
ripe and dry in a covered place. The seeds, including the 
strophiolc, are three-tenths of an Inch long and two-tenths 
broad ; they are of a grey colour with two brown stripes on 
the dorsum, which is convex, the underside has two flat 
surfaces, divided by a central ridge. The kernel is without 
smell, and very oily ; it has a sweet, nutty taste. 

Chemical composition. — See Jcdrajj/ia Carcm. 



Jatropha nana, Dahell^ Kirkundi {]War.)j is a rare 
plaut, found in waste, stony places near Poena. The juice 
is employed as a counter-irritant in the same manner as 
that of J. glandulifera. 

Description. — A shrub 1 to 1 4 foot high, allsmooth; root 
tuberous, woody ; root-bark thick and full of milky juice; stem 
round, smooth, very little branched ; branches erect ; leaves 
Largo for the size of the plant, sessile or shortly petioled, 
broadly ovate, entire or trilobate ; lobes obtuse, central much the 
largest, 4 to 6 inches long and broad, pale beneath, tJ-nervcd, 
flowers panicled, terminal, few, 3 to 5 on each division ; 
stipules minute ; flower solitary, pedicelled, subtended hy a 
subulate bract half its length ; calyx leaves six, small, subulate; 
fruit obovoid, flattened at the top, slightly six-sulcated, as 
large as a nut. (DalzelL) 


Fig.—Jacq. Hort. Vinci UL, t. G3 ; ^. Jms. Tent. Euphorh,, 
t. 11, p. 34 A. Physic Nut {Enrj.), Medicinlcr {Fr.). 

Hab. — Throughout India and Ceylon, naturalized. 

Vernacular. — Baghrcnda, Bagh-blierenda {Ilincl, Bcnrj.), 
Moglili-erandi, Jepal {Mar.), Galamark {Goa), Kattamanakku 
{Tarn.), Pepalam {Tel.), Kdtta-vauakka {Mai), Bettada-liaralu 
{Can.), Jangli-arandi {Guz.). 

History, Uses, &c.— This tree, introduced from 
America, is called by recent Sanskrit writers Ktinana-eranda. 
Its seeds are sometimes used as a purgati^■c and alterative by 
tbc Hindu ijbysiciuns, but on account of tbeir uncertain action 
tbey are not much esteemed. Tlie oil is reckoned a valuable 
external application to itch, herpes, chronic rheumatism, nnd 
sores or wounds. Descourtilz states that the blacks of Rio 
Ijlunez saponify the oil with the ashes of the Papaya, and use 
the preparation to heal the wounds caused by circumcision. 

The leaves are appHn^i as a rubefacient and discutient, and a 
dococUou of them is .Jd to excite the secretion of milk in 


women. Tlie viscid juice wliich flows from tlie stem iij)on 
incision is painted over cuts and wounds'to check bleeding and 
promote healing ; this it does by forming a thin film when dry 
like that produced by collodion. The author of the MaJchzan 
also notices this use of the juice, and calls the plant Baghrendeh. 
Mr. Ildoy Chund Dutt notices the ha)mostafic properties of the 
juice, and Dr. Evers has injected a drachm of it into a varicose 
aneurism. He says : — - '^ The result was astonishing ; in twenty 
minutes time the pulsation was so faint that no non-professional 
person could have detected it ; and by evening all pulsation 
had ceased, and a good firm clot had been produced. No ill- 
effects resulted from the injection.^^ J. Curcas is said to have 
been introduced from Brazil by the Portuguese ; it is now quite 
naturalized in many parts of India, and is a common hedge- 
plant in the Concans. The oil is used for burning. The juice, 
when dried in the sun, forms a bright reddish -brown, brittle 
substance like shcU-lac, which may yet be put to some useful 
technical purpose. In Goa the root-bark is applied externally 
in rheumatism. In the Concan it is rubbed with a little 
asafoetida and given with buttermilk in dyspepsia and diarrhoea. 
The fresh stems are used as a tooth brush to stop bleeding 
from the gums. Hoxburgh notices that the leaves warmed 
and rubbed with Castor oil are used by the natives as a 

Jatropha oil was formerly employed as a purgative by Euro- 
pean physicians, under the names of Oleum Micini mcfjons and 
Oleum info nude. At the present time it is much used for burn- 
ing and for soap-making; also for adulterating olive oil, and 
seemingly for making Turkey-red oil. [F. M. Uoni^ Zcit. Anal. 
Chem,, xxvii., 163 — 165. 

Description. — The young roots are soft, fleshy, and taper- 
ing, with a whity-brown scaly epidermis, and a few thin rcotletSj 
bark yellowish- white internally, witli a peculiar perfume like 
tuberose when freshly removed ; wood white and very soft. On 
section the bark is seen to contain oil globules and very numer- 
ous conglomerate raphides; the vascular system is full of a 


yellowish viscid secretion ; the wood is loaded with starch. 
The taste of the bark is acrid. 

The fruit is ovoid, 6-striated, tricoccous and fleshy; when ripe 
it is of a pale greenish-yellow ; as it gradually dries up it 
becomes black and partially dehiscent. There is one seed in 
each cell. The seeds {Pignons d'Inde) are of the same shape as 
Castor seeds, | of an inch long and rather less than half an 
inch broad ; the dorsal surface is arched and marked by a hardly 
perceptible ridge about the middle ; the ventral surface has a 
well-marked ridge. At one end of the seed is a white scar. 
The testa is of a dull black and irregularly fissured all over, 
the fissures are yellowish. The kernel is enclosed in a thin, 
white membranous covering like that of the Castor seed. 

The cotyledons are f oliaceous, the radicle short and thick, tlic 
albumen copious and oily. 

Chemical eomjposlthn. — The kernels of the seeds of /. Cuycafi 
were found by Arnaudonand Ubaldini (7ro;?//s Jahrcshcr,, 1858) 
to contain 7*2 per cent, water, 37-5 oil, 55-3 sugar, starcli, 
albumin, casein, and inorganic matters. The kernels yielded 
4-8 per cent, ash, and 4'2 per cent, nitrogen ; the kernels and 
husks together G per cent, ash, and 2-9 per cent, nitrogen. The 
oil yielded by saponification, glycerine and an acid, which, as 
well as the uusaponified oil, produced caprylic alcohol by 
distillation with hydrate of potassium. Eouis had previously 
separated from it a liquid and solid fatty acid, and named the 
latter Isoacetic Acid, C'^H'OQ^. Cadet de Gassicourt (1824) 
found in the seeds an acrid resin. 

r.M. Horn (Z"<Y.^>2a/. C/^m.,xxvii., 163— 165) states that 
the oil begins to crystallize at 9°, and is completely solid at 
0°, at 15° its sp. gr. is 9192. It differs from Castor oil in 

sparing solubility in alcohol. It appc^ars to saponify 
readily in the cold, but in reality forms only acid soaps; 
for complete saponification heat is required, and solid potash 
acts bettor than solution. 


The fluid oleic acid obtained by Bouis may doubtless be 


According to Dr. H. Stillmark, the seeds contain Bicin, the 
poisonous principle of Castor seeds (see Bicimis). 

Toxicology. — Christison (Poisons, p. 591) found from 12 to 
15 drops to have generally the same effect as an ounce of Castor 
oil. Stille and Maisch remark that it is more like Croton oil 
in its action. The acrid emetic j^rinciple resides chiefly in the 
embryo. It is stated that if the embryo is whoUy removed, 
four or five of the seeds may be used as a purgative without 
producing either vomiting or griping. This opinion is sup- 
ported by experiments upon dogs. A nimiber of cases have 
occurred of poisoning by eating the seeds entire. In one case, 
a man who had eaten five of them soon complained of burning 
in the mouth and throat, and the whole abdomen felt distended 
and sore. In a few minutes vomiting occurred^ and was repeated 
five times in the course of an hour, accompanied vrith active 
purging. The pain continued; the patient complained of 
feeling hot and giddy; he then became delirious, and afterwards 
insensible. On regaining consciousness several hours later his 
face was pale^ his hands cool, the pulse 110 and weak. Ho 



recorded in India, and Chevers mentions one in which, in 
addition to the usual symptoms, muscular twitchings, deafness, 
impairment of sight, and loss of memory were observed. 

Jatropha multifida, Liun., SalM. HoH. Paradis., 

t, 9], the Medicinier d'Espagne of the French, and Coral 


tree of the English, is a common ornamental shrub in Indian 
gardens ; it is not used medicinally, and only recLuires a brief 


notice on account of its seeds, which arc powerfully purgative 
and emetic, sometimes giving rise to accidents when eaten by 
children. The plant is easily recognised by its multifid leaves 
and beautifvil, red coral-like panicles of flow^ers. The fruit is 
bright-yellow when ripe, as large as a walnut, six-angled and 
three-celled, each cell contains a scabrous black seed resemblin<r 
that of /, Ciircas. We have found limejuice and stimulants to 
be the best remedies in cases of poisoning by the seeds. The 


plant appears to Ikxyg been introduced by the Portuguese 
from Brazil, where tlio oil of the seeds is known ns Finltocn oil, 
and is used as an emetic. 

At Martinique it is called Ipcca pai/Sj on account of its being 
used in a similar manner ; one seed acts as an ometo-cathartic. 
Oorro and Lejanne state that the Creole women used to prepare 
an " Omnge pwgative" by macerating an orange in the oil for a 
month, and then drying it ; this orange, when rubbed in the 
hands and smelt, was believed to act as a purgative. 

According to Sonbeiran, the oil of these seeds is very 
similar to, if not identical with, that of /. Otircas. 

roxico%?/.— Cases of accidental poisoning by the fruits have 
been recorded in India, chiefly among children Avho have been 
attracted by their tempting colour. The symptoms have been 
similar to those produced by J. Cnrcas. 


'Fig,~LamL III, i. 791 ; A. Jnss. Tent. Eupliorh., t. 12; 
Eumph. Amh. il, t. 58. Candleberry tree (£'i?f7.), Aleurit des 
MoUuques (Fr.). 

Hab. — Pacitic Islands. Cultivated in India. The oih 

F(^r;wf?f7a;-.— Jangli-akhrot {Rind), Ildn-akhrot, Japhala 
{Mar.), Jangli-akhroda {Guz.), Natta-akhrotu {Tarn., TeL), 
Nat-akrodu {Can.}. 

History, Uses, &C.— Pamiphius(iii., 13) states that tbc 

Javanese and Macassars make candles of the seeds of this tree, 
cither pounded and mixed with cocoanut or cotton seeds, or simply 
strung upon a piece of split bamboo ; they also eat the seeds raw 
and ^ roasted. In the South of India, where the tree is nmeh 
cultivated, the seeds are known as Indian walnuts, ^^hcu 
pressed they yield n large proportion of oil, used as a drying 
Oil for paint, and known as country walnut oil, bankoul-uut 
oil and artist's oil, Jn Ceylon it is caUed Ifeli^m oil, and 
m the bnna^vich Islands, where it is used as a mordant 
lurtLc,.vc.:;-,Uo dyes, Kahn oil In these iJands nlo»e 


about lOjOOO gallons are annually produced. It has been 
imported into Europe for soap-makings but not to any- 
con sidcrable extent, [and fctclies about £20 per imperial 
ton. The oil is stated to possess powerful desiccativc j^roporties. 
The cake, after the oil has been expressed, is esteemed 
as a manure. The root of the tree affords a brown dye, 
which is used by the Sandwich Islanders for their native 
cloths. In India the oil is used as a dressing for idcers ; its 
medicinal properties were examined bj Dr. O. Rorke {Ann. de 
Thcrap,, 1859, p. 117), who found that in doses varying from 
1 to 2 ounces it acted as a mild and sure purgative, producing in 
from three to six hours, after ingestion, free bilious evacuations, 
its operation being unattended either by nausea, colic or other 
ill-effects. {Phar, of Indicia p. 203.) From more recent experi- 
ments it appears that half an ounce of the oil is a sufficient 
aperient. MM. Corre and Lcjanne {Resume de le Mat. Med. et 
Tox. CoJoniale) remark : — " There is no doubt that the properties 
of this oil differ when the oil is prepared in different ways." 
"When cold drawn from the fresh nuts, Heckel,, who used it at 
the Military Hospital at Noumea, found that it was only 
purgative in 80 gram doses, that is to say, it simply acted as a 
fatty oil ; he found that the drastic resinous constituents remained 
in the oil-cake. 31. Jugant, at Nosi-Be, found that the oil 
extracted by the hot process acted freely as a purgative in 40 
gram doses. Many observations were made in the Military 
Hospital with the result that the oil was found to operate in 
from 1 to 3 1 hours. Dr. Grasourdy considers the oil to equal 
castor oil in purgative properties. The oil, if intended to be 

used as a purgative, should be extracted by pressure between 
hot plates. 

Description. — A tree of considerable magnitude, attain- 
ing the height of 30 to 40 feet. The leaves are alternate, 
four to eight inches long, stalked and without stipules, either 
oval-acute and entire, or from three to fivc-lobed, and like all 
the young parts covered with a w^hitish starry pubescence. 
The flowers are small and white, growing in clusters at the 
apex of the branches, the males and females together in the 


same cluster, the former being the most numerous. Tlic fruit 
is 2-cellecl, fleshy, roundish, and, when ripe, of an olive colour, 
its greatest diameter about 2^ inches; each cell contains one 
ovoid somewhat flattened nut, the shell of which is very hard 
and thick ; the kernel is conform to the nut, white and oily. 

Chemical conij) oh it ion. —The nuts have been examined by 
Nallino (Gaz. Chim. Ifal, ii., 257), who fouud the average 
weight of the husks to be 6-5 grams, of the almonds 3-3 grams 

Composition of hiisks : water, 3-71; organic matter, 89-90; 

mineral matter, 6-39. Composition of almonds: water, 5'25; 

fat (extracted by carbon sulphide), 62-97; cellulose and other 

C omposition of 


the ash of the almond: lime, 18-69; magnesia, 6-01; potash 
11-33; phosphoric anhydride, 29-30. The fatty matter 
extracted from the almonds by carbon sulphide at ordinary 
temperatures forms a transparent, amber-yellow, syrupy liq^^^ 
When cooled to —10°, it becomes viscous, but neither loses its 
transparency nor changes colour. According to Braiint, 
oil has a specific gravity of 1 -940 at 59°r. It consists of an 
olein resembling linolein, besides myristiu, palmatin aud^cann. 
The purgative principle is probably an acrid resm. 
cake from Indian and Tahitian seeds has respectively the 
following percentage composition : — 



Indian. Tahitian 

8-93 9-20 

Organic matter 74-04 74-24 

8-96 ^'SG 


Water 7-07 720 

The albuminoids were respectively equal to 52 and 51'^ F'" 

cent. {Brannt.), 

An aUied oil (from Akiirif. ^ cordaUi) has been examined by 
air. B. n. Daviea {Pha,,u. Journ, [3] xv., 636). It i« ^^'^ 
wood oil of China, and has remarkable drying properties. The 
sponhe gravity at lO^ oc. is •«) iO, and is unaffected by u 


potasli to convert oiie thousand grams of oil into potash soap 
The fatty acids amounted to 94*1 per cent., melting at 39^, 
containing some white crystalline plates melting at 67^. 


Fig, — BentL and Trim., t 239 ; Rheede^ HoH. MaL u», 
t, 33. Purging Croton [Eng.), Croton cathartique (F/-.). 

Hab- — China, Cultivated in India, The seeds and oil. 

Vernacular. — Jaj^palj Jamalgota ( Kind. ), Jaypdl ( Beng,) , 
Nipalo {Giiz.), Jamalgota (3fa.r,), Nepdla(Can., T6^/,),Nervalam 
{Tarn.), Nirvalam [MaL)^ Kanako [Burm.). 

History, Uses, &C. — Croton seeds were not known to 

the ancient Hindu physicians ; in recent Sanskrit works they 
are noticed under the names of Jayapala, Tittiriphala and 
Kanakaphala, and are described as heavy, mucHaginous and 
purgative, useful in fever, constipation, enlargements of the 
abdominal viscera, ascites, anasarca, cough, &c., expelling bile 
and phlegm. They are directed to be boiled in milk, the outer 
skin and embryo having been removed, to fit them for internal 
administration. The following prescription from the Bhava- 
prakasa may be taken as an example : 

Mahanaracha rasa. — Take Chebulic myrobalans, pulp of 


milky juice of Eupfi 

neriiJoUa (snuhi), root of Ipoma^a Tiuyethujn (trivrit), and 
the tubers of Cyperus rotundus (mustaka), each one tola : pound 
them to a coarse powder, and boil in four seers of water 
till the latter is reduced to one-eighth. Then take a tola of 
husked C roton seeds, tie them in a piece of thin cloth, and boil 
them in the abovementioned decoction, till the latter is reduced 
to the consistence of a fluid extract. To this extract add a 
powder composed of eight parts of purified Croton seeds, three 
parts of ginger, and two of black pepper, mercury, and sulphur 
in quantity sufficient to make a pill mass ; rub them together 
for twelve hours, and make into two-grain pills. These are 

III.— 36 



given with cold water in tympanitis, colic, ascites, &c., as a 
drastic purgative. After the operation of this medicine, rico 
should be given Avith curdled milk and si 

The Indian names for Crotou seeds lead us to suppose that 
they were first introduced into the country through Nepal. 
Under the name of Dand they were known to the Persians at 
a very early date, and were doubtless introduced into that 
country from China by the Caravan route through Central Asia. 
The Arabs retained the Persian name, but also called them 
Hab-el-khatai, " Cathay seeds," and Ilab-el-salatfo, ''Sultans' 
seeds," Ibn Sina describes them under the name of Dand-el- 

" China Dand," and also mentions an Indian Dand of 
smaller size (probably Baliospermum seeds), Ainslie states 
that Croton seeds wore known to the Arabs under the name of 
Mil, but this is incorrect, as may be seen by referring to Ibn 
Sina, who describes Fil as an Indian drug having the properties 
of the ]Mandrake. Mahometan physicians describe the seeds 
as detergent, a purgative of phlegm, black bile, and adust 
humors; and recommend their use in dropsy, calculus, gout, 
and other diseases arising from cold humors. On account of 
its irritant action upon the fauces, the seed, after having been 
boiled in milk, is to be crushed and enclosed in a raisin for 
administration. The author of the McMzau remarks that the 
Hindus give small doses with fresh ginger tea, to children, as 
a remedy for whooping cough. He also notices its irritant 
action upon the skin, and its use as an external application to 
tumours, Sec.; should excessive purging occur, he directs 
limejuice to be administered. The envelopes of the seed and 
plumule must always be rejected. Croton Tiglium was first 
described by Christoval Acosta in 1578, afterwards by Eheede 
in 1679, and Rumphius In 1743. In 1812, Drs. White and 
Marshall brought the use of the seeds as a purgative to the 
notice of Europeans in India. The former gentleman gi 
the following directions for their administration, which he 
received from a learned Parsce Yaidia of Surat :-"Af^e' 
having removed the shells from the seeds, tie the kernels in a 
email piece of cloth, like a bag ; then put this into as much 


ves I 




co^dung water as will cover the bag, and let it boil ; secondly, 
when boiled, split the kernels in two and take a small leaf 
from tbem, which is said to be poisonous; and thirdly, pound 
the whole into a mass, to which add two parts of Katha 
(catechu)^ and divide into pills of two grains each, two of 
which are sufficient for one dose." The addition of the Katha 
is said to correct the acrimony of the drug, and to prevent any 
griping of the bowels. 

^n^Me [Mat, Indica^ Vol. I., p. 105) notices the use of the 
expressed oil (nervalum unnay) h^ the Tamils as an external 
application in rheumatic affections, but it does not appear to 
have been used for internal administration until the year 1821. 
[Confer, London Medical Depository for January 1822.) 

In modern European medicine, croton oil, more or less diluted, 
is used externally as a counter-irritant, and causes an abundant 
pustular eruption. This effect is increased by the addition of 
an alkali to the liniment. Internally it is given in doses 
of I to 1 minim as a purgative, and is particularly valuable 
in those cases in which the condition of the patient prevents 
him from swallowing ; it may be placed on the back of the 
tongue. The oil has also been used with success as an anthel- 
mintic. In modern pharmacy its chief consumption is in 
the preparation of castor oil capsules. 

Description. — Croton seeds {graines de Tilly) are oblong, 

about half an inch long, and not quite f of an inch broad. 
The dorsal and ventral surfaces are arched, the former more 
prominently than the latter. The testa is black, but covered for 
the most part by a thin cinnamon-coloured membrane; it is thin 
and brittle, and contains an abundant oily albimien enclosed 
in a delicate white membrane (endopleura). Between the two 
halves of the albumen are two foliaceous cotyledons, and a 
short thick radicle. The structure of these parts closely 
resembles that of the albumen and embryo oiRicinus communis^ 

Chemical composition^ — The fats present in croton oil are 
glycerides of stearic, palmitic, myristic, and lauric acids, and of 
several volatile acids of the same series, like acetic, butyric, and 


valerianic acid; also the rdlatile tiglinic acid, C^R^O^, Vihich 
was recognized by Geuther and rrolich (1870), but bad 
previously been observed by Scblippe (1858), wbo considered it 
to be identical with angelicic acid. However, it melts at 64° C, 
boils at 198-5° C, and is identical with Frankland and Duppa's 
methylcrotoiiic acid. In the fraction boiling above the 
temperature named, capronic, cenanthylic, or similar acids are 
probably present. They did not succeed in obtaining from croton 
oil an acid having the composition of Schlippe's crofonic acid, 
Q^K^O\ E. Schmitt (1879) corroborated these statements, and 
found among the volatile acids also formic acid. Schlippe's 
crotonol, C'^H^^O*, has likewise not been obtained by other 
chemists ; it was stated to be a yellowish viscid mass of a faint 
odour, and to be the rubefacient principle of croton oil. The 
drastic rubefacient properties, according to Buchheim (1873), 
reside in crotonoleic acid, which is present in the free state and 
as glyceride, and which seems to be related to ricin oleic acid, 
since, like the latter, it yields with nitric acid oenanthic acid, 
and on the distillation of its sodium salt gives cenanthol. 
(Stille and Maisch.) 

H. Senier {Pharm. Journ. [3], XIV., 446, 447) has shown 
that when alcohol (sp. gr. -794— -800) is mixed in equal 
volumes with English pressed croton oil, perfect solution takes 
place, the mixture being permanent at all ordinary tempera- 
tiires, and this is equally true when any less quantity ot 
alcohol is used; when, however, the proportion of alcohol to 
croton oil becomes as seven volumes to six, or any larger 
proportion of alcohol, then a part of the croton oil separates. 
This part varies in quantity in the case of different samples of 
oil. That part of the croton oil which separates when the 
alcohol is in excess is afterwards insoluble in any proportion of 
alcohol. But that portion of the oil dissolved by alcohol is, 
when separated, soluble in aU proportions. The author has 
shown that the part of croton oil soluble in alcohol contains the 
vesicatmg principle, while the portion insoluble in alcohol is 
entirely non-vesicating. He also shows that the purgative 
properties of croton oU reside entirely in this insoluble, 


non-vesicating part. The author has endeavoured to ascertain to 
what constituent of the soluble portion of the oil the vesicating 
properties are due, and has traced these properties to the non- 
volatile fatty acids, chiefly to those which have the lowest 
melting points, are least readily saponified by alkalies, and are 
first liberated when the alkali soap is decomposed by acids. 
He attributes the purgative action not to the free acids, but 
to the combination in which they e3:ist in the oil. 

These conclusions not appearing satisfactory to Professor 
Kobert, the investigation was taken up by Herr von Hirsch- 
heydt, a pupil in the University of Dorpat. Upon the basis 
of the results obtained, Professor Kobert now ( Chem. Zeit., 
April 6, 1887^ p. 416) attributes the activity of croton oil, both 
as a vesicant and as a purgative, to crotonoleic acid, not to be 
confounded with crotonic acid, but an acid discovered by Buch- 
heim in 1873, to which a formula has not yet been assigned. 
This crotonoleic acid is said to occur in croton oil both in the 
free state, in which it is freely soluble in alcohol, and in 
combination as a glyceride. The glyceride does not possess 
poisonous properties, but the free acid acts as a powerful 
irritant to the skin and the intestines (purgative) . According 
to Professor Kobert, the crotonolglyceride is attacked and 
split up like other glycerides by the ferments of the juices of 
the stomach, and the crotonoleic acid being set free then 
exercises its purgative influence. A similar result may be 
obtained by administering crotonoleic acid as a pill enclosed in 
keratin. Kobert is not of opinion, however, that the solubility 
of croton oil is dependent upon the proportion of crotonoleic 
acid it contains, but considers it to be connected with the age 
of the oil. Crotonoleic acid may be prepared by treating the 
portion of croton oil soluble in alcohol with a hot saturated 
solution of baryta in a water-bath, washing the stiff white paste 
that forms with cold distilled water to remove excess of baryta 
and barium compounds with acetic, butyric and tiglinic acid 
removing by heat traces of water, and repeatedly treating with 
ether, which only takes up the barium oleate and crotonoleate. 
The crotonoleate is separated by dissolving it out in alcohol^ 


decomposed carefully with sulphuric acid, and the solution 
containing the free acid evaporated. {Pkarm. Journ., April 
30th, 1887.) According to Dr. H. Stillmark, croton seeds 
contain Ricin, the poisonous principle of castor seeds, [See 

Toxicology. — The seeds are said to be used in Java for killing 
fish^ and the oil has been shown to have the same effect upon 
the carnivora as upon man. When eaten^ the seeds cause 
nausea and eructation, followed by flatulent distension of the 
abdomen^ colic and diarrhoea. A single seed is reported to 
have proved fatal. The oil, in the dose of 1 drop, occasions 
more or less of an acrid and burning sensation in the fauces 
and oesophagus, a sense of warmth in the stomach, nausea, and 
sometimes vomiting. In an hour or two, some gurgling or 
slight colic is perceived in the bowels, followed somewhat 
suddenly by a watery stool with tenesmus, and heat about the 
anus. Within 24 hours eight or ten more stools follow, aiid 
there is but little general disturbance of the economy, except 
considerable weakness. Sometimes, instead of producmg 
evacuations, the oil causes epigastric uneasiness and oppression, 
palpitation of the heart, headache, feverishness, perspiration, 
and sleep. It would appear that the acrid principle of the 
oil is not the sole cause of its cathartic operation, for even after 
being thoroughly washed with alcohol and rendered mild to 
the taste, as well as incapable of pustulating the skin, it is stiu 
strongly purgative. [Stille and Maisch.) No cases of poison- 
ing by croton seeds or oil in India appear to have been recorded. 

During the expression of croton oil in India, the workmen, 
who are naked, with the exception of a cloth round the loins, 
have been observed to suffer from redness and irritation of the 
Bkin, evidently produced by some volatile constituent of the oik 


Hab.— -Bengal, Silhet, Behar, Central India, Deccan 
Peninsula, Burma, and Ceylon. The root-bark, leaves, and 



Vernacular. — dmclca^ Bar^gacli {Beng.), Arjuna {Kind.), 
Kote, Putol [MaL), Bhutan-kusam {Tel,)^ Ghanasura {Mar.), 
Gote (Santal), Kurti, Konja, Kuli, Poter (ITol), Gonsurong 

History, Uses, &C^ — Brandishas noticed the use of 
the bark, leaves and fruit of this plant in native medicine, and 
Dr. Irvine the use of the seeds as a purgative. From the Diet, 
Econ. Prod, of India we learn that the Santals use the bark 
and root as a purgative and alterative. We have been unable 
to find anj^ notice of the drug in native works on Indian Materia 
Medica. Roxburgh, though he describes the tree as common in 
forests near Calcutta, is silent upon the subject. Dalzell and 
Gibson, in the Bomhay Flora (p, 231), remark that^"the plant 
is used medicinally by the natives to reduce swellings.'^ The 
author of the Mat. Med. of West. India remarks : — *^ When on a 
visit to Goa in 1876, my attention was drawn by the native doc- 
tors to the root-bark of a small tree as being one of the most 
valuable medicines they possessed ; this plant, unknown to me 
at the time, proved on subsequent iuA'estigation to be C. ohlongi^ 
faints. The Goanese and inhabitants of the Southern Concan 
administer the bark in chronic enlargements of the liver and in 
remittent fever. In the former disease it is both taken internally 
and applied externally • As an application to sprains, bruises, 
rheumatic swellings, &c., it is in great request. In lai-ge doses 
it is said to be purgative.*' Fliickiger and Hanbury {F/iar- 
macographiay p. 510) state that the seeds are said to be sometimes 
substituted for those of G. Tiglium. The tree is rare in the 

Bombay Presidency, 


Concan, where it has a reputation as a remedy in snake-bites. 
In Goa it is more common. 

Description. — Trunk straight; bark ash-coloured, and 

pretty smooth; leaves petioled, alternate, and thickly set about 
the ends of the branchlets, spreading or drooping, oblong, 
serrate, obtuse-pointed > very, smooth on both sides, from six to 
twelve inches long, petioles roimd and smooth, with a lateral 
gland on each side of their apices; stipules small, caducous; 


racemes terminal, generally solitary, erect, sHorter than tLe 
leaves ; flowers solitary, a few female ones mixed with many 
male ones, small, of a pale yellowish-green ; bracts 3-fold, one- 
flowered^ on the inside of each of the small lateral bracts is a 
round permanent gland^ as in Scsamum indicum ; male calyx 
deeply 5-cleft, petals six, smaller than the calyx, very woolly; 
filaments twelve^ distinct, nine in the circumference and three 
in the centre, woolly towards the base; female calyx and corol 
as in the male ; stamens none ; germ globular ; styles three, each 
divided into two very long, variously bent segments ; capsules 
globular, fleshy, six-furrowed, tricoccous. [Roxb.) 

The root is twisted, often somewhat flattened, bark thickish, 
externally light-brown and scaly, internally yellowish, mottled 
with brown, substance compact and resinous, odour highly 
aromatic, taste peppery and camphoraceous* Wood white, soft. 

Microscopic stnictnre. — Sections of the bark show that the 
epidermis consists of about five rows of elongated cells placed 
horizontally; their walls are much thickened by a dark-browu 
deposit, which produces a patchwork appearance. The paren- 
chyma is loaded with large globular or oval highly refractive 
bodies of a yellowish colour ; there are also numerous dark 
purplish-brown particles, which are sometimes single but 
usually arranged in irregular concentric rows ; they appear to 
be due to a deposit in the vascular system of a resinous nature* 

Chemical comjyosition. — The fresh root-bark was contused, and 
exhausted with warm 80 per cent, alcohoh The tincture was 
of a red colour. The alcoholic extract was mixed with water 
and agitated with petroleum ether, when reddish flocks 
separated. The solution was acid in reaction. The petroleum 
ether solution left on spontaneous evaporation a transparent 
viscid yellow residue, possessing a camphoraceous and pepper- 
like odour and taste. With the exception of some white flocks, 
the extract was soluble in cold alcohol with acid reaction ; the 
Bolution afforded no coloration with ferric chloride. 

The turbid 


the reddi 


flocks referred to as having separated on agitation with 
petroleum etlier. The ether was separated from the turhid 
aqueous layer, and agitated with dilute sulphuric acid to 
separate any alkaloidal principle. The acid aqueous solution 
was then rendered alkaline and reagitated with ether. The 
ethereal solution left on spontaneous evaporation a slightly 
greenish transparent varnish-like residue, partly soluble in 
dilute sulphuric acid, the solution affording marked alkaloidal 
reactions. With Frohde's reagent a dirty red to purple colour 
was observed, but no other special colour reactions were noted. 

The original ethereal solution, after the agitation with 
sulphuric acid, left on spontaneous evaporation a brittle, trans- 
parent, yellow residue, sokible in alcohol with strong acid 
reaction, but affording no colour reaction with ferric salts. 
By the action of dilute aqueous caustic soda a part of the 
ethereal extract was dissolved with a deep port-wine red 
coloration. The portion insoluble in the alkaline solution 
was yellowish. The alkaline solution, on the addition of dilute 
acids, afforded yellow flocks, neai\Iy wholly soluble in ether, and 
leaving a transparent yellow varnish on spontaneous evapor- 
ation, with a slightly bitter taste and acid reaction in alcoholic 
solution. The reddish flocks insoluble in petroleum and 
ordinary ether wore separated from the original aqueous 
solution, and, when dry, formed a dirty reddish friable mass 
without taste or odour. In dilute alcohol this principle was 
soluble with acid reaction, the solution being of a port- wine 
colour, and possessing a slight spicy odour and taste. The 
solution, after being neutralized with ammonia, which deepened 
the tint, afforded a dirty plum- coloured precipitate with 
acetate of lead. To the original now clear aqueous solution of 
the alcohol extractive carbonate of soda was added^ which 
caused a carmine-coloured precipitate, and the liquid agitated 
with ether, which failed to dissolve the precipitate. The 
ethereal solution left on evaj^oration a trace of residue, partly 
soluble in dilute suphuric acid, the acid solution reacting with 
alkaloidal reagents. With Frohde's reagent the colour was 
dirty red to purple, and, like the principle first extracted by 

III.— 37 



ether from the acid aqueous solution, yielding no other special 

colour reactions. The carmine flocks precipitated hy the 
alkali, and which were insoluble in ether, were separated by 
filtration, the filtrate being of a logwood colour, and washed 
with cokl water in which they were slightly soluble : on 
ignition an alkaline ash was left. By dilute acids the carmine 
precipitate was changed to salmon -yellow, the original colour 
being restored by alkalies. An aqueous solution gave a 
carmine-coloured precipitate with acetate of lead. 

The original aqueous alkaline solution was lastly acidified 
with dilute sulphuric acid, which caused the separation of 
salmon-coloured flocks, and agitated with amylic alcohol. The 
amy lie alcohol extract was reddish-yellow, becoming of a deep 
carmine hue .with alkalies, and afforded a carmine precipitate 
with acetate of lead ; acids destroyed the colour and caused a 
precipitate of salmon-coloured flocks practically insoluble in 
ether. By heating with zinc dust, the dried principles, which 
gave coloured precipitates with alkalies and acetate of lead, 
afforded no crystalline sublimates. The freshly contused root- 
bark afforded on steam distillation a small amount of a colourless 
volatile oil possessing a marked camphoraeeous and pepper-Hke 
odour and taste. 

In this inrestigation the principles which afforded coloured 
precipitates with alkalies were the most interesting, and these 
principles would appear to have been acids. It will be noted 
that the original aqueous solution of the alcoholic extract was 
not treated with any foreign acid prior to agitation with 
petroleum and ordinary ether. The flocks which separated 
during agitation with petroleum ether, and which were insoluble 
in ether, gave from an alcoholic solution a different coloured 
precipitate with acetate of lead, from the acids which were 
subsequently precipitated when the aqueous solution of the 
extract was rendered alkaline and agitated with ether, and 
when the alkaHne solution was subsequently acidified before 
agitation with amylic alcohol. The last two acids referred to 
were, we consider, identical. The sodium salt of the acid was 
only sUghtly soluble in water, while the free acid was at best 


only slightly soluble in ether. The addition of sodic carbonate 
hence caused the precipitation of the greater part of the sodium 
salt, a small amount only remaining in solution. The 
subsequent addition of sulphuric acid decomposed the sodium 
salt in solution, with separation of the free acid in salmon- 
coloured flocks. As regards the identity of this acid with the 
one or ginally separated on agitation with petroleum ether, and 
ether, though the colour of the lead salt w^as different, it might 
have been due to the presence of foreign matters, and we are 
inclined to the view that these acid princix3les were similar. 
The alkaloidal principle from the first ether extract, and that 
obtained from the alkaline ether, were also probably identical. 


Fig.— WigM 7c., t 877; M/ieede, Hort. MciL x., t 81 
Habc — Hotter parts of India. 


Fig. — RheedCy Hort, MaL x., t. 83, 

Hab, — Deccan Peninsula. The herb. 

Vernacular. --Kn-p^i, Khokali (Ilind.j Mar.), Dadaro (Guz.), 
Muktajuri, Shwet-basanta (Beng.) yKn-p-paimcnii Tarn.), Kni^pai- 
chettu, Murkanda-chettu, Puppanti, Harita-mau jari ( TeL ), 
Chalmari, Kuppi (Can.), Kuppa-mani {MaL) 

History, Uses, &C. — The medicinal properties of these 
plants are well known in India, but we have been unable to 
find any notice of them in the standard Sanskrit medical works. 

Ainslie gives Aritamunjayrie as the Sanskrit name, which is 
evidently meant for Harita-manjari, "a plant with clusters of 
green flowers,'' a very appropriate name. Rhecde describes two 
species of Acalypha^ Cupamcni [A. indica), and W61ia-cupameni 
(A. paniculata); he gives Manjara-sejari as the brahminical 
name of the first, and states that the juice, made into a lini- 
ment with oil, is used in rheumatism and venereal pains and 
eruptions^ and^ with the addition of lime, in skin diseases^ that 


the root rubbed down with hot water is given as a cathartic ; 
the leaves with water as a laxative, and in decoction to relieve 
the pain of earache. Of the second, he says that when rubbed 
down in rice-water and applied locally, it relieves pain^ and that 
the juice with sesamum oil is useful in erysipelatous inflammation, 
ha3morrhoids, and the pain in the belly called by the Malabars 
Quinao. Ainslie says of A, indica :—'' The root, leaves and 
tender shoots are all used in medicine by the Hindus. The 
powder of the dry leaves is given to children in worm cases, also 
a decoction of them with the addition of a little garlic. The 
juice of the same part of the plant, together with that of the 
tender shoots, is occasionally mixed with a small portion oi 
margosa oil, and rubbed on the tongues of infants for the pur- 
pose of sickening them and clearing their stomachs of viscid 
phlegm. The hakims prescribe the Koopamaynee in consump- 
tion/' Ini^i^ TharmacojKeia of India i-^, 205), the following 
reference to this plant by Dr. &. Bidie, of Madras, will be 
found : — *' The expressed juice of the leaves is in great repute, 
wherever the plant grows, as an emetic for children, and is 
safe, certain, and speedy in its action. Like Ipecacuanha, it 
seems to have little tendency to act on the bowels or depress the 
vital powers, and it decidedly increases the secretion of the 
pulmonary organs- The dose of the expressed juice for an 
infant is a tcaspoonfuL" Dr. M. Eoss speaks highly of its use 
as an expectorant^ ranking it in this respect with senega ; he 
found it specially useful in the bronchitis of children. -I he 
purgative action of the root noticed by Hheede is confirmed by 
Dr. H. E. Busteed^ who has used it as a laxative for children. 
In Bombay the plant has a reputation as an expectorant, hence 
the native name Khokli (cough). Brigade-Surgeon Langley, 
in a communication to Dr. Watt, Diet. Econ. Prod, LhL^ Yob I-, 
writes:—" This plant is called in Canara Ghalmari as well 
as Kuppi. The natives use it in congestive headaches : a piece 
of cotton is saturated with the expressed juice and inserted into 
each nostril; this relieves the head symptoms by causing 
hLciuorrhage from the nose. The powder of the dry leaves ia 
used in bedsores and wounds attacked by worms. In asthma 

mpR oubia cem. 293 


and bronchitis I havo employed it witli benefit both for children 
and adults/^ Dr, Langley recommends a tincture of the fresh 
herb made with sj)irits of ether (3 ozs. to one pint), dose 20 to 
60 minims, frequently repeated during the day^ in honey ; it acts 
as an expectorant and nauseant ; in large doses it is emetic. 

Description. — -4. indica. — Stem erect, from 1 to 2 feet 

high, branchy, round, smooth ; leaves scattered, petioled, ovate- 
cordate, 3-nerved, serrate, smooth, about 2 inches long and 
1^ broad ; petioles as long as the leaves; stipules small, subulate ; 
spikes axillary, generally single, peduncled, erect, as long as 
the leaves, many-flowered, crowned with a body in the form of 
a cross, the base of which is surrounded with a 3-leaved 
calyx, the arms of the cross are tubular, with their mouths 
fringed, from the base of the cross on one side issues a style-like 
thread, with a fringed stigma, the body of the cross contains 
an ovate seed like substance ; male flowers numerous, crowded 
round the upper part of the spike, calyx 4-leaved, leaflets 
cordate, filaments minute, numerous ; female flowers below the 
male, remote ; involucre cup-formed, with an opening on the 
inner side, striated, smooth, toothed, from 2 to 4-flowercd j 
calyx 3-leaved. {Roxb.), 

A, panictilata is a pubescent undcr-shrub or herb, with long- 
petioled ovate-acuminate leaves which are coarsely and equally 
serrated. The male flowers are in axillary, filiform spikes, 
and the female in axillary and terminal racemes or panicles ; 
the bracts are minute and not enlarged in fruit. Capsule If 
inch in diameter, 3-lobed, glandular, styles 3 — 7-partite. 

Chemical compozition. — The whole plant of A. Tndi'ca w^as dried 
at a low temperature, reduced to powder, and exhausted with 
80 per cent, alcohol. The alcoholic extract was mixed with 
water, acidulatedwith sulphuric acid, and agitated with petroleum 
ether, and ether ; the solution was then rendered alkaline and 

agitated with ether. 


quantity of dark matter separated, which was partly soluble in 
ether, and in alkalies, and contained much colouring matter. 

The petroleum ether extract was dark and viscid, and had an 

294 EUPllOmiACEJS. 

aromatic odour, but did not yield any crystalline deposit on 
standing: in absolute alcohol it was soluble^ and on spon- 
taneous evaporation some yellow matter separated, wbich \v^as 
destitute of crystalline structure on microscopic examination. 
The alcoholic solution had no special taste. The ether extract 
was yellovr, and had an aromatic somewhat tea-like odour, and 
on standing became indistinctly crystalline. In warm water 
, a portion dissolved, the solution possessing a strong acid 
reaction, and affording a dirty reddish coloration with fernc 
chloride : it did not precipitate gelatine, and gave no reaction 
with cyanide of potassium. The portion insoluble in water 
was dissolved by ammonia, afPording a deep yellow coloured 
solution with a somewhat camphoraceous odour, the addition 
of acids causing the precipitation of whitish flocks. 

The ether extract obtained from the original aqueous solution, 
after it had been rendered alkaline, contained a well-markea 
alkaloidal principle, which after purification afforded tKe 
following reactions : with Frohde's reagent pinkish in the cold, 
dirty blue on warming ; with sulphuric acid yellowish-red ; no 
reaction with sulphuric acid and potassium bichromate ; no 
reaction with ferric chloiide ; with nitric acid a yellow color- 
ation ; it was not precipitated by chromate of potash from an 
aqueous solution acidulated with sulphuric acid; taste barsn, 
without bitterness. We propose provisionally to call tms 
principle AcaJyphhie. 

Ainslio notices the use of A. fruticosa, Forsk., as a 
stomachic and alterative, an infusion of the leaves being used. 
[Jilat. Lul., ii. 388.) 


Tig.—Wifjht Ic, t 1870—1 ; Baill. EtucL Gen. Euphorh., 

t. 18,/. 18-23; Eheede, Hort. MaL u, t. 42. 

Hab. — Hotter parts of India. The root. 

P Vcrnacuiar.—VinJiivvL, Ttimri, Bhilaura {Ilind.), Pi^aU 
{Bcuif-), Pitari, Sivani IMar.), Kat-kumbla {Can.), K»»<=hi 

EVPEOnmACE^. 295 


History, Uses, &C. — This tree bears the Sanskrit 
names of Pindara, Karahata, and Kurangaka. It is described 
in the Nighantas as sweet and cooling, useful for the removal of 
swellings, bile and phlegm ; the root is prescribed in gouty or 
rheumatic affections. Rheede describes the plant under the 
name of Canschiy and states that the root in decoction is used 
to relieve flatulence, and is applied locally in gout. 

Description. — The root has a thickish bark, which is 
of a light-brown colour externally^ nearly smooth, and studded 


here and there with a few small lenticular corky worts. On 
rubbing off the thin brown suberous layer a dull-red surface is 
exposed. The bark is fibrous and tough, and has a subaromatic, 
astringent and slightly bitter taste. The wood is white and 

Chemical composition. — The fresh root-bark was contused and 
exhausted with 80 per cent, alcohol ; the alcoholic extract 
mixed with water acidulated with sulphuric acid, and agitated 
successively with petroleum ether, and ether ; then rendered 
alkaline with sodic carbonate and agitated first with ether and 
lastly with amylic alcohol. 

During agitation with petroleum ether a large amount of 

resinous matter separated. The petroleum ether extract con- 
tained a large amount of colouring matter and had a persistent 
bitter taste. By agitation with water acidulated with sulphuric 
acid and ether, it was separated into two portions, a portion 
soluble in ether, which contained the greater part of the 
colouring matter, and some fat; while the aqueous acid solution 
held in suspension yellowish flocks consisting of a neutral 
resinous principle. 

The acid ether extract was small in amount, partly soluble 
in water with acid reaction; the solution giving a blue-Uack 
coloration with ferric chloride, and precipitating gelatine, but 
giving no reaction with potassium cyanide. On adding 
ammonia to the ether extract, a yellow to brown sherry colour 
was produced. The ammonlacal solution was agitated with 
ether, which removed a small amount of whitish resinous 


matter, insoluble in water and containing no alkaloidal principle. 
The ammoniacal solution contained resinous matter. 

The alkaline ether extract contained traces of an alkaloid, 
which, after purification, gave a very faint-yellow coloration 
with Fruhde's reagent in the cold, the colotir becoming faintly 
greenish on warming; concentrated nitric acid gave a slight 
yelloAV coloration. 

The amy lie alcohol extract contained some resinous matter, 
nnd an alkaloidal principle in larger amount than was present 
in the ether extract, but Avhich we consider to be identical. 

The resinous matter which separated on originally shaking 
the alcoholic extract with petroleum ether, and which was 
insoluble in it, also failed to dissolve in ether ; it was also 
insoluble in aqueous sodic carbonate, and had the properties of 


Fig^^BeniL am! Trim., t. 236; Bedd. FL Si/k., t2S9; 
Hoxh. Coi\ PL «\, t. 168; Pheede, Eort. Mai. i\, 21, 24. 

Hab. — Throughout Tropical India. The glands aud 

r^>v?a^?f/ar.— Kapala, Kamala {Hiiul), Kamila {Bpng,)y 
Kapila, Kapita, Kamila {Mar.), Vasare, Chandrahittu {Cm.), 
KrimpiUa {Guz.\ Kapli, Ka^^ila (^a;;^.), Kdpila-pod [Tel). 

History, Uses, &C.— The glandidar powder obtained 
from this plant has been used as a dye in India from a very 
l-emotc period. It was probably collected, as at the present 
time, by the aboriginal tribes, who call it RiiJiin^ before the 
Hindus invaded India. In Sanskrit it is known as KampiHa, 
and bears the synonyms of Rochanika^ Hochana-rakta arid 
Lohita-rakta, in allusion to its red colour. In the Nighantas 
it is described as useful in removing phlegm, bile, stone, worms, 
enlarged glands, boils, &c., and the leaves arc said to be 
astringent mul cooling. In the WiavapraJcdsa one tola with 
treacle is -id to kill and expel all intestinal worms. It 


is also prescribed for worms in combination witb the seeds 
of Emhelia Rihes (vaverang), cbebulic myrobalans, carbonate 
of potash, and rock salt. [Chahradatta.) The Arabs became 
acquainted with Kampilla at an early date, and through them 
it appears to have reached Europe, and to have been known to 
the later Greek physicians about the 7th century, Ibn 
Massowiyeh, physician to the Caliph Haroon-el-Raschid, speaks 
of it as highly astringent, a good anthelmintic, and a useful 
application to moist eruptions of the skin, which it soon dries 
up. It is also mentioned by Razij Tamimi, Baghd^di, Ibn 
Sina, Ibn Baitar and others, all of whom appear to have been 
in much doubt as to its nature, but distinguish it from Wars, 
a product of Arabia, the source of which they were acquainted 
with, Ibn Sina says of Kanbil : — " It is in grains like sand, 
red, but less so than TFars^ hot and dry in the third degree ; 
Ibn Massowiyeh considers to be highly astringent; it kills 
worms and flukes of the intestines and expels them." Of 
TFars, he says : — ^^It is a substance like powdered saffron, of an 

intense red colour ( ^il5 



third degr 

application to pimples^ 

freckles, &c." (A number of skin eruptions are named, the exact 
nature of which is doubtful.) 

The author oi t}ie Makhzany. "nIolo wrote in India (1770), is 
strangely ignorant of the source of this drug. He says : 
** Kinbil is an Arabic form of the Persian Kampilla and Hindi 
Kamila"; he then recapitulates the various opinions held 
as to the source of the drug, and concludes by saying : 
*^ I have heard that it is the pulp of the fruit of a mountain- 
tree like the Ma^asfar^ but its leaves are rather larger, and it ia 
armed with long stiff thorns, and has fruit like a lime, which 
is green when young and red when ripe ; when ripe it bursts 
open and a dull-red substance escapes and falls on the ground : 
this is collected,, and is Eanbil/* Regarding its properties, he 
says that in doses of from 1 to 2 dirhems rubbed into an 
emulsion with any suitable vehicle it expels all kinds of intes- 
tinal worms, and at the same time acts as a purgative. Speaking 

in." 38 


• of Wars, the same author says that there is a black kind, which 
comes froni Ethiopia, and is called * HabsM/ and a dull-red 
kind which is called Indian, and is the worst (as a dye); he 
concludes by saying the seeds of the Wui'S are like Mash 
{Phaseolus radiatiis). There is no mention of its use as an 
anthelmintic ; it is described as an aphrodisiac, lithontriptic, 
and remedy for ringworm, pityriasis and freckles. Sprengel 
thought that the source of Wan was Memecylon Unctorium. 
(Confer. Eist MecL, t II., p. 444, ed. tert.; also Hist, rei 
Herb., t I., p. 258.) 

Rheede first figured and described the plant ; he states that 
the leaves, fruit and root with honey are applied to poisoned 
bites, bruises, &c, Buchanan (Journey through Mysore in 1801) 
notices Kamala ; it has also been noticed by Ainslie^ Roxburgh, 
and Royle, but Mackinnon of Bengal, in 1858, was the first to 
introduce it into European practice in India ; since then it has 
been used with success by many medical men in India and 
Europe. Previous to this, Yaughan had sent Kamala to Hanbury 
from Aden under the name of WarSj and had described its use 
us a dye, and as a remedy in certain skin diseases. {Pharm. 
Joum., Vol. xii., p. 386, 1853.) The true Arabian Wars does 
not appear to have attracted attention in Europe until 1867, 
when it was imported by Messrs. AUen and Hanburys of 
London. The source of Wars remained unknown until 1884, 
when it was ascertained to be the glands oi the -pod ot Flemmgi^ 
Grahamiana, a leguminous plant common in Arabia and 
India. {See Flemingia.) 

As noticed in the Pharmacographia, the names Kanbll 
and Kamula are not in use in the bazars at Aden ; the 
Indian Kamdla being now commonly know^n there as Wars. 

The dose of Kamala is from one to two drachms, or one to 
thru^ lluid drachms of a saturated tincture may be employed ; 
it docs not cause much nausea, coHc, or purging. The parasite 
is generally discharged dead, and it appears to bo equally 
cfTicucxous in removing all kinds of worms. The dose should 
be repeated several times at intervals of about three hours. 

^ I 




Description, — Kamala is a red powder, which varies in 
depth of colour, mixed with it are greenish-yellow fragments of 
the capsule of the plant ; like lycopodium it is inflammable and 
resists admixture with water- Alcohol and ether dissolve a 
considerable portion of it^ and the solution poured in water 
emits a melon-like odour. 

Microscopic structure, — Each grain of Kam^la is a spherical 
body, consisting of an outer delicate membrane within which 
may be seen a structureless mass of yellow colour^ in which are 
embedded numerous club-shaped cells, arranged with their 
thick ends outwards ; in order to examine these cells the drug 
must be exhausted of its resin by alcohol or potash. The 
hairs which are found mixed with the glands are stellate, each 
hair being one-celled and thick- walled. 

Chemical conii^osition. — Pure Kamala contains only between '5 
and 3-5 per cent, of moisture, and yields to ether? alcohol, amyl 
alcohol, glacial acetic acid, or carbon disulphido^ about 80 per 
cent, of resin, which is also soluble in alkalies, but not in benzine, 
and whose alcoholic solution is coloured dingy-green by ferric 
chloride, (FlucJciger.) Leube (1860) analyzed a sample of Kamdla 
which yielded nearly 29 per cent, of ash» 47 'C of rcsin^ and 
19 '7 of other soluble matters, consisting of citric, oxalic, and 
tannic acids, gums, &c. Cold alcohol dissolved a resin, 

Ci5g;i80\ fusible at 80*='C., and left a more sparingly soluble 
resin, C^H^^O^ melting at 191^0. Both resins are brittle, 
reddish -yellow, soluble in alkalies with a red colour, not altered 
by dilute acids, and when treated with nitric acid yield oxaKo 
acid. Leube could not obtain Anderson's Rottlerin^ C'^H^^O' 
or C^^H^^O^ (1855), which crystallized from the concentrated 
ethereal tincture in yellow silky needles. Groves (1872) 
ascertained that it is easily modified by exposure to air, 
and is consequently obtained only from the recent drug, 
Fliickiger subsequently observed that on being fused with 
potassa, rottlerin jiiAii^paraoxyhenzoic acid, Anderson's resinous 
colouring matter has the compositiom C^^H-^^O^ melts at 100^ 0., 
is easily soluble in alcohol and ether, and yields with lead acetate 


an orange-coloured precipitate. By treating Kamdla with "boil- 
ing alcoholj and cooling, amorphous floccules of the composition 
(^^ojj.UQi, ^j.^ obtained, which are sparingly soluble in cold 
alcohol and ether, and are not precipitated by lead or silver 
salts. [National Disjpematory.) 

Messrs. A. G.Perkin and W. H. Perkin, Junr.(^mc;//^, 1886), 
have recently separated from Kamala a substance which they 
name Mallotoxin, C'^H^^O^ or C'^II^^^'O^ It was obtained 
by shaking powdered Kamala with bisulphide of carbon, 
evaporating the solution, and treating the residue with Just 
enough bisulphide of carbon to remove the resinous impurities. 
It was finally purified by crystallization from benzine or 
toluene. It formed small flesh-coloured needles, soluble in 
alkalies, alcohol and acetic acid, but insoluble in water. It 
appears to be identical with the rottlerin of Anderson, Later 
still, L. Jarvein (5^>\, xx., 182) obtained a yellow crystalline 
substance from Kamdla, melting at 200"^, to which he gave the 
same name and formula as Anderson's rottlerin. 

The bark of this tree is astringent, and Professor Hummel 
found it to contain 6*5 per cent, of tannin. 

Carefully selected, Kamala, according to P. Siedler, will not 
contain more than 1"5 per cent, of ash, whilst the commercial 
article yields from 21-8 to 49^1 per cent. By sifting, fractions 
may be obtained containing as low as 5'2 and as high as 25 per 
cent. High percentage of mineral matter maybe due to careless 
collection, or to adulteration ; in the latter case^ the ash may 
range from 50 to 80 per cent. The percentage of ash has notably 
increased of late, and by sifting it is often impossible to get the 
drug containing less than 14 per cent, of ash. Of 45 samples 
examined by the author, only three contained less than 6 per 
cent. {Phann. Zeitg., 1891, 162.) 

Commerce.—Kvaniln is collected in the N.-W. Provinces, the 
Coucun and Madras, and is distinguished by the collectors as of 
two qualities, Rapila and Kapili ; the latter is the best, and is 
obtained by shaking the fruit only in a basket to separate the 

glands. Kapila consists of the glands and other parts of the 



plant, and lias a greenish tinge. Tlie collection of tlie drug is 
an industry ol the hill Khonds iu Ganjam, who sell a few 
measures for a few measures of rice or a yard of cloth. 

The average value of the best red Kam^la is Rs. 11 per 
maund of 41 Ihs. The high winds laden with dust, which often 
prevail in India, cause a certain amount of impurity in the drug 
from the adherence of dust to the capsules and leaves of the 
plant. Native dealers test the drug by taking it up on the 
moistened finger and rubbing it firmly upon a piece of white 
paper ; if of good quality, a smooth paste is formed and the 
paper is stained of a bright-yellow colour. 


Fig, — Bentl. and Trim., t 237; Sibfh. FL Gtcbc. x., t. 952 ; 

Bayne, Arueigew. x.^ t. 48; Uheede, Hort, Mai. ii, f. 32, Castor 
plant {E>ig.)j Eicin commun {Fr.). 

Hab. — Africa? Cultivated throughout India. The leaves, 
seeds, root, and oiL 

Vernacular. — Arandi { Hind. ) , Erandi {Mar. ) , Bherenda 
(Beng.), Amanakkam-chedi (J'aw.), Amudapu-chettu {TeL), 
Avanakku {MaL), Karala-gida {Can.), Erando [Giiz.). 

History, Uses, &C. — The Castor plant is called in 
Sanskrit Eranda, Ruvu, Euvuka and Uruvuka, and the red 
variety Raktairanda ; the root and the oil obtained from the 
seeds have been used medicinally by the Hindus from a very 
remote period, and are mentioned by Susruta. 

Both root and oil are described as purgative and useful in 
costiveness, flatulence, rheumatism, fever and inflammatory 
affections ; on account of its efficacy in rheumatism the plan 
bears the synonym of Yatari (vata-ari). As a purgative the 
oil is directed to be taken with cow's urine or an infusion of 
ginger or the decoction of the ten roots known as dasamula (see 
Vol. I., p. 243). The seeds freed from the husks and germs, and 
boiled in milk and water, form a decoction which is given in 
rheumatism ; a decoction of the root with carbonate of potash 



is also prescribed, and most compoimd medicines given in 
rheumatic and neuralgic affections contain the root. The leaves 
are applied to the breast to stop the secretion of milk, and, 


as a local application in ophthalmia. When applied to the 
abdomen they are popularly thought to promote the menstrual 
flow; in Oovardhana (203), the halikavadhUy or *' peasant 
woman," is represented as lying in pain upon the leaves of the 

In the proverbial language of the Indians the Castor plant is 
emblematic of frailty ; they say : — Naukri arand ki jar hai (ser- 
vice IS like the root of the Castor plant). The Arabs appear to 
have first become acquainted with the tree in India, as they 
call the seeds Simsim-el-hindi, "Indian Sesamum, '^ and the 
plant Khirvaa (^j>i-), a word which signifies any weak or 
frail plant ; the properties they attribute to it are also those 
mentioned by Sanskrit writers. Again, in the Saptamtalia of 
Hala, we find the large and swelling breasts of the peasant 
girl likened to the Eranda leaf, and in Arabic we have the 

expression ^^jj^ 1 1^-*' api)lied to a beautiful and tender girl. 

R. communis is the Bidanjir and Kinnatu of the Persians ; it 


District, and Buzanjir, ^'goat's fig/' in Khorasan. 

Aitchison notices its cultivation round the borders of fields 
in the latter province, and in the Harirud District, for the sake 
of the oil Avhich is used as a lamp oil, and says that the peasantry 
are unacquainted with its purgative properties. The plant was 
cultivated in Southern Europe at a very early date ; it is the 
'ctVi of Herodotus, the 'cporwi/ of Theophrastus(H.P.i,,16 ; C.P. ii-)> 
and the kIki or Kpon^p of Dioscorides (iv., 158), who observes 
that the name ^poTai/ is given to the seed on account of its 
resemblance to an insect known by that name {Ixodes Fdcinus 


Latr.). He 


is the Hieinus or Cicus of Pliny (15, 7), "a tree which grows 


again, as wild sosamum 


not so very long since this tree was first introduced here. 
Eaten with food the oil is repulsive, but it is very useM lor 
burning in lamps." 

The Jews and Abyssinian Christians aay that it was under 
this tree that Jonah sat, bat in the English version the Hebrew 
word ^^ Kikajon'' is translated ''gourd/' Eor a history of tho 
plant in Europe, the Pharmacographia may be consulted. 

Mahometan medical writers describe two kinds, red and 
white : the red is said to be the most active. They consider 
the oil a powerful resolvent and purgative of cold humors, and 
prescribe it in palsy, asthma, colds, colic, flatulence, rheumatism, 
dropsy and amenorrhoea ; of the seeds, 10 kernels rubbed down 
with honey are sufficient as a purge. A poultice of the 
crushed seeds is used to reduce gouty and rheumatic swellings, 
and inflammation of the breasts of women during: lactation. 

The leaves have similar properties, but in a less degree. The 
fresh juice is used as an emetic in poisoning by opium and 
other narcotics ; made into a poultice with barley meal it is 
applied to inflammatory affections of the eye. The root-bark 

is used as a purgative and alterative in chronic enlargements 
and skin diseases ; it is also applied externally. 

In modern medicine Castor oil is much valued as a non-irritant 
purgative ; a drop is sometimes dropped into the eye. to allay 




is recognised in the Government hospitals under European 
superintendence. A fluid extract of the leaves has also been 
recommended in Europe as a lactagogue. As a purgative the 
oil is best administered in the^early morning on an empty 


found ^ 

required. Various 

sueli as Lrandy, peppermint water, &c., but the decoction of fresh 
ginger, as used in India, is, we think, the best vehicle. The 
above remarks apply to cold drawn oil ; the bazar oil extracted 


by boiling is more active, and, as it is not always carefully 
prepared, it may contain the acrid principle of the seed and 
give rise to disagreeable symptoms. The alleged antirheumatic 
properties of the plant so insisted upon by Hindu and Maho- 

_ „ ^.^ „^*v^ v,^ „^^^ ^^ ^ - ilinical 


M. H. Meyer {Pharnh Zeiisch. / JRitssland, xxx., p. 282, 
1891), in order to decide the question as to the purgative 
properties of ricinoleic acid, prepared that substance perfectly 
pure, also its glyceride, and ricinelaidic acid- All these 
preparations were administered to cats, and acted as purgatives. 
The author concludes that there is no reason to suppose that 
Castor oil contains any purgative principle other than 
ricinoleic acid. 

Dr. H- Stillmark has discovered in the seeds an albuminoid 
body which he has named ''Ricin.^' This, however, does not 
appear to be the purgative principle. Its action, whether given 
by the mouth or hypodermically, is to produce hsemorrhagic 
inflammation of the gastro-intestinal tract, affecting primarily 
the small intestines, and probably obstructing the bile duct, 
since there is usually extreme fullness of the gall bladder ; the 
inflammation also extends to the vesical mucous membrane. 
Diarrhoea is by no means constant. The drowsiness and 
convulsions which occurred in some of his experiments on 
animals he attributes to possible thrombosis of the cerebral 
vessels. The lethal dose of ricin for man he calculates to be 
6*0 milligrams for a man weighing 60 kilograms, this generally 
being equal to about ten ordinary seeds, although Christison 
once had a fatal case, where only three seeds had been swallowed, 
and, on the other hand, a case is on record in which a person 
who had eaten 17 seeds, recovered. 

Ricin appears to have a peculiar effect upon blood, causing 
a rapid conglomeration of the red corpuscules, together with 
the formation of a substance Hke fibrin. One part of ricin to 
60,000 of defibrinated blood is sufficient to cause a separation of 
the serum, so that the latter is capable of being passed through 


a filter. Crotonoleic acid, which exists in croton seeds, was 
fouud to be quite distinct fi'om ricin. 

The results obtained by Dr. Stillmark find further confirma- 

tion in a note in the Medical Recorder (July, p. 299), in which 
it is stated that fifteen children, under six years of age, poisoned 
by eating castor seeds, suffered from severe vomiting and 
prostration, but not from catharsis. 

Ehrlich {Deutsche Med. Wochensclir.^ No, 32, p, 976, 1891) 
reports some interesting experiments with ricin. He found 
that injected into the veins of animals, it is fatal in doses of 
three milligrams per kilo of body-weight ; taken internally it 
is a hundred times less active, but still so poisonous that O'lS 
gram is a fatal dose for an adult man. He found different 
animals to be unequally affected by it ; guinea pigs were 
especially susceptible to the poison, but white mice much less 
so. The symptoms were diarrhoea and prostration: on j^os^- 
mortem examination the appearances in some cases were such 
as are seen in cholera, but more frequently there was a 
haemorrhagic condition of the intestines and often of the 
subcutaneous cellular tissue. 

Ehrlich also succeeded in rendering animals insusceptible 
to the poison by administering gradually increasing doses 
internally : at the end of two months of this treatment he found 
that mice could bear a dose of 5 decigrams of ricin (sufficient 
to kill an adult man ), the fatal dose for an unprotected mouse 
being 35 milligrams. 

The immunity obtained was still more marked in experiments 
on the conjunctiva; under ordinary circumstances touching the 
membrane with a 1 per cent, solution of ricin produced intense 
inflammation, but after several weeks of protective treatment 
the strongest solution could be freely applied without producing 
any effect. 

The establishment of the immunity appears to commence 
suddenly on the sixth day, and continues to increase from that 
time. The author insists upon the similarity between this 



sudden immunity and the critical subsidence of fever in certain 
acute diseases, such as pneumonia, measles, &c., which he 
considei-s may also be regarded as indicating the establishment 
of an immunity in those diseases. 

Animals in which an immunity to the ricin poison had been 
established, were found, -six months after the cessation of all 
treatment, to be incapable of being affected by the poison. 
Ehrlich has also made similar experiments with abrin, the 
active principle of Abrns jyrecatorius, which he reserves for 
early publication. 

Description. — There are many varieties of the plant 
which have been produced by cultivation ; they may be divided 
into the large red- seeded kinds, and those with grey seeds 
marked with brown blotches; the latter are preferred for 
medicinal use. 


The roots are tolerably straight, and give off a few rootlets ; 
they are covered by a light-brown bark, nearly smooth, but 
riiarked with little transverse warty ridges. The wood is white 
and soft. The bark lias an acrid taste^ 

The seeds are contained in a tricoccous capsule, one in each 
cell ; they are oblong, from ^ to | an inch long and about ^ of 
an inch broad, the dorsal surface is more arched than the 
ventral. The apex is somewhat pointed, below it is a tumid 
caruncula, on the removal of which a dark depressed cicatrix is 
seen. The testa is grey, marked with brown blotches. The 
kernel is enclosed in a delicate white membrane, and consists of 
a copious white albumen, in the axis of which are situated two 
leafy cotyledons and a short stout radicle. 


Microscopic structure. — The epidermis of the seeds is com- 
posed of tabular cells, which are here and there coloured in 
patches which correspond to the spots on the seed. The testa 
consists of cylindrical cells in close apposition. The kernel 
is a mass of closely-packed cells with granular contents, but if 
water is brought in contact with the section, oil globules separate 
from the albumen. In the latter may be demonstrated the 


Aleuroue crystals which are found \\x many seeds. (Sachs 
Lehrbuch der Bofanik, p. 554.) The root-bark shows numerous 



Chemical composition. — The most important constituent of 
the seeds is the fixed oil called castor oil, of which the peeled 
kernels afford at most half of their weight. 

The authors of the Pharmacographia say : 

*' The castor oil of commerce has a sp. gr. of about 0-96, usually 
a pale yellow tint, a viscid consistence, and a very slight yet 
rather mawkish odour and taste. Exposed to cold, it dees not 
in general entirely solidify until the temperature reaches — 18°0. 
In thin layers it dries up to a varnish-like film. 

"Castor oil is distinguished by its power of mixing in all 
proportions with glacial acetic acid or absolute alcohol. It is 
even soluble in four parts of spirit of wine {'838) at 15° C.,. and 
mixes without turbidity with an equal weight of the same 
solvent at 25° C. The commercial varieties of the oil, 
however, differ considerably in these as well as in some other 


"The optical properties of the oil demand furthei' investiga- 
tion, as we have found that some samples deviate the ray of 
polarized light to the right and others to- the left. 

/'By saponification, castor oil yields several fatty acids, one 
of which appears to be Palmitic Acid., Another acid (peculiar 
to the oil) is Ricinoleic Acid, C'^H'^0''; it is solid below 
0° C. ; does not solidify in contact with the air by absorption 
of oxygen, and is not homologous with oleic or linoleic acid,, 
neither of which is found in castor oil. Castor oil is never- 
theless thickened, if 6 parts of it are warmed with 1 'part of 
starch and 5 of nitiic acid (sp, gr. 1*25), Ricinelaidin being 
thus formed. From this, RicinelauUc Acid may easily be 
obtained in brilliant crystals. 

''As to the albuminoid matter of the seeds, Fleury (1865) 
obtained 3*23 per cent, of nitrogen^ which would answer to 



about 20 per cent, of such substances. The same cLemist 
further extracted 46-6 per cent, of fixed oil, 2'2 of sugar and 
mucilage, besides 18 per cent, of cellulose. 

" Tuson, in 1864, by exhausting castor oil seeds with boiling 

• ■ * 

.^ ^ ^_ henamed 

He states that it crystallizes in rectangular prisms and tables, 
which ,whert heated, fuse, and, upon cooling, solidify as a 

ystalline mass ; the crystals may even be sublimed. Kicimne 
dissolves readily in water or alcohol, less freely in ether or 
benzol. With mercmio chloride, it combines to form tufts of 
silky crystals, sokible in water or alcohol. Werner (1869), on 
repeating Tuson's process on SO lbs. of Italian castor oil seeds, 
also obtained a crop of crystals, which in appearance and 
solubility had many of the characters ascribed to ricinine, but 
differed in the essential point that when incinerated they left a 
residuum of magnesia. Werner regarded them as the mag- 
nesium salt of a new acid. Tuson repudiates the suspicion that 
ricinine may be identical with Werner^s n^agnesium compound. 
E. S. Wayne of Cincinnati (1874) found in the leayea of 

Ricinus a substance apparently identical with Tuson^s ncinine ; 
but he considers that it has no claim to be called an alkaloid, 

*'The testa of castor oil seeds afforded us 10'7 per cent- of 
ash, one-tenth of which we found to consist of silica. The ash 
of the kernel previously dried at 100 °0., amounts to only 3'5 
per cent/' {Op, cit, 2nd Ed., p. 569.) 

and A, Griissner [Moniteitr Sclent.^ Ap. 1889) 

K, Hazura 


been hitherto supposed 

mixture of two isomeric acids of the composition C^^H^^O , 


acid, whilst the othei 
acid* The proportion 
2 of the latter. As 

acid, yields on oa^idation trio^tystearic 

ricinisoleic acid, yields isotrioxysteario 
f these acids is about 1 of the former to 
ao dioxystearic acid has been obtained 
le liquid aoids of castor oil, it may be 

ed, castor oil 

is the only one which contains no oleine. ^^^^ 



The leaves, stem, and root of 22. communis contain the same 
actiye principles as the seeds ; a proximate analysis by A. L. 
Beck {Amei\ Journ. Pharm., 1888) gave the . following 

results : 


m * 

Extracted by petroleum spint 

, 5, ether 


„ alcohol 

WfllGT ■ • ■ • •• < 

" diluted Na OH 





Loss by chlorine 

Residues, cellulose, &c. 


Loss .... 




















The poisonous principle present in castor oil seeds has been 
variously represented as an alkaloid, a glucoside, and an 

But as the result of an exhaustive chemical and 

organic acid. 

pharmacological investigation, recorded in a lengthy treatise 
{Arbeit, d. Pharmakol. Inst. Dorpat, Part III,, p. 59), Herr Still- 
mark has come to the conclusion that it is an albuminoid body, 
identical with the **B. phytalbumose, " separated from the 
dried juice of Carica Papaya by Sidney Martin, and belonging 
to the class of unformed ferments. This substance, which he 
has named ^^ricin," may be prepared by exhausting well- 
pressed peeled E-icinus seeds, reduced to powder, with a 10 per 
cent, solution of sodiimi chloride, saturating the clear percolate at 
the oi'dinary temperature with magnesium sulphate and sodium 
sulphate, and keeping it in a cool place, when, besides large 
crystals of the two sulphates, a white precipitate, easily separable 

from these, is formed. This is 


a dialyser, with 

frequent changes of water, for six days, after which the residue 
is removed and dried over sulphuric acid, and can then be 
reduced to a snow-white powder, which still contains 1 to 20 
per cent, of sulphate. This substance is a most powerful poison, 



exercising a remarkable power of coagulation, so.tliat the blood 
coming into contact with a minute quantity that has been 
absorbed is coagulated, blocks the lumina of the intestinal 
capillaries, and causes thrombosis and ecchymosis. Even when 
introduced subcutaneously, the principal action of the poison 
appears to ocenr in the intestinal canal, and not at the place of 
injection. The lethal dose for a man weighing sixty kilograms 
is estimated as 0'18 gram, and it is stated that this quantity is 
contained in the press-cake from 3 grams of peeled seeds. In 
view of this fact, that the residue from the pressing of castor 
oil contains such large quantities of a tasteless poison exceeding 
arsenic in toxic power, and at present not to be detected in 
the body by any known method, Herr Stillmark raises the 
question, whether it should not be made compulsory upon 
manufacturers to burn the cake, or render it harmless by a 
process of boiling that would destroy the ferment. Experiments 



each case a poisonous albuminoid substance was separated, 
similar to, if not identical with, ricin, and belonging to the 
class of ferments. It is pointed out by the author that the 
coagulating power of ricin explains the external application 
in some countries of crushed Ricinus seeds as a haemostatic. 
{Pharm. Journ., Kov, 2nd, 1889.) 

Com^nerce. — Several varieties of the castor plant are cultivat- 
ed in India : they may be divided into large-seeded and small - 
seeded. The seeds of the latter variety only are exportea, 
those of the former being used in India for the preparation 
of an inferior kind of oil which is used for lubricating 
machinery, &c. 

The exports of seed from 1885-86 to 1888-89 were : 

1^85-86 34,000 tons, valued at 30 lakhs of 

1886-87 31,000 „ „ 29 „ 


^8S7-88 36.000 .. „ 34 „ 

1888-89 29,000 ,. 31 

9» 1> ^^ ff 99 



The exports of oil, mostly from Bengal, during the same 
period, were : 
]885-S6...2'2 millions of gallons, valued at 22 lakhs of Rupees. 

1886-87... 2-7 „ „ „ 27 „ „ 

1887-88... 2-7 „ „ „ 26 „ „ 

1888— 89..,2'7 „ „ n 2o „ j, 

Almost the whole of the oil goes to England. 

Eicin has been Introduced into commerce by Merck of 


Fig. — Wight /c, k 1885; Bheede, Hort. Mai. x., t 76. 

H ab . — Tropical and Subtropical Himalaya. Deccan 
Peninsula. The root and seeds. 

Vernacular. — Danti [Hind.y J5)?n^.,Mir3pr.j(7^/^.),Konda-am^dam 
{Tel), Naga-danti {Tarn., Mai). 

History, Uses, &C. — This plant, in Sanskrit Danti, 

Nagadanti or Danta-mulika, with numerous sjoionyms, such 
as rTpachitra, Makulaka, &c», is much used in Hindu medicine 
where purgation is indicated, the root being generally prescribed. 
The seeds (Danti- vija) are also used, and are sometimes sold in the 
shops as crotou seeds. The following formula from Chakradatta 
will show how the root is prescribed; 

** Danti haritahi. — Take 25 large chebulic myrobalans and 
enclose them in a piece of cloth, then take of the roots of 
Baliospermum aocillare and IpomcBa Tnrpethu7n^ each 200 tolas, 
water 64 seers, boil them together till the water is reduced to 
8 seers. Strain the decoction, take out the chebulic myrobalans 
and fry them in 32 tolas of sesamum oil. To the strained 
decoction add 200 tolas of old treacle, then boil till reduced to 
the proper consistence for a confection. Now add to the mass 
the following substances : powdered root of Ipomcea Turpethum 
32 tolas, long pepper and ginger, each 8 tolas, and stir them 


* ■ 

well; wlien cool, add 32 tolas of honey; cinnamon, cardamoms, 
tejpat leaves, and the flowers of Mesua ferrea^ each 8 tolas, and 
prepare a confection. The chebulic myrobalans should he kept 
embedded in the medicine. Two tolas of the confection and 
one of the myrobalans are to be taken every morning." 

A more simple formula from the Bhavaprakasa is the 
Gtidashtaka. Take of danti^ trivrit {Iponwa Ttirpetlnm), and 
plumbago root, black pepper, ginger and long pepper root, 
equal parts in fine powder ; treacle, equal in weight to all the 
other ingredients, and mix. Dose about a tola every morning, 
in flatulence, anasarca, jaundice, &c. 

Rheede says of Danti: — Folia, radix atque fructus, tanta 
purgandi pollent energia, ut solus odor catharsin excitet : f oha 
extrinslce applicata articulari medentur morbo/' 

Hoxburgh remarks : — " The seeds are esteemed by the natives 
a good purgative ; they administer one seed bruised up with water 
for every evacuation they wish the patient to have. There 
would appear to be little doubt that the seeds of this plant were 
the original Dand of the Arabian physicians, but were sub- 
sequently superseded by those of CrotonTiglmm, us has heen the 

case in India. 

Description. — Roots nearly straight, seldom branched, 
about as thick as the finger; bark brown, scabrous; wood yellow- 
ish-white, soft and tough. The outer layer of the bark consists 
of several rows of brick-shaped brown cells, mostly empty, but 
some of them containing a dark reddish-brown resin ; within this 
the parenchyma is so loaded with conglomerate raphides that 
its structure is with difficulty seen ; it has many cells filled with 
resin as in the suber, and very numerous yellow liber cells. 
The wood is loaded with starch. 

The seeds weigh about one and a half grains each, and are 
exactly similar to very small castor seeds. 

Commerce. — The seeds are no longer found in the bazars, 
having been superseded by the imported croton seeds; the root 
is also difficult to obtain, that sold in the shops as Danti-mul 
being usually the root of Ricinus eommums. 























t>A^I^T VI 

£aUuUat—T HACKER, SPINK & Co. 



























lon'fion :— KEGAN, PAUL. TRENCH, TRUBNER & Co., Ld 
Calcutta :—THACKER, SPINK & Co. 





Ur* WiiUiam ^mnotiu 

In issuing tlie sixtli part of the '* Pharmacof^rapliia Indlca,'* 
it is with much regret we have to announce the death of the 
senior author. This sad eyent, caused by influenza combined 
with cystitis, took place on the 30th April 1892, at his re- 
sidence on Malabar Hill, Bombay, in the fifty-eighti year of 
his age. William Dymock belonged to the west of England^ 
and was educated first at Bristol, then at Rugby, and after- 
wards at Oxford where he took a B.A. dee^ree. After a course 

of medical studies, he became M.R.CS. Eng., he then joined 
the Indian Medical Service, and was appointed to the Bombay 
Presidency in 1857. He saw active service during the Mvitiny 
with the Kathiawar Field Force against the Wagheers, and was 
present at the capture of Dantal Hill. For two years he was 
attached to the Ilidian Navy, and visited the ports of the 
Persian Gulf and the East African Coast. In 1868 he served 


on the Committee for publishing the Pharmacopoeia of India, 
and at the time he was Acting Resident Surgeon at the Euro- 
pean General Hospital. After taking two years' furlough to 
England he was appointed in 1871 to be Principal of the 
3Iedical Store Department, Bombay, and in this capacitj^ he 
laboured for nearly twenty years, until his retirement from the 
service on 30th April 1890. During this time he devoted all 
his energies to the study of materia medica and pharmacy. 
He largely increased the local manufacture of galenical pre- 
parations, and introduced modern and improved machinery in 
the Depot laboratory. For his skilful and efficient manao-e- 
ment he was thanked by Government on. three separate 
occasions. Dr. Dymock was proficient in Arabic, Persian, 
Sanskrit, Hindustani, Mahratti and Guzrati ; he was familiar 
with Greek and Latin, and corresponded freely in French, 
German and Portuguese. He was a Fellow and Examiner of 



ihe University of Boml^ay, and being an eminent linguist he 
was for many years a member of the Presidency Board for the 
examination of officers in Oriental languages. Bombay being 
the drug market of the East^ he availed himself of the many 
opportunities of examining new and rare vegetable products, 


able to 

identify the sources of the drugs. Ho was for some years 
Professor of Materia Medica in the Grant Medical College, and, 

as a teacher of this science, he was said not to have a rival in 

Dr. Dymock'g literary contributions to the Pharmaceutical 
Journal commenced in 1875 with a paper on '•' The Asafoeti- 
das of the Bombay Market," this was followed by others on 
*'Ammoniacum and Dorema Root/' "Myrrh" and " Chaul- 
raoogra Oil." In 1876, the well-known ''Notes on Indian 
Drugs " first appeared, and were a feature of the Journal for 
the next four years. Specimens of these drugs were at the 


Museum, and were sent to pharmacologists in England and the 
Continent for chemical investigation. In 1383 he brought out 

his " Vegetable Materia Medica of Western India," and this 
was amplified into a second edition only two j^ears afterwards. 
The publication of a more comprehensive work on Indian 
Materia Medica, based on the same plan, was conceived in 
1888, and next year the first part of the '' Pharmacographia 
Indica " was issued. The greater responsibility of this work 
rested with him, and to it he gave his whole time until his fatal 
illness compelled him to cease from his labours a few days 
before he died. The manuscript of the sixth part, as far as he 
could prepare it, was written, and he compiled an index and an 
appendix which will be printed as soon as possible. 

Dr. Dymock was one of the founders of the Anthropological 
Society of Bombay, and most actively supported the Society in 
! t !cf^^*^^^ ^^^ ® positions of member of the Council, President 


address was, 

rary Secretary. The subject of his 

llodearch," and amon 




" Antliropogonic Trees/' " On the Narcotics and Spices of the 
East " " The Flowers of the Hindu Poets,'' On the use of 
Turmeric in Hindu Ceremonial " and " On the use of Ganja 
and Bhang in the East." He also read papers before the- 
Bomhay Natural History Society and the Medical and Physical 
Societv. He was honorary member of the Pharmaceutical and 
other learned societies. In 1887 he was awarded the Hanbury 
Gold Medal for his researches in the natural history and 
chemistry of drugs. 

As a scientific investigator Dr. Dymock wag thorough and 
conscientious; in his literary researches he was careful and 
painstaking ; his disposition was kind and obliging. Although 

talents he was of very retiring 

a man of varied and great 



habits, and had very few social acquaintances, 
ordinates regarded him as a father, and his correspondents in 
different parts of the world could always count upon a 
punctual and friendly reply to their enquiries. He was the 
greatest pharmacognoscist in this country, and many besides 
ourselves will mourn that such a useful career was so suddenly 





* • a 


• • 

• • 

Verbascum Thapstts ... 
Celsia coromandeliana 
Schweinfurtiiia spbserocarpa 
liindenbergia tirticfefolia 
Limiiophila gratioloides 

, , gratissima 

Berpestia monniera 
Picrorhiza Kurrooa.., 
Tore'nia asiatica 
Vandellia erecta 

J, peduncTilata 

Veronica Beccabunga 

■ • « 

> •* 

« a 

• • 


t • 

• • 

Sopubia delpbinifolia 
Pedicularis pectinata 

• « 


• « t 

Oroxylum indicum 

Stereospermum suaveolens 


Heterophragma Kosburgbii 

Dolichandrone Rheedii 

5 , f alcata 

Crescentia Cujete ... 


• • ■ 

> • ■ 



Sesamum. indicum ... 
Pedaliiun Jf urex . . . 
Martynia diandra ... 

« • < 

• « ■ 


Hygropbila spinosa 
Strobilanthes species 
Blepharis edulis 
Acantbus ilicif olius 
Barleria prionitia ..• 
,, J noctiflora 

Crossandra undulsefolia ... 
Dsedalacanthus roseus 

* v« 


■ tf > 


f »l 

« « « 

•• • 


■ * 

• •■ 

• • • 

• •« 









• t« 

• * 


« * * 

f ■ ■ 

V« • 

t * 

• »« 

Neuracanthus spheerostachyus 
Andrograpbis paniculata ... 
Haplanthus verticillaris ... 
,, tentaculatus ... 

Justicia Gendarussa 



■ ft* 



» Vft 

> • * 

• «■ 

■ • • 

• « • 

■ • « 

< t • 


* • • 

t • > 

■ * « 

« a « 

■ • ■ 






Ecbolium Linneanum 
Adhatoda Vasica 
Rhinacantlma communis .. 

• « ft 




« • t 

»fl « 

■ ft • 

• •« 

Lippia nodiflora 
Verbena officinalis .„ 
Callicarpa lanata . . . 
Tectona grandis 
Premna integrifoKa 

,j herbacea ...♦ 

,, tomentosa ... 

Gmelina arborea 

Vitex Negundo 


,5 Agnus-eastus 

Clerodendron inerme 

inf ortunatmn 

, , serratum 

Avicennia officinaliai 

* # ■ 


• •« 


• • • 


■ . • 


-■ -l 

Ocimum basiUcum ... 


y^ sanctxuii ..» 

Salvia plebeia 

,, ^gyptiaca ... 

Lallemantia Royleana 

Coleus aromaticus 

Anisocbilus camosus 

Lavand^lla Stcecbas 

Jadeh .•« ••• 

Pogostemon parviflorua 

Mentha sylveatrig ... 

,, arvensis ,,, 

Micromeria capitellata 

Origanum marjorana 

Thymus serpyllum... 

Zataria multiftora . . , 

Ziziphora tenuior 

Melitisa officinalis,., 

Marmbium vulgare 

Anisomeles malabarica 

Leucas aspera, &c. 

Leonotis nepeteefolia 


• • ft 

■ ft • 

• ft * 
» « t 

ftft ft 

■ > ft 

■ ft« 

* * • 


r » • 

• ft ft 


• « « 

» * ft 




















• • • 

» t ft 


ft ■ ft 

*t ft 


• ft ft 


t ft ft 

• « ft 
■ ■ ft 

• » « 

ft « ft 

■ • 4 

ft ft ft 

ft ftft 

* ft ft 






■ » « .^. ^- 






Plantago ovata 
, , major 



« •« 

• • • 


Boerhaavia repena ... 
Mirabilis Jalapa ... 

■ •• 

• « • 


Achyranthes aspera 
Amarantns spinosua 
iErua Jayanica 

M ^ lanata 
Celosia argentea 


* » • 


Chenopodiace^ . 

Ushnan (soda plants) 

* * • 

Spiuacia oleracea .„ 

■ •• 

' • • 

• •• 


Poljg-onuin aviculare 
,♦ species... 

Kheujii officinale ,., 
,f palmatiun... 

Rumex vesicarius ,., 


Aristolocliia indica 




■ >« 
• •• 


Piper nigrum 



Betle ., 




• •• 

• •• 

• t ■ 

■ «• 

« 99 

* « 

* « 

■ • ■ 


Myristica frag] 

y f malabarica 


Cinnamomtim CampKora .,. 
'• ^ ^ Caaaia 

»» Stockaii 
Laanis uobilia 

Ca««}rtha tilifonuift " 

< «• 



• » ■ 

« • 



■ « ■ 

• • t 

« « « 

■ • I 

■ ■ « 

« • > 

t « • 

« • ■ 

• «4 

■ «ft 

• >t 

■ * t 

■ • » 

• • • 
• • * 

• # • 

« #• 

• < « 















9 99 

• • • 





t 1 « 

t •• 

Aquilaria Agallocba 
,, Malaccensis 

Lasiosiphon eriocephalus .. 


yiscum album 
Loranthus sp. 

* ■ a 

■ • • 

• •• 


Santalum album 

■ « • 


t ^ 



* • ■ 

• • • 

« I « 







a Emblica 



• > « 






,, urinaria 

Bridelia retusa 
Cleistantbus oollinus 
Fleuggia Leucopyrus 
, , microcarpa 
Breynia rbamnoides 
Putranjiva Roxburghii 

Jatropha glandulifera 

„ nana 
Cure as 

,, multifida ... 
Aleurites Moluccana 
Croton Tiglium 

Aoalypha indica 

, , pa niculata 

Trewia nudiflora . . . 

Mallotus phillippinensis 

Eicinus communis 

Baliospermum axiHare 

Tragia involucrata 
Excsecaria Agallocba 

Maearanga Roxburghii 

Chrozophora plicata 

Sebastiania Cbamselea 


Gironniera reticulata 
Cannabis indica 
Picua religio^t 

„ bengalensis ... 

■ « • 


* ■ » 

■ *• 

• « • 


9 • 9 

• • • 

■ » • 

i » • 

* « « 


■ • « 


• • • 

f ■ • 

■ «• 

• V • 

t ■ ■ 

ft • • 

« * 

• « • 

• ■ 

• ■ • 


t V« 

A « 1 

■ t» 

t «f 




■ * • 






■ « 

* 9 


• « 

• • 

* * 


■ t 

t « 

• • 

9 9 

■ « 

« • 

• • 

* « 

■ • 


t « 


9 m 


9 9 








• «- 

• »• 

* »# 


9 99 










Ficus Tjakela 

... 338 

Curcuma aromatica 

• »« 

... 396 

„ glomerata 

... 338 

,, Zedoaria .. 

■ • • 

,, Carica 

... 342 

y J cdBSia , , , 

■ • • 

... 403 

,, RuTnphii 

... 345 

,, amada ... 

• • * 

... 405 

,, retnsa 

... 345 

Indian arrowroot ... 

■ • ■ 

... 405 

„ asperrima 

... 346 

Curcuma longa 

■ • B 

w ^M ^ ^^ %.^^ 

... 407 

yf hispida 

... 346 

Kaempferia Galanga 


... 414 

,, gibbosa 

... 347 

J , rotunda 

- ■ « 

... 416 

Antiaris tosicaria ... 

... 348 

Hedjchium spicatum 

*• • 

^ ^ ■ 

... 417 

Artocarpus integrif olia . , , 

».«, oDO 

Zin^ber officinale 

« ■ * 

... 420 

,f Lakoocha 

... 355 

,, Cassumnnar 

* * • 

... 425 


Costus speciosus ... 

... 427 


Elettaria Cardamomum 

■ ■ t 

... 428 

Atnomum subulatum 

... 436 

Mynca Nagx . 

... 355 

Nutmeg cardamom 

• •• 

... 436 



Alpinia officinarum 
,, Galanga ... 

• « ■ 

« • • 

... 437 

... 440 

Gasuarina equiaetifolia .,« 

.„ 357 

Musa paradisiaca ... 
Canna indica 

• • t 
• * « 

... 443 

... 449 



Betula utilis 

... 359 



J, alnoides 

tM t>dt7 

T * * 

Quercixs infectoria 

... 360 

ins germamca 
Crocus sativus 


... 451 
... 453 


Pardanthus chinensis 

- * • 

... 461 

Salix Caprea 

... 364 





Curculigo orchioides 

■ « • 

... 462 

-^r- ' ^^ ^^^^ ^^r ^^^B* -^p ^^^^^^i^d^v ^ 

Crinnm asiaticum .. 

* • • 

... 464 

Ephedra vulgaris 

... 369 

,, Zejlanicum 


... 466 

,, pachyclada 

... 369 





Aloe Perrji 


... 467 

Juniperus commuma 

... 371 

, , abyssinica 

• a • 

... 467 

Taxus baccata 

... 373 

, M vera 

• • • 

.« 467 

Pinus Ion gif olia ... 

... 378 

Urginea indica 

• I ■ 

... 476 

Cedrua Libani 4 

... 380 

Asphodelus fistulosus 

• * « 

... 479 

Gloriosa superba 

• ■ • 

... 480 


Asparagus sarmentosus 

* ■ ■ 

... 482 

, , racem.osu8 

• • « 

... 483 

Cycas circinalis ... 

... 383 

, 1 adscendens 

... 484 


J , officinalis 

■ • • 

... 486 


Allium sativum 

t ••> 

... 488 

„ macleani ... 


... 491 

Orchis latifolia 

... 384 

,y xiphopetalum 

• « • 

... 492 

,^ laxifiora 

... 384 

,, . ascalonicum 

* • A 

, ... 492 

Eulophia virens 

... 387 

Polyanthes tuberosa 

• • • 

^ -■- ^ ^ — -»*- 

... 493 

, , campestria . . , 

... 388 

Sanseviera zeylanica 

• • 4 

... 493 

,, nuda ... 

... 388 


^w ^ ^p ■ ' 

... 495 

Dendrobium macraei 

... 389 

Hiranya tuttha 

* * k 

... 499 

Vanda Roxburghii ..« 

... 392 

Smilax china 

4 V A 

... 500 

S a echo labium papillosum 

... 392 

, , glabra 

^ ■ • ^^ ^^ ^*^ 

... 500 

Vanda spathulata 

... 396 

9t ovalifolia .,, 

V * • 

... 503 

Rhynchosylis retuaa 

* « « 

... 396 

Dracsena Cinnabari 

• #• 

... 504 




Ananas sativa 



Commelina bengalensis ... 
Tradescantia axillaris 


Xyris indica 

1 1« 

■ • » 


- * • 

I • I 

t * • 

■ ■ * 

Cocos nucif era 
B<>rassus flabellifonnis 
Lodoicea SeycLeUarum 
Areca Catechu 
Calamus Draco 


Pandanus odoratissimus . . 


TypLa angustifolia 

ft • * 



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Aeorus Calamus 

Srindapsus officinalis 

ij ^ pertusus 
Alocasia indica 

Colocasia antiquorum 

AmorphophaUus campanulatus 
Syuantherias sylvatica 
Sanromatmn pedatum 
Cryptocoryne spiralis 
Lagenandra toxicaria 
Ramusatia vivipara 
Tacca aspera 
Pistia stratiotcs 


l>ioscorea species ,.. 

Cyperns rotxmdus ... 

J J scariosua 
Skirpua Kysoor 
Kyllingia monoceph'ala 

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.. 554 

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Andropogon Schoenanthus 


Coix lacryma 
Eragrostis cynosuroides 
Cynodon dactylon ,„ 
Zea Mays . . . 
Loliuna temulentum 
Bambusa arundinacea 
Saccharmn officinarmn 

Oryza sativa 
Triticum sativum 
Hordeum hexastichum 
Sorghum vulgare 

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Setaria italica 
Panicima miliaceum 

, 5 f nimentaceum 

Paspalum scrobiculatum 

Hygrorhiza aristata 
Eleusino coracana ... 
Sorghum saccharatum 
Saecharum sara 

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Polypodimn vulgare 

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Adiantura venustum 

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Asplenium parasiticum .. 




Parmelia kamtschadalis . . . 



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Mylitta lapidescens 
Boletus crocatus 

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Polyporus officinalis 


Grelidimn cartilagineirtn . . . 

,, comeiun ... 
Gracilaria lichenoides 
Laminaria saccharifia 

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'Rnrm. Zcnl.. t. 92 : Rheede. Hort. Mai. ii. 

var. cannaUna, A. Juss. Tent EupJiorh., t. 15, 49 B. 

Hab. — Throngtout India. The root. 

FemacMiar.— Barlianta {Hind.), Bicliati (Beng.), Kancturi, 
{Tarn.), Kanclikuri, Khajkolti {Mar,}, Dulaghondi {Tel.), 

EaL'gilu {Can.). 

History, Uses, &C.— This Very vanable plant, of wHck 
four varieties are described in the Flora of British India, is the 
Vrischik^li of the Raja Nirghanta, where it is said to bear the 
same name in Marathi and to be called Haligilu in Canarese. It 
is recommended in bilious fever, and as a diuretic and alterative. 
Eheede says of it:—" Conducit in febre ossium, ac servit pro 
pruritu corporis ; in decocto data urinam suppressam movet." 
He also notices its use on the doctrine of signatures as a 
remedy for the sting of the Eay fish. 

Ainslie (ii., 61 and 389) says :— "The root, which is sometimes 
called ' Coorundootievayr,' has in its dried state but little taste or 
smell, though in its more succulent condition it has a rather 


and is prescribed in decoction, together with other articles of 
like virtues, to correct the habit in cases of mai/ghi'im (cachexia), 
and in old venereal complaints, attended with anomalous 
symptoms ; an infusion of it is also given as a drink in ardent 
fever, in the q^uantity of half a teacupful twice daily." 

In the Concan the roots of these plants are used to aid the 
extraction of Guinea-worm, a paste made from them being 
applied to the part. A paste of the roots with Tulsi juice is 
also used as a cure for itchy eruption of the skin. In Tanjore, 
the root is boiled with cow's milk and taken at bedtime for dry 


Description. — Shrubby, climbing, 4 to 5 feet high ; 
leaves petioled, 3-divided, serrate, hairy, 2 to 4 inches long ; 
stipules half lanceolate ; racemes erect, many- flowered ; male 
flowers numerous on the upper part of the raceme, very small, 

III— 40 


yellow, each with three bracts ; female flowers beneath the 
male, two on each raceme, with the calyx leaflets pinnatifidt 
The plant stings like the nettle. For a description of its 
varieties, the reader is referred to the Flora of British India. 


Fig.— Wighf Ic, t 1865 B; Bheede, Eort Mai v., t. 45. 
Blinding tree. Tiger's milk tree {Eng.), Arbre aveuglant {Fr.). 

Hab. — Tidal forests of India, The juice and cork. 

Vernacular. — Gaoura, Uguru, Gangwa, Geria {Beng*), Chilla 
{Teh), Haro {Can.\ Geva, PhungaH, Hura (ilfan), TiUai-cheddi 

History, Uses, &C. — This tree was named il^«//oc^« by 
the old botanists, from a supposition that a kind of Aloe-wooa 
was yielded by it ; but Loureiro, speaking of E* cocMn-cMnensis, 
remarks, *'nec agallochum, quamvis spurium, in ilia inveneri. 
The wood is white, soft, and spongy, and has no aromatic pro- 
perties. All parts of the tree abound in an acrid milky juice, 
which causes intense pain if it gets into the eyes; this juice is 
said to be used in Australia and New Guinea to cure ulcers, 
leprosy, &c. If collected it hardens into a kind of caoutchouc, 
a grain or two of which is used by the boatmen on the Western 
Coast of India as a purgative. Ainslie (ii., 438) states that a 
decoction of the leaves is occasionally given by Hindu doctors 
in epilepsy, in the quantity of a quarter of a teacupful twice 
daily. This decoction is also used as an application to ulcers. 

Smith {Econ. Diet., 5) states that in Fiji the plant is employed 
for the cure of leprosy, its mode of application being very 
singular. The body of the patient is first rubbed with the green 
leaves ; he is then placed in a small room and bound hand and 
foot, and a small fire is made of pieces of the wood, from which 
rises a thick smoke ; the patient is suspended over this fire, and 
remains for some hours in the midst of the poisonous smoke^ 
enduring the most agonising torture and often fainting. When 
thoroughly smoked, he is removed, and the slime is scraped 







an aphrodisiacal tonic. It occurs in irregular-shaped pieces 
about half an inch thick, and often as large as the palm of the 
hand, from which the epidermis has been removed by scraping 
and trimming. The structure is that of coarse cork, the cells 
being about six times the size of ordinary cork cells. This sub- 
stance has a glistening appearance, and is always kept saturated 
with water, so that on breaking it, it appears to be full of juice. 
It is inodorous and tasteless. 


its for fishin 


k small evergreen tree or shrub^ growing 

along with Ehizophora and Avicennia, and sometimes called the 
*' milky mangrove/' Leaves ovate, between fleshy and coria- 
ceouSj 2 to 4 inches, entire or sinuate crenate, pale brown when 
dry, base acute or rounded; nerves many, very faint, sub- 
horizontal ; petiole 4 to 1 inch. Flowers fragrant, male spikes 
numerous, 1 to 2 inches; female racemes few, ^ to 1 inch. 
Bracts of male spike with one flower and several minute 
bractioles. Filaments much lengthened after flowering. Styles 
free nearly to the base. Seeds subglobose, smooth. The 
variations in the size of the fruit and seeds are remarkable. 
{FL Br. Ind.) 

Plants of minor importance belonging to this order, which 
are used medicinally, are : 

Macaranga Roxburghii, Wight Jc, t. 817, a small 

tree of the Deccan Peninsula, with peltate, cordate leaves, small 
green flowers, and fruit the size of a pea. The young shoots 
and fruit are covered with a clammy, reddish secretion having 
an odour like turpentine. The country people use the following 
in Jarandi [Angh, Liver): — One part of the young shoots, with 
3 parts of the young shoots of Khor^ti {Ficus asperrima), are 


sprinkled with hot water and the juice extracted; in thia is 
rubbed down 2 parts each of the barks of both trees. The 
preparation may be administered twice a day in doses of | of 
a seer. The Marathi name is Chandvar. The bark contains 
18 '4 per cent, of tannic acid, giving a blue-black precipitate 
with ferric chloride, and the air-dried bark leaves 11 per cent, 
of mineral matter on incineration. 

Chrozophora plicata, ^- Juss.^ Burm. Ind,, t 62,/ It 

is a common weed on cultivated ground, and in the bottoms of 
dried up tanks in many parts of tropical India in the cold season. 
It is reputed to have alterative properties, and is mentioned by 
Ainslie as a plant which Dr- F. Hamilton had brought to him 
in Behar, as one of those which was supposed to have virtues in 
leprous affections ; the dry plant is made into a decoction to 
which is added a little mustard. {Mat. Ind., ii,, 398.) 

Sebastiania Chamselea, MillUArg.^ the Cadi-avanacu 

of Rheede (ii., 34), and the Bhui-erandi of the Concan, is a small 
plant, with linear^ finely serrated leaves and small spinous cocci, 
the juice of which in wine is used as an astringent ; a ghrita 

head in vertigo. 




Fig,— Bedd. FL Syli\ t 313. Syn., Celtis retieulala. 

Hab. — Sikkim, Himalaya, Assam^ Burma, Pegu, Deccan 
PeBinsulaj Ceylon. Tlie wood. 

FernaeuZar.— Koditani (raw.),Kho-maiiig (iVt7^tVi),N^riikiya- 
ood {Ind. Bazars) . 

History, Uses. &c 

appear to be 

mentioned by Indian medical writers, nor can we find any 
record of its collection in India for medicinal use, tLe bazars 
being suppHed from Ceylon, where it has probably been in use 
from a remote period. 




Thunberg says : — *"^Tlie tree is called by the Dutch Strtmi- 
houf, and by the Cingalese Urenne^ on account of its disgusting 
odour, which resides especially in the thick stem and the larger 
branches. The smell of it so perfectly resembles that of human 
ordure, that one cannot perceive the smallest difference between 
them. When the tree is rasped, and the raspings are sprinkled 
with water^ the stench is quite intolerable. It is neverthe- 
less taken internally by the Cingalese as an efficacious remedy. 
When scraped fine and mixed with lemon juice, it is taken 
internally, as a purifier of the blood in itch and other cutaneous 
eruptions, the body being at the same time anointed with it 
externally." {Thunherg's Travels^ iv,, 234.) 

Thunberg obtained leaves and young plants of the tree, but 
no blossoms; the plants were all killed by cold in the English 

The Portuguese call the wood Pao de merda or Fao siijo. In 
India it is burnt as a fumigatory to drive away evil spirits; the 
bazar name signifies '^ hellish incense." In Ceylon, according 
to Mr. J. Alexander, it is hung up near dwelling-houses as a 
charm to keep away evil spirits. As sold in the bazars it is a 
light-brown wood in irregular- shaped pieces, having a pene- 
trating odour, exactly similar to that of fresh human ordure. 

Chemical composition. — The wood has been examined by Prof. 
AY, R. Dunstan. By distillation with water a minute quantity 
of a solid crystalline substance was obtained. It possessed a 
fsecal odour, and after purification melted at 93 '5*^0, Its 
physical and chemical properties were not those of a-naph- 
thylamine. It afforded a crystalline picrate, by the analysis of 
which the substance was shown to possess the composition of 
methyl-indole (C^H^Nj, and by its physical and chemical 
properties it was proved to be identical with the Pr. 3 methyl- 
indole, or skatole, which Brieger isolated in 1877 from human 
faeces, and Salkowski soon afterwards obtained from among the 
putrefaction products of animal proteid. Nenchi has observed 
the formation of the same substance when potash is fused with 
albumen^ and it has also been prepared synthetically. Skatole 


from O. reticulata corresponds in all its properties with 
synthetical skatole from propylidene plienyl-liydrazide. The 
occurrence of skatole in a plant has not hitherto heen observed; 
it has appeared to be a characteristic product of the bacterial 
resolution of animal proteid. {Pharm. Journ.^ June 15th, 1889.) 

The nomenclature followed is that which has been proposed 
by Emil Fischer. The benzene nucleus of indole being desig- 
nated by Bz^ and the pyrrole nucleus by the contraction Pr, the 

nitrogen of the pyrrole nucleus is numbered 1, as well as the 
corresponding carbon atom of the benzene nucleus ; thus the 
formula of skatole ig 







Holoptelea integrifolia, Planch., Wight Ic, t 1968; 

xh. Cor. PI, t. 78 ; Bedd. FL Sylv., t. 310, a tree extending 



which is boiled and the juice squeezed out and applied 


swellings ; the exhausted 


NayiH (Td.). Zavala (-Sf^ 



Fig.-^BeniL and Trim., t. 231 ; Reichh. Ic. FL Germ., 

t. 655 ; Mheede, Bort, Mai. x., tt. 60, 61. Hemp {Eng.), 
Chanvre (Fr.). 

Hab.— N.-W. Himalaya. Cultivated in India. The leaves, 
female flowering tops, resinous exudation, and seeds. 



Vernacular. — The leaves — Bhang, Sabji {Hind., Beng., Mar.), 
Ganja-ilai, Bangi-ilai (Tarn.), Ganja-aku, Bangi-aku (TeL), 
Kaiich^va-ela(3fa/.), Bangi (Can.), Bhang ((?wz.). Flowering 
tops — Ganja {Hind., Beng., Guz.), Ganja {Tarn., Teh, Mar.), 
Kancha {Mai. ), Bangi [Can. ) . The resin — Charaa ( Hind., 
Bang., Cfm., Mar.), Ganja-p^l {Tarn.), Ganja-rasam (TeL), 
Kanchava-pala {MaL), Bangi-gondu (Can.) • The seeds 
Ganje-ke-bij (Hw6?.)» Ganja- virai [Tarn.), Ganja-vittulu(T^/.), 

Kanchava-vitta (Jfa?.)? Bangi-bija (0^;2.), Ganja-bij {Beng.)^ 
Bhanga-cha-bi {Mar.), Bhang-nu"bi(G^ws.). 

History, Uses, &C. — The hemp plant, in Sanskrit 

Bhanga and Indrasana, " Indra^s hemp,'' has been known in the 
East as a fibre plant from prehistoric times. It is mentioned 
along with the Yedic plant Janjida, which has magic and 
medicinal properties, and which is described in the Athavaveda 
(ix., 34, 35) as a protector, and is supplicated to protect all 
animals and properties. The gods are said to have three times 
created this herb (oshadhi). Indrahas given it a thousand eyes. 



and is worn as a precious talisman ; along with hemp it 
prevents wandering (vishkandha), fever and the evil eye. 
De Gubematis says that in Sicily the peasant women still 
believe in hemp as an infallible means of attaching their 
sweethearts. On Good Friday they take a thread of hemp and 
twenty "five needlefuls of coloured silk, and at midnight weave 
them together, repeating the following lines : 

Cbistu e cannavu di Christu 
Servi pi attaccari a chistu. 

"This is the hemp of Christ; it serves to attach this man." 
They then enter the Church with the thread in their hands, and 
at the moment of the consecration of the host, they make three 
knots in it, adding at the same time some hairs of the man they 
are in love with, and invoke all the demons to attract him to 
his sweetheart, ( Cf. Mattia ' di Martino, Ubi e credenze popolari 
Siciliane, Woto, 1874.) Burns in "Halloween^* notices a 




the plant possesses in its Eastern liome appear not to have been 
discovered until a more recent date, but in the fifth chapter of 
Menu, Brahmins are prohibited from using it, and in the sacred 
boots of the Parsis the use of Eana for the purpose of procur* 
ing abortion is forbidden. In Hindu mythology the hemp 
plant is said to have sprung from the amrita produced whilst 
the gods were churning the ocean with Mount Mandara, It is 
called in Sanskrit Vijaya, *' giving success/' and the favourite 
drink of Indra is said to be prepared from it. On festive 
occasions^ in most parts of India, large quantities are consumed 
by almost all classes of Hindus. The Brahmins sell Sherbet 


prepared with Bhang at the temples, and religious mendicants 
collect together and smoke Oanja. Shops for the sale of pre- 
parations of hemp are to be found in every town, and are much 
resorted to by the idle and vicious. Hemp is also used medi- 
cinally ; in the Raja Nirghanta its sj^nonyms are Urjaya and 
Jaya, names which mean promoter of success, Chdpala *'the 
cause of a reeling gaitj " Ananda ^Hhe laughter moving," Har- 
shini "the exciter of sexual desire"; among other synonyms 
are Kashmiri ^'coming from Kashmir," Matiilani ''the mater- 
nal uncle's wife," Mohini ''fascinating," &c. Its effects on man 
are described as excitant, heating, astringent ; it destroys phlegm, 
expels flatulence, induces costiveness, sharpens the memory, 
excites appetite, &c. Susruta recommends the use of Bhang to 
people suffering from catarrh. In the Rajavalahha, a recent 
work in use in Bengal, we are informed that the gods through 
compassion on the human jace sent hemp, so that mankind by 
using it might attain delight, lose fear, and have sexual 

The seductive influences of hemp have led to the most extra- 
vagant praise of the drug in the popular languages of India, 
but in truth it is one of the curses of the country ; if its use is 
persisted in, it leads to indigestion, wasting of the body, cough, 
melancholy, impotence and dropsy. After a time its votary 

♦ Sabzi or Sahji, an infusioa of Bhang with black pepper, anise 
»ugar. In Bengal milk, and cucumber and melon seeds are added. 



becomes an outcasto from society, and his career terminates 
in crime, insanity, or idiotcy. 

Ganja pie gtir-gyan c/hate, aur ghate tan andar ha, 
Khokatt khokat dam nikse, mukk dekho jaisa bandar ka. 

Who ganja smoke do knowledge lack, the heart bums constantly, 
The breath with coughing goes, the face as monkey's pale you see. 


According to tradition, the nse of hemp as an intoxicant was 
first made known in Persia by Birarslan, an Indian pilgrim, in 
the rcigu of Khusru the first (A.D. 531 — 579), but, as we have 
already stated, its injurious properties appear to have been 
known lone before that date. 


was encouraged by the Ismailians in the 8th century, as its 
effects tended to assist their followers ia realising the tenets of 
the sect: 

We've quaffed the emeraUl cup, the mystery we know, 
Who'd dream so weak a plant such mighty power could show! 

Hasan Sabah, their celebrated chief, in the llth century 
notoriously made use of it to urge them on to the commission of 
deeds of daring and violence so that they became known as the 
fthshashin or "Assassins." Hasan studied the tenets of his 


sect in retirement at Nishapur, doubtless at the monastery 
noticed by O'Shaughnessy {Bengal Dispenrntori/), in the following 
terms : — "* Haidar lived in rigid privation on a mountain between 
Nishapur and Rama, where he established a mojtiastcry ; after 
ha vino- lived ten years in this retreat, he one day returned from 
a stroll in the neighbourhood with an air of joy and gaiety; on 
being questioned, he stated that, struck by the appearance of a 
plant, he had gathered and eaten its leaves. He then led his 
companions to the spot, who all ate and were similarly excited, 
A tincture of the hemp leaf in wine or spirit seems to have been 
the favourite formula in which Sheikh Haidar indulged himself. 
An Arab poet sings of Haidar's emerald cup, an evident 

III— 41 


into Clialdea, 

allusion to the rich green colour of the tincture. The Sheik 
survived the discovery ten years, and subsisted chiefly on this 
herb, and on his death his disciples at his desire planted it in 
an arbour round his tomb. From this saintly sepulchre the 
knowledge of the effects of hemp is stated to have spread into 
Khorasan. In Chaldea it was unknown until 728 A. H., the 
kings of Ormus and Bahrein then introduced it 
■Syria, Egypt and Turkey." 

Taki-ed-din Ahmad, commonly known as Makri^i, who wrote 
a number of treatises upon Egypt in the 14th century, mentions 
the lease of the monopoly for the sale of Hashish in that 
country, and its abolition in (1286) by the Sultan. 

HajiZein in the Ikhti^rat (1368), after noticing the two 
kinds of Kinnab mentioned by the Greeks, states that Indian 
hemp is known as Bang or Sabz in Shiraz ; after describing its 
properties, he says that in cases of poisoning by it vomiting 
should be induced by the administration of butter and hot water 
to empty the stomach, and that afterwards acid drinks should 
be administered. 

The Greeks were acquainted with hemp more than 2000 
years ago; Herodotus (iv., 74, 75) mentions it as being 
cultivated by the Scythians, who used its fibre for making 
their garments, and the seeds to medicate vapour baths. 
Dioscorides mentions two kinds of Kavvd^t^^ the wild and the 
cultivated; the former is the Althcea cannahina of Linneus, and 
the latter Cannabis satim ; he states that the seeds^ if eaten too 
freely, destroy the virile powers^ and that the juice is used to 
relieve earache, Galen and the early Arabian physicians, such 
as Ibu Sina and Razi, follow Dioscorides in his opinion of the 
properties of hemp, and do not notice its having any -intoxicat- 
ing properties, and unless the GelotophylUs of Pliny (24, 102) 
was Indian hemp, there is no evidence to show that the ancients 
were acquainted with them. Pliny says :— "The Gelotophyllis 
(laughing leaf) is a j)lant found in Bactriana, and on the banks 
of the BorysthcTios. Taken internally with myrrh and wine, 
ull sorts of visionary forms present themselves, and excite the 




UB TIC A GEM 3 23 

most immoderate laugliter, wliich can only be put an end to 
by taking kernels of tbe pine nut, with pepper and honey, in 
palm wine." The earliest Western medical writer who dis- 
tinctly mentions the intoxicating properties of hemp is Ibn 
Baitar a native of Africa, who died in Damascus in 1248. All 
the later Mahometan physicians describe the two kinds of 


third kind called Rindi or Indian. The name Cannabis is 
derived from the Persian Kanab. which is connate to the Sans- 
krit S'ana, the Russian Kanopla, the Irish Canaib, the Iceland 
Hanp, the Saxon Hsenep, and the old German Hanaf. 

The author of the Malchzan-eUAdmya gives Udifarilnas*as the 
Yunani name, and Kanabira as the Syrian, and also mentions a 
number of cant terms which are applied to it, such as Wark-el- 
khyal, Hashish, Hashishat-el-fukara, Arsh-numsi, Chatr-i-akh- 
zar, &c. Charas is described, and the practice of smoking it. 
The Bengal- grown hemp is said to be less intoxicating than that 
grown in more T^Torthern climates. Hempseed ' " ' "^ 
sian Shahdanah," royal seeds." ™ 
and conserves for intoxicating purposes. The properties of 
hemp are described as cold and dry in the third degree, that is. 

The leaves 


and then a refrigerant effect, the drug at first exhilarates^ 
improves the complexion, excites the imagination, increases the 
appetite, and acts as an aphrodisiac ; afterwards its sedative 
effects are observed— if its use is persisted in, it leads to indi- 
i?estion. wasting of the body, melancholy, impotence and dropsy. 


of the flow of bile, and relates cases of its efficacy in restoring 
appetite, of its utility as an external application as a poultice 
with milk in relieving haemorrhoids, and internally in gonor- 
rhoea, to the extent of a quarter drachm of bhang. 

Charas is only mentioned in comparatively recent medical 
works. The word is said to be derived from the Sanskrit 


♦ Some nich word may have been manufactured by the Syrian monks 
in the Midiile Ages, possibly from fC and 8ta<>tpa. as an equivaleut to the 
Sanskrit ' Vijaya.' 


a skin, but it occurs in Persian with the primary signification 
of a piece of leather or cloth, the four corners of which are tied 
up so as to form a wallet, such as beggars carry ; in Hindi it 
signifies a leather bag for holding water, &c. The Charas 
collected in Central Asia is stored in leathern bags by the cul- 
ti^'ators. Among European writers in the East, Eheede and 
Eumphius figure and describe the Indian plant ; the latter states 
that the kind of mental excitement it produces depends upon 
the temperament of the consumer. He quotes a passage from 
Galeuj lib, I. {de aliment, facult.), in which it is asserted that in 
that great writer's time it was customary to give hempseed to 
the guests at banquets, as a promoter of hilarity and enjoy- 
ment (the seeds are still roasted and eaten in the East). 
Eumphius adds, that the Mahometans in his neighbourhood 
frequently sought for the male plant from his garden, to be 
given to persons afflicted with virulent gonorrhoea or with 
asthma, and the affection which is popularly called " stitches in 
the side." He tells us, moreover, that the powdered leaves 
check diarrhoea, are stomachic, cure the malady named Fitao, 
and moderate excessive secretion of bile. He mentions the use 
of hemp smoke as an enema in strangulated hernia, and of the 
leaves as an antidote to poisoning by orpiment. 

In the Bulktm de Phannacie (1810, p. 400), we find it briefly 

described by M. Houyer, apothecary to IS'apoleon, and member 

of the Egyptian Scientific Commission, in a paper on the 

popular remedies of Egypt. With the leaves and tops, he tells 

us, collected before ripening, the Egyptians prepare a conserve, 

which serves as the base of the hei'ch, the dkmnouk, and the 

hcmaouij. Hemp leaves reduced to powder and incorporated 

with honey, or stirred with water, constitute the berch o£ the 
poor classes. 

^ AinsHe notices M&jun, a confection made with hemp leaves 
to be used as a sweetmeat, the composition of which varies in 

intoxiTf ^<!?' ""^ ^^"^ f ''"*' """'^ ^"^ "^^'"^ ^^^ ^^^^'^ ^^'^^"^ °*^'''' 
IS 10 ^^^ ^^ y"^^' ^'^^^^^ig^iTiessy in the Bengal Dispensatory 
1812 gives a detailed account of its preparation! Calcutta. 





nessy tried it with more or less success iu various diseases, 
especially in tetanus, liydropliobia, rheumatism, the convulsions 
of children and cholera. Subsequent experience has confirmed 
the value of the drug as a remedy in tetanus and cholera. In 
the former disease we have obtained most satisfactory results, 
large dose^ are required, and the patient must be lvej)t under 
the influence of the drug for some days. 

In cholera its action may be compared with that of opium; it 
is most likely to be successful when resorted to early in the 
disease. People suffering from painful chronic diseases, such 
as rheumatism, are completely relieved of their pains by hemp, 
but as the effects of the drug go off, the pains return ; some of 
O'Shaughnessy's patients became cataleptic whilst under its 
influence. Christison, speaking of Indian Hemp, says : 
'* I have long been convinced, and new experience confirms the 
conviction, that for energy, certainty, and convenience, it is 
the next anodyne, hypnotic and antispasmodic, to opium and its 
derivatives, and often equal to it. " 

Among the ^' special opinions ^^ collected by Dr. Watt for the 
Diet, of the Econ. Prod, of India, we observe that Dr. S. J. Ronnie 
recommends the tincture in doses of from lo to 20 minims three 
times a day in acute dysentery, and states that he, as well as 
other medical officers, obtained excellent results with it. Dr. J, 

E. T. Aitchison states that the oil of the seeds, known as 
Kandir yah in Turkistan, is used in Kashmir as a liniment 
for rheumatic pains. Others notice it as having valuable 
narcotic, diuretic and cholagogue properties. ( Op. cit.^ 
vol. ii., p. 124.) 

A. Aaronson states in the British Journal of Dental Sciencej 
that the tincture as a local anaesthetic is perfectly satisfactory. 
He has extracted with its aid as many as twenty-two teeth and 
stumps at one sitting. His plan is to dilute the tincture some 
three or five times, according to the probable duration of the 
oj)cration. The diluted tincture is then applied on cotton 



affected teeth. The beaks of the extracting forceps are also, 
after being wanned^ dipped in the tincture. In cold weather 
it is best to dilute the tincture with warm water. His patients 
acknowledge the immunity from pain they enjoyed during the 
operations, and all expressed surprise and pleasure at the simpli- 
city of the performance. 

Tannate of cannabin has recently been recommended as a 
hypnotic. Cannabis appears capable, directly or indirectly, 
of causing uterine contraction, as in many cases of uterine 
haemorrhage ; and it is also said to provoke this act during 
labour with as much energy as ergot, but with less persistant 

A recent correspondence in the Lancet^ anent the variation 
in action and occasional toxic effects of this dru^, has 

brought from Dr. J. Eussell Reynolds an important contri- 
bution respecting its clinical value. 

In explaining the occasional toxic effects of this drug, 
Dr, Reynolds says two things must be remembered : first, that, by 
its nature and the forms of its administration, cannabis indica 
is subject to great variations in strength. Extracts and 
tinctures cannot be made uniform, because the hemp grown at 
different seasons and in different places varies in the amount of 
the active therapeutic principle. It should always be obtained 
from the same source, and the minimum dose should be given 
at first, and gradually and cautiously increased. The second 
important fact to keep in view is, that individuals differ widely 
in their relations to various medicines and articles of diet 
perhaps to none more than to substances of vegetable origin, 
such as tea, coffee, ipecacuanha, digitalis, nux vomica, and the 


y of the drug, 
mind as callin 

giving Indian hemp. By gradually increasing the dose and 
habituating the organism to its use, the use of cannabis indica 
may be pushed to 3 or 4 grains of the extract at a dose with posi- 
tive advantage. But in Dr. Eeynolds' experience 1 grain would 


bring about toxic effects in the majority of healthy adults ; and 
i of a grain has done the same, but never J^, which is the 


grown persons, j\ of a grain being the proper initial dose for 
children. The best preparation for administration is the 
tincture— 1 grain to 20 or 10 minims —dropped on sugar or 



repeated every four or six hours and gradually increased every 
third or fourth day, until either relief is obtained or the drug 
is proved useless. With such precautions, Dr. Eeynolds 
states he has never met with toxic effects, and rarely failed to 
ascertain in a short space of time the value or uselessness of the 


Its most important results are to be found in the mental 
sphere ; as, for instance, in Senile Insomnia, with wandering. 
An elderly person (perhaps with brain softening), is fidgety at 
night, goes to bed, gets up, thinks he has some appointment to 
keep, that he must dress and go out. Day, with its stimuli 
and real occupations, finds him quite rational again. Nothing 
can compare in utility to a moderate dose of Indian hemp at 
bedtime — ^ to ^ of a grain of the extract. In alcoholic sub- 




but unless the case has merged into senile degeneration. 
Dr. Reynolds does not now employ cannabis indica. It is worse 

In the occasional night 


restlessness of general paretics and of sufferers from the 
*' temper disease " of Marshall Hall; whether children or adults, 
it has proved eminently useful. 

In painful affections, such as Neuralgia, Neuritis, and 
Migraine, Dr. Reynolds considers hemp by far the most useful 
of drugs, even when the disease is of years' duration. In 
neuritis the remedy is useful only in conjunction with other 
treatment, and is a most valuable adjunct to mercury, iodine, 
or other drugs, as it is in neuralgia when given with arsenic, 


Many victims 


lical migraine Lave for years kept their sufferings in abeyance 
by taking hemp at the threatening or onset of the attack. In 
sciatica, myodynia, gastrodynia, enteralgia, tinnitus auriuni, 
muscle volitantes, and every kind of so-called hysterical pain, 
cannabis indica is without value. On the other hand, it relieves 
the lightning pains of Ataxia, and also the multiform miseries 
of the gouty, such as tingling, formication, numbness, and other 

In clonic spasm, whether epileptoid or choreic, hemp is of 
great service. In the Eclampsia of children or adults, from 
worms, teething (the first, second, or third dentition), it gives 
relief by itself in many cases. Many cases of so-called Epilepsy 
in adults — epileptoid convulsions, due often to gross organic 
nerve-centre lesions — are greatly helped by cannabis indica, 
when they are not afPected by the bromides or other druj2;s- 
Take, for instance, violent convulsions in an overfed man, who 
is attacked during sleep a few hours after a hearty supper, the 
attacks recurring two or three times an hour for a day or two, in 
spite of " clearing the primce vise," or using bromine or some 
other classic drug. These attacks may be stopped at once with 
a full dose of hemp. In brain tumours or other maladies in 
the course of which epileptoid seizures occur, followed by coma, 
the coma being followed by delirium, — first quiet, then violent 
the delirium time after time passing into convulsions, and 
the whole gamut being repeated, Indian hemp will at once cut 
short such abnormal activities, even when all other treatment 


has failed. In genuine eplle23sy it is of no avail. In cases where 
it has seemed to do good, the author doubts the correctness of 
the diagnosis, and suspects organic lesion or eccentric irrita- 
tion. In tonic spasmsj such as torticollis and writers' cramp, 
in general chorea, in paralysis agitans, in trismus, tetanus, and 
the jerky movements of spinal sclerosis, cannahis indica has 
proved absolutely useless. At the same time, it is most valu- 
able m the Nocturnal Cramps of gouty or old persons, in some 
cases of Spasmodic Asthma, and in simple Spasmodic Dys- 
mcnorrhoea. Thus it will be perceived that for the relief of 
suffering, quite apart from a cxirative effect, hemp must ever 


be held in high esteem, and ranked with the poppy and with 
mandragora. {Medical Annual^ 1891.) 

Physiological action, — Like some other narcotics, Indian hemp^ 
when given by the stomach to carnivorous animals, produces its 
characteristic effects, but graminivorous animals and fish exhibit 
only vacillating movements and a dull aspect, Ujwn man its 
action varies with the individuaFs temperament and tendencies. 
Some it inspires with pugnacity, others it inclines to dreamy 
contemplation, to motiveless merriment, or to maudlin sensibi- 
lity ; s(^me it makes unnaturally active and restless, and plunges 
others in a drowsy stupor ; but more than any other agent, not 
even excepting belladonna, it perverts the natural perception of 
objects and their normal condition and relations. Time, dis- 
tance, and sound are especially apt to form the subjects of the 


hallucinations caused by this drug. As in dreams, the events 
of days or weeks may be compressed into an actual period of a 
few minutes, objects near at hand may seem to form a limitless 
perspective, and whispered tones may have the reverberation of 
thunder. These and an infinite variety of fantastic pictures 
are evoked b}^ snioking the drug, as it is generally employed in 
Asia, associated with opium. During its influence the physical 
condition of the experimenter exhibits changes in acceleration 
of the pulse, warmth of skin, restless muscular movements, 
more or less insensibility to touch and pain, and sometimes im- 
paired power of locomotion, the limbs feeling as if weighted 
with lead. In one reported case a diffused vesicular eruption 
was attributed to this medicine. {Ryde,) It does not increase, 
but, on the contrary, imimirs, the venereal propensity and 
power. The habitual use of cannabis in excessive doses causes 
the face to become bloated, the eyes injected, and the limbs 
weak and tremulous ; the mind grows imbecile, and ultimately 
death by marasmus is apt to occur. Acute poisoning by large 
doses is marked by various and dissimilar symptoms indifferent 
cases. In some there is loss of consciousness, with collapse or 
stupor, insensible pupils, a pale, clammy, and insensible skin, 
extreme debility, and a small, feeble pulse. In others a catalep- 
tic condition, spasms, or convulsions occur, and in all there is 

IIL— 42 


marked anaestLesIa. The last-named effect led to the use of 
cannabis by the Chinese in certain surgical operations. {StilU 
and Mmsch.) 

Collection. — The flowering tops of the female plant are 
collected, and, after having been allowed to wither in the open 
air for about 48 hours, are arranged on a mat so as to form a 
circle, and are trodden upon by a number of men, linked 
together by resting their arms across each other's shoulders, 
who walk round and round ; the object being to compress 
the resinous flower tops into a compact mass. This process is 
repeated several times after shifting and re-arranging the 

. In Bengal a round kind of Gdnja is prepared by 
rolling the flowering tops under the feet^ and afterwards 
between the palms of the hands. During the manufacture of 
Gdn/a a quantity of powder separates^ which is known as Chur 
or Rora; it is collected, mixed with an extract of the plant, and 
made into round balls about the size of a musket ball, which are 
used for smoking like Charas. A similar preparation is made 
from the dust of the leaves ; it is popularly known as Ghams ; 
eeveral varieties of it are found in the bazars. True Charm is 
collected in Central Asia by shaking, rubbing, or beating the 
resinous exudation from the flowering plant ; it separates as a 
greyish powder, which, after being packed in bags, gradually 
consolidates into an oily resinous mass. The genuine article is 
rarely to be met with in commerce, that sold in the bazars 
being largely adulterated by the middlemen in the Punjab 
with the leaves and dtist of Bhang. Bhang is made by collecting 
the leaves and drying them. All of these drugs are obtained 
from the female plant, which the natives consider to be the 
male, because it bears the seed ; all male plants are carefully 
extirpated by the hemp doctor^ a person whose business it is to 
prune the plants so as to produce the maximum amount of 
flowering heads. 

Description. — Bhang 


coarse powder ; the odour is peculiar. The leaves have long 


petioles and are digitate, with linear-lanceolate^ sHarplj- serrated 
leaflets, tapering to a long smooth point. 

Ganja is the name given to the flowering tops of the female 
plant. The flowers foi'm erect clustered spikes, often 6 to 8 
inches long; in the drug, the spikes are compressed^ flat 
or round, glutinous, and of a brownish-green colour ; they have 
a peculiar narcotic odour. 

Pure Ch aras is a greenish -brown , moist, resinous mass, 
having the peculiar odour of the plant, and consists of resin 
mixed with the hairs and fragments of the leaf. Bazar Charas 
varies much in quality, some specimens being only very 

partially soluble in spirit, friable, and of an earthy appearance. 
Sixty grains of the finest Yarkand Charas which we examined 
left, after exhaustion with spirit, only 13 grains of residue, 
chiefly hairs of the plant. 

Chemical composition. — The most interesting constituents of 

■ r 

hemp, from a medical point of view, are the resin and the vola- 
tile oil. The former was first obtained in a state of comparative 
purity by T. and H. Smith in 1846. {Pharm. Joiini.^ vol. vi., 
p. 171*) It is a brown, amorphous solid, burning with a bright 
white flame, and leaving no ash. It has a very potent action 
when taken internally, two-thirds of a grain acting as a power- 




tities of hemp, fresh lots of the latter being used for each opera- 
tion, a volatile oil lighter than water is obtained, together 
with ammonia. This oil, according to the observations of 
Personne (1857) {Joiirru de Pharm., vol, 39, p. 48), is amber- 
coloured, and has an oppressive hemp-like smelL It sometimes 
deposits an abundance of small crystals. With due precautions 
it may be separated into two bodies, the one of which named 
by Personne Cannahene^ is liquid and colourless, with the formula 
Qiajj^o^ the other, which is called Hydride of Cannabene, 
is a solid, separating from alcohol in platy crystals, to which 
Personne assigns the formula C ' ^ H^^. He asserts that cannabene 
has indubitably a physiological action^ and even claims it as the 


sole active principle of hemp. Its vapour he states to produce, 
when breathed, a singular sensation of shuddering, a desire of 
locomotion, followed by prostration and sometimes by syncope. 
Bohling, in 1840, observed similar effects from the oil, which 
he obtained from the fresh herb just after flowering, to the 
extent of 0*3 per cent. 

As to the resin of Indian hemp, Bolas and Francis, in 
treating it with nitric acid, converted it into OxycmmaUn^ 
C'^og2oj^2Q7^ This interesting substance may, they say, he 
obtained in large prisms from a solution in methylic alcohol. 
It melts at 176° C, and then evaporates without decomposition ; 
it is neutral. {Phannacographia.) 

Preobraschensky {Pharm. Zeitsch. /. Russland, 1876, 
p. 705) made a chemical examination of a quantity of hasclnseh, 
which he brought with him from China, and was enabled, 
according to his own statement, to separate from it a volatile 
alkaloid, which he held to be identical with nicotine, and 
which he believed to be the active principle of cannabis. This, 
in view of the distinctive and very different action of cannabis, 
was somewhat remarkable. It is highly probable, as has been 


that the haschisch used by Preobraschensky 
tobacco, which it often is in Eastern countries. 

Louis Siebold and Bradbury reported to the British Pharma- 
ceutical Conference (1881) that, after an elaborate investigation, 
they had arrived at the conclusion of Dragendorff and 
Marquiss, and that in the course of their investigation they 
made the interesting discovery that pure cannabis does actually 
contain a volatile alkaloid, which does not, however, possess 
the characters of nicotine. They separated it in very small 
quantity, obtaining not more than 2 grains from 10 lbs. of 
Indian hemp. They give it the name of Cannahinine. They 
record no observations as to its physiological action; and they, 
therefore, leave it doubtful as to whether this- volatile alkaloid 

IB the narcotic principle of cannabis. IP/iann. Journ., 
xn., p. 326.) ^ 


Dr. Hay {Tharnu Jomm., xiii., p. 998) made a chemical 
examination of the drug, the results^ so far, of which lead him 
to believe tliat Cannabis indica contains several alkaloids. He 
says: — '*In a future communication I hope to be able to 
give an exact description of the distinctive characters and 
toxic action of each. In the meantime, I shall content myself 
with the description of one which I have obtained in a consi- 
derable degree of purity, and one which, rather remarkably, 
possesses an action similar to that of strychnia. It is evidently, 
therefore, quite a secondary alkaloid of the cannabis, and reminds 
one of the thebaine of opium. This alkaloid was obtained 
from a watery infusion of powdered Cannabis indica by treating 
it with a solution of subacetate of lead, and filtering. To the 
filtrate was added ammonia, and the precipitate removed by 
filtration. The filtrate, acidulated with sulphuric acid, was 
now treated with a solution of phospho-wolframic acid in 
order to precipitate the alkaloids present. The precipitate, 
which was fairly abundant, was, after the fluid had been removed 
by filtration and washing with dilute sulphuric acid and 
pressing, mixed with barium hydrate and water, which formed 
an insoluble wolframate and set free the alkaloids. The filtrate 
was next deprived of its excess of barium by means of a stream 
of carbonic acid gas and again filtered. The filtrate was at a 
gentle heat evaporated almost to dryness and acidulated with 
sulphuric acid, and treated with absolute alcohol. The sulphate 
of the alkaloids thus formed was partially soluble in alcohol, 
partly not. It was from the soluble part that the alkaloid in 
question was procured. The sulphate was converted into a 
chloride by treatment with barium hydrate, afterwards with 
carbonic acid to remove excess of barium, and, finally, with 
hydrochloric acid to neutralization. The chloride was evaporated 
and treated with absolute alcohol, in w^hich it in part dissolved. 
From the solution, by addition of excess of carbonate of soda 
and frequent shaking with ether, an alkaloid was obtained in the 
form of colourless needle-like crystals. » 

" The alkaloid was easily soluble in water, soluble also in 
alcohol, and more slowlv soluble in ether and chloroform. It 


caused tetanus in frogs in exactly the same manner as strychnia, 
increasing the excitability of the reflex centres of the 
spinal cord. It did not give a violet colour with sulphuric acid 
and bichromate of potash. It was, therefore, although similar 
in action to strychnia, not chemically identical with it. A 
solution of it in water was precipitated by the various alkaloidal 
precipitants, platinic chloride, iodide of potassium and mercuiy, 
phosphotungstate of soda, phosphomolybdic acid, phospho- 
wolfraniic acid, &c. Although I obtained the alkaloid from 
1 kilo, of cannabis, yet the quantity of it was so small that 
it was insufficient for an elementary analysis. 

To this alkaloid I propose to give the name of tetano-canna" 


bine, as indicative of its action." 

The Tannate of Cannabin of Merck {Phann. Jour.y xiii., 

p. 1052), a glucoside contained in Indian hemp^ which he has 

combined wath tannin, is a yellowish-brown powder, with a 

taste of tannin, and a rather agreeable odour ; it is insoluble in 

water and ether, and only slightly soluble in alcohol ; in 

alkaline solutions it dissolves readily. This substance is said 

to be free from any admixture of the volatile alkaloid of 

Cannabis indica, not to produce intoxication, and to be useful 

as a hypnotic; it is said not to derange the digestivre and 

secretory organs like opium, and to be especially valuable in 

irritable states of the nervous system, but Dr. H. C Wood has 

found it to be inert physiologically. Warden and Waddell of 

Calcutta, although operating on a large quantity of Indian 

hemp of ascertained activity, were unable to find any evidence 

of the existence of such a piineiple as Dr. Hay describes. 

They further remark that :— " As many of those addicted to 

the Hashish form of intemperance obtain the intoxicating 

effects by smoking the plant in a pipe, it is to be expected 

that destructive distillation of the freshly prepai^ed resin might 

yield up the active principle. This process was therefore 

resorted to. By the destructive distillation of freshly prepared 

alcoholic extract of the plant to which an excess of caustic 

potash solution had been added, an amber-coloured oil was 

obtained, which, by exposure to the air or the action of alkalies, 


rapidly became of a dark reddish-brown colour. This oil had a 
mildly empyreumatic odour, which was distinctly tobacco-like. 
Its taste was warm, aromatic, and somewhat terebinthinate. 
The oil contained phenol, ammonia, and several other of the 
usual products of destructive distillation. 

'^ The nicotine-like principle contained in this oil appeared 
to be an alkaloid. It formed salts which evolved a strong 
nicotine-like odour when acted on by alkalies. But physiologi- 
cally it was found to be inert, and therefore was evidently not 
identical with nicotine, 

** The oil as a whole was also foimd to be devoid of any narco- 
tic or irritant qualities. About ^ of an ounce was introduced 
into the stomach of a cat without producing any sensible 
effect. These results do not coincide with those of Personne, 
who asserted that the active principle of the plant resided in 
the volatile oil It is just possible that the active principle 
was decomposed by the high temperature necessary for destruc- 
tive distillation. ''(/^zc/. MecL Gaz,, Dec. 18S4.) 

Kennedy iPharnu Record, vi., p. 304) made a search for 
nicotine in Indian hemp without success, but obtained indi- 
cations of the presence of another alkaloid. 

E. Jahns {Archiv, d. Pharm., 1887) reported that he had 
separated from Indian hemp a base which he has identified as 
choline, and points out that this result corresponds fairly with 
the statement of previous workers, except in respect to the crys- 
tallizability of Dr. Hay's alkaloid and solubility in ether. The 
quantity of choline obtained by the author from different 
samples varied considerably, but amounted at the most to 
only Y*^ per cent. 

H. F. Smith (-4mi?r.Jb20'^.PArtrm., Aug. 1891), bytwoentirely 
different processes, obtained an alkaloid from Indian hemp, 
which separated from ethereal solutions in the form of a yellow- 
ish-green, transparent varnish-like substance. It had a 
strong, peculiar odour, resembling that of coniine ; was soluble 
in ether, chloroform^ alcohol, and acidulated water, but only 
slightly so in water ; was alkaline to test paper and capable of 

336 VPxTICACE^. 

neutralizing acids. When dissolved in very dilute H'^SO* 
(1 gtt. in 5 cc), it gave a clear yellow solution and the following 

reactions : 

With Mayer's reagent, an abundant white precipitate. 




yy M 

j> n 

M >> 

u M 

»» y9 

^> » 

KI+I+H^O, an abundant brown precipitate. 

Phosphomolybdate of soda, an abundant white precipi- 

Solution of picric acid, an abundant yellow precipitate, 

K^C^O^, a yellowish-brown precipitate. 

NH^^OH, a yellowish-green precipitate. 

NaOH, a yellowish-green precij)itate. 

KOH, a yellowish- green precipitate. 

KI, a yellowish precipitate. 

tannic acid, a yellowish-brown precipitate. 
Supposing this alkaloid of Indian hemp to be highly poisonous, 
it is present in so small a quantity as to be of little if any 
importance therapeutically. 

Toxicology. — Lyon says — '* In India, Cannabis appears to be 
seldom, if ever, used for homicidal purposes. Fatal, accidental 


or suicidal cases have^ however, been reported. Cases have also 
been reported where the drug has, or appears to have, been 
used for the purpose of facilitating the commission of an 
offence. Thus Chevers mentions a case which occurred at 
Ahmednagar, in which a woman, having first drugged with 
majun, a child aged seven, afterwards murdered him for the 

Bake of his ornaments, {Med. Jurisp.y p, 225.) Harvey 
reports a case in which charas appears to have been used 
by a road-poisoner at Amritsar, in order to facilitate theft. 
{Beng. Med. Leg. Rep., 1870-72, p, 268.) A case is also 
reported by Dr. Cullen of Hoshangabad, in which majun 
was given to a woman and her daughter, "not with the inten- 
tion of causing death, but to effect a criminal purpose." In 
these two females, the symptoms present exactly resembled 
those of dhatura-poisoning, and it would appear that dhatura 
Ib sometimes used as an ingredient oi majun. {Lyon, Med. 
Jurisp., p. 260.) Ganja is frequently used as a poison in 
Southern India, chiefly administered with criminal intent. In 

Jjn TIC A OE^. 337 

a case of dacolty investigated near Madura in 1886, it was 
found tLat ganja liad been given in food served up to some 
travellers. It is resorted to by tbe relatives of converts to 
Christianity in Travancore, to prevent them changing their 
religion or to punish them for doing so. 

Dr. Hove, a Polish savant, who was sent out to Bombay by 
the British Grovernmcnt in 1787-89, speaking of Cannabis, says 
(p. 141) : '''I arrived at Mithampoor and waited on the Eajah, 
who ordered provisions for my people and guards. He also 
ordered to each person a basinful of a beverage which 
is called by the inhabitants Beng, This is nothing else but 
a decoction of seeds, and bruised leaves and stalks of the 
Cannabis, which has, however, such powerful quality, that even 
the steam where it was served overpowered me in a few 
minutes, so that I was imder the necessity of leaving the 
room.'* We have no doubt that Cannabis is much more 
frequently used in India for drugging people than is generally 

Commerce. — The sea-borne trade In preparations of hemp is 
insignificant ; a small quantity of gan^fa goes to Europe for 
medicinal use. The imports by trans-frontier routes do not 
exceed 2| lakhs of rupees yearly, and the exports 20 to 25 
thousand rupees. As regards internal trade, the total annual 
revenue transactions (transfers, &c.) amount to about 15 lakhs of 
rupees. The wholesale cost of ga}2ja duty-free is about 4^ 
annas per lb,, and of bhang, Rs. 8 per cwt. The revenue 
realised by the Indian Government by the duty on hemp is 
about 30 lakhs of rupees yearly. For full particulars of 
the Hemp trade in India, see Dirt. Econ. Prod, of India, ii., 
p- 113, 


Tig.— King, Fie. 55, f. 67 A, 84u ; Wight Ic, t 1967 ; 
Eheide, Hort. MaK /., t. 27, 

Hab. — -India, The root-bark, 


in.— 43 




Fig,—mn(/, Fie. 18, t. 31, 81c; Wight Ic, 1. 1939 ; Eheedc, 
Hort. 3Ial. i., t. 28. 

Hab. — India. The root-bark. 


Fig.— King, Fie. 57, L 70, 84x ; Rhccde, Hort. Mai. Hi., t. 61 
Hab.— Intlia. The root-bark. 


. Fig. — Uoxb. Cor. PL H., f. 123; TFig/ii Ic, t. 667. • 

Hab, — India, The root-bark, frvilt, Juiccj and galls. 

Vernacular, — F. reliyiosa^ Pipal, Pij)ar {IlmL, Mar., Guz.)y 
Aswat, Asud (I?^;2(7.), Ar|isa [Tarn,), Rai, Ptaiga [Tel)y Eangi, 
Basri {Can.). F, hengalensis^ Bar, Bargat [Hind., Beng., Gnz.), 
Vara, Vari [Men.), Ala [Tarn.), Mari, Peddi-mari {TeL\ Alada- 
niara [Can.). F. Tjahcla, Ram-anjir, Pakhar [IlincL, Beng.), 
Bassuri, Pakri, Lendva (J/r/r.), Joti {Tam,)^ Jeyi [TcL), Kan, 
Bassari [Can.) F. glomerata^ Giilar, TJmar [HhuL), Jagno- 
dumar [Bong.), Atti {Tani.), Moydi, Atti [Tel), KuUa-kitli 
{Can.), Umbara {Mar.), Umbro [Guz.). 

History, UseSj &C. — In tbe Kathaka Upamshad an 
eternal and cosmogonic Asvattha or Pippal tree is described; 
this tree is said to hare its roots above and branches below 
(iirdhvamulo' vaksakha esho ' svatthah sanatanah) ; it bears the 
names of 'seed,' * brahman,' * amrita' ; the worlds rest npon it ; 
beneath it there is nothing. The wood of the Asvattha when 
rubbed against that of the Sami [Acacia Sumo) engenders fire, 
which is symbolic of reproduction, the former representing the 
male and the latter the female energy. At the marriage 
ceremony of the Hindus, both of these plants are necessary. 
To this mythic tree which represented the macrocosm, wonder- 
ful medicinal properties are ascribed in the Atharvaveda ; the 
medicine che^t of the Vedic physician, and the cup to contain 


the Soma, are to be made of it ; its branches are the Vedas. In 
the Valakhiljja^ a collection of apocryphal hymns in the Rirj- 
vedciy the marriage of the actual tree with Tulasiis enjoined; it 
is worshipped on Saturdays in the month of Sravan and on 


Somvutis or " lunar days/' Women perform Pradakshina, 
^* walking: round it from left to right/' to secure the survival of 

their husbands and good luck generally, as Savitri^ the wife of 
Satyavan, is said to have recovered her deceased husband by its 
worship* The thread ceremony and marriage of the tree with 
the Durva {Cynodon Daelf/loa) is also performed by women. 
Sacrificial spoons are still made from its wood. F, rellgiosa is 
the BiidJiidrUy or tree of wisdom^ of the Jains and Buddhists^ who 

relate that at the birth of the Buddha an enormous Asvattha 
sprung from the centre of the universe, an ofishoot, no doubt, of 
the Vedic and cosmogonic tree. In the Raja Nirffhanta ithears 
the synonyms of Yajnika "sacrificial/' Srimana " fortunate," 
Vipra " wise/' Sevya " worthy of worship," &c. Its root-bark, 
together with that of the three other species of Fieus placed at the 
head of this article, and the root-bark of the Neem, form the 
Panchavalkala or ** five barks," and a decoction of them (pancha- 
valkala kashoya) is much used as a gargle in salivation^ as a 
wash for ulcers, and as an astringent injection in leueorrhoea. 
The powdered root-bark of the Asvattha, rubbed with honey, is 
applied to apthee and unhealthy ulcers to promote granulation, 

F. hengalensis^ the Vata or Nyagrodha, has been sometimes 
confounded with the Asvattha ; both trees bear the synonyms 
Bah upada '* many-footed," and Sikhandin '* crested," but the 
Vata is specially described as Skandaja " born of the trunk/' 
Ava-roha-sayin ''sending down branches," Skanda-ruha "grow- 
ing from its own trunk," Pada-rohana, &c* In Indian 
mythology an enormous Vata tree is supposed to grow upon 
mount Suparsva, to the south of the celestial mount Meru, and 
to cover eleven yojanas ; in the Vishun Purana we find a 
similar account of the Pippala growing on mount Vipula and 
covering eleven hundred yojanas. Devaki, when pregnant with 
Krishna, is said to have taken refuge under a Vata tree from 
Kansa, who had destroyed her first six children. The tree was a 


special favorite of the Buddha, and Arrian speaks of the Indian 
sages as sitting under it. There is one famous tree mentioned 
in the Ramaj/cma^ the Uttara Rama'Charitra, the Kunna-jmrana^ 
and elsewhere, which still grows on an island in the Nerbudda ; 
it is said to have been planted by the sage Kabira some two 


thousand years ago^ and is popularly known as the Kabir Bar. 
Owing to the peculiar growth of these trees, there is no reason 
why they should not last for an indefinite period. 

r ' 

The figs of the Udumbara (jP» gloynerata) are considered to 
be astringent^ stomachic and carminative, and are given in 
menorrhagia and hsemoptysis, in doses of one tola of the dried 
fruit with sugar and honey. The fresh juice of the ripe fruit 
is used as a vehicle {Vern. ar^fTI^)- for metallic preparations. 
The juice of the root is used as a tonic, is applied to glandular 
swellings,* and is given in doses of four tolas with cumin and 
sugar in gonorrhoea. The small blister-like galls, which are 
common on the leaves, are soaked in milk and mixed with honey 
as a remedy for pitting in small -pox. This tree bears the 
synonyms of Yajniya "sacrificial," Pavitraka '^ purifier," &c.y 
and is much used in Hindu ceremonial. According to the 
Grihya Sutray a married woman in the fourth month of preg- 
nancy should be rubbed with the fruit to fortify the germ. 

' F. Tjahela^ in Sanskrit Parkati or Parkatin, Suparsva and 
Plaksha, is the waved-leaved fig-tree, a sacred tree, but of 
minor importance. It is the Tsjakala of Pwheede. 

Mahometan and European writers do not add much to our 
knowledge of the medicinal properties of these trees. Ainslie, 
speaking of F, glomerata, says :— '' riX)m the root of the tree, 
which in Tamil is called attievay}\ there exudes, on its being 
cut, a fluid, wtich is caught in eartlien pots, and which the 
Yytians consider as a Cdlpdm {Tarn.), that is, a powerful tonic, 
when drank for several days together. This Ciilp^m is termed 
altie-vaijr ta nn ier {Mat. Inc L, ii., p. 30.) 

* It is interesting to not thut the juice of the F. Sucomorus, Linn., the 
avKo^iopos of Dioscorides, and the V;*^ (Junuz) of the Arabs, ivas used by 

lll^K*"^ ' ''^ f ^^'^^ "*^'^ ^^ ^'t'JP^ fo''« similar purpose, and that both 
tree, have mud, the .ame habit. {dU, i , 118, and Prolper Alpims, p. 20). 
Ihe Indian Maliometans use F. glomerata as a substitute for F Svcomorus. 


Ainslie also states that the seeds of F. reUyiosa are supposed 
to possess cooling and alterative qualities, and quotes the follow- 
ing passage from Bartolomeo's Voyage to the East Indies : *' Pul- 
verised, and taken in water for fourteen days together^ the fruit 
removes asthma^ and promotes fruitfulness in women." The 
tree is the Aredlu of Khecde, and the Arbor eoncilionim oi^um- 
phius, {Mat. IncL, ii., p. 25.) 



remedy for toothache, and to the soles of the feet when cracked 
and inflamed. The leaves, after they have turned yellow, are 
given in the Concan with roasted rice in decoction as a 
diaphoretic ; dose, three leaves. 

Description. — F. religiosa, a tree. — Leaves long-petioled, 
ovate, cordate, narrow acuminate^ acumen one-third the length 
of the leaf J entire, or repandly undulated towards the apex ; 
fruit-receptacles axillary, paired^ sessile, depressed, size of a 
small cherry, appearing in the hot season and ripening in the 
rainy season, purple when ripe. 

F. bengalensisj a tree. — Branches spreading very much ; lower 
ones rooting ; leaves alternate, ovate, bluntly acuminated, with 
parallel nerves, paler underneath, entire, downy when young, 
afterwards smooth ; fruit-receptacles axillary, paired, sessile, as 
large as a middle-sized cherry^ appearing and ripening in the 
hot season, red or yellow when ripe. 

F. TJaJi'ela, a tree. — Leaves rather long-petioled, mem- 
branaceous, oblong, or sublanceolate-oblong, moderately and 
acutely acuminated, obtuse or rounded, or subcordate at the 
base, quite entire, or very slightly repand ; fruit small, sessile, 
twin, globose, smooth, when ripe white. 

F. glomeraia, a tree. — Trunk crooked, thick, bark of a nistv- 
greenish colour, rough; leaves alternate, petioled, oblono or 
broad lanceolate, tapering equally to each end, entire, veiy 
slightly 3-nerved, smooth on both sides ; racemes compound or 
panicled, issuing immediately from the trunk or laro-e 
branches ; fruit pedicelled, nearly as large as the common fio-, 
clothed with soft down, purple when ripe. For a full 


botanical account of the Genus, the reader is referred to Dr. G 



Chemical composition. — The bark of -PI religiosa contains 3'8 per 
cent- of tannin, that of F. raccmosa 14-1 per cent., and that of 
P. hengalemis 10-9 per cent. The air-dried bark of F, raccmosa 

yields 12'2 per cent, of ash^ that of F. hcngalensis 8*05 per cent,, 
and that of F. religiosa 11*7 per cent. The tannin gives a green 
precipitate with ferric salts. There is nothing else of interest 
in these barks, except caoutchouc and wax. 


Y'lg.—Woodv., t. 244; Steph. 8f Ch., t. Ib^-, Reich, Ic. Fl. 
Germ. xiL, i. 659. The Fig {Emj.), Figue {Fr\ 

Hab. — Persia. Cultivated in India. The fruit. 

Vernacular. — Anjir (Hind., Guz., Mar., Beng.), Shimai-atti, 
Ten-atti [Tam.), Shima-atti, Tene-atti (Tc^/.), Shime-atti (C^/^). 

History, Uses, &C. — The Fig holds much the same 
place in the mythology of the West as the Pipal and Bar do 
in Indian mythology. It has been regarded from prehistoric 
times as an anthropogenic tree and valued for its nutritious fruit. 
It is frequently mentioned in the sacred books of the Hebrews 
and by early Greek and Latin writers. Hippocx'ates notices 
it in several places as having aperient, emollient and nutiatious 
properties, and as being useful as an article of diet m 
phlegmatic affections. Figs were used in lustration by the 
Greeks. The celebrated Ficus ruminalis of Rome^ appears, like 
the Indian Asvattha [l\ religiosa), to have been regarded as a 
cosmogonic tree. Pliny gives the following description of it : 
** Colitur ficus arbor in foi'o ipso ac comitio Romi« nata, sacra 
fulguribus ibi conditis. Magisque ob memoriam ejus quse 
nutrix fuit Romuli ac Remi conditoris appellata, quoniam sub 
ea inventa estlupa infantibuspra^bensr7^/?i<^« (ita enira vocabant 
7)tammam), miraculo ex acre juxta dicato, tainquam in comitium 
sponte transisset." In the worship of Dionysus, the fig played 
an important part; the phallus was made of its wood and the 


fruit v;raH a necessary offering to the god. In the early Chris- 
tian mythology this phallic tree became accursed, the tree of 
Judas, &C-, and was supposed to be haunted by evil spirits, and 
the early Italian missionaries in India gave the name of alhero 
del diavoh to the Indian fig-tree. For a full account of the 
myths and superstitions connected with the fig, we must refer 
the reader to De Gubernatis. {Myth, des Plant., ii., 137 — 143.) 
The fig appears to have been known to the Arabs and Persians 
from prehistoric times. Aitchison ( Botany of the Afghan Delimit 
tat Ion Commission J Trans. Lin. Soe.) gives an interesting account 
of the wild fig-tree of Eastern Persia, and Abu Hanifeh, author 
of the Book of Plants, describes the fig as wild in the Sarah, 
and commonly eaten by the people in its fresh state, and also 
dried and stored. In the chapter of the Koran entitled " The 
fig'^ (^^-y I), it is mentioned along with the olive. God, say 
the commentators, swears by these two fruits, because of their 
great uses and virtues, for the fig is wholesome and easy of 
digestion, and medicinally good to carry off phlegm, and gravel 
in the kidneys or bladder, and to remove obstructions of the 
liver and spleen, and it cures piles and the gout, &c. 

The cultivation of this tree in India was introduced by the 
Mahometans, and is now carried on by both Mahometans and 
Hindus in many parts of the country ; caprification is not 
practised, and all the fruit which we have seen is much inferior 
to that grown in Europe. Two varieties, the purple and ihe 
green, are cultivated in the Bombay Presidency, where the 
area under fig cultivation is about 300 acres ; the Hindus are 
fond of the fruit, which they consider to be cooling and 
nutrient ; they also use the unripe fruit as a vegetable. The 
fruit of F. Pouburghil m grown at Alipore, near Calcutta, attains 
a large size, and when ripe is of a bright red; it is not unpalat- 

Dried figs 


long before the tree was cultivated in the country, by the early 
Arab traders to the "Western Coast, and overland from Persia ; 
they are of a small kind, pressed flat and strung upon a string 
made of camels' hair ; when well washed and stewed in syrup 


thoy are not unpalatable. We have frequently used tliem for 
the preparation of confection of senna with satisfactory results. 

Description. — A fig consists of a thick, fleshy, hollow 

receptacle of a pear-shaped form, on the inner face of which 
grow a multitude of minute fruits. This receptacle, which is 
provided with an orifice at the top, is at first green, tough and 
leathery, exuding when pricked a milky juice ; on maturity 
it hecomes soft and juicy, and the milky juice is replaced by a 
saccharine fluid. The orifice is surrounded, and almost closed 
by a number of scales, near which, and within the fig, the male 
flowers are situated, but they are of ten wanting, or are not fully 
develoj^cd. The female flowers stand further within the 
receptacle, in the body of which they are closely packed ; they 
arc stalked, have a five-leafed perianth and a bipartite stigma. 
The ovary, which is generally one-celled, becomes when, ripe; a 
minute, dry, hard nut, popularly regarded as a seed. {P/iarma- 

Chemical composition, — Exclusive of the achenes, which, 
together with the cellular tissue, Bley (1831) found to consti- 
tute about 15 per cent, of the weight of figs, he obtained 16 

per cent, of water, C2'5 per cent, of sugar (glucose), the re- 
mainder being gum, fat, and saline constituents. The mean 
of five analyses of dried figs reported by Konig affords the 
the following percentage results : 

Water 31^20 

Albuminoids * 4*01 

Sugar 49-79 



The anhydrous figs contained '92 per cent, of nitrogen and 
2'26 per cent, of sugar. 

A. Hansen in 1886 found that the latex of Ficiis Carica 
contained principles capable of effecting four fermentative 
changes ; they pf^ptonise albuminoids in the presence of either 
alkalies or acids, act on starch like diastase, and coagulate the 
casein of milk. The products of digestion are the same as with 
i)epsin, although the two fevtnents are not identical. In 1890, 


tr. Mussi separated from fig sap a digestive ferment which he 
named *^cradina," irom krade {KpaSr))^ the name given by the 
Greeks to the part of the fig with which they associated the 
digestive property. It contains nitrogen, and differs from 
pepsin in maintaining its digestive power in an alkaline liquor, 
and from papain or papayotin in being insoluble in water, 
not precipitated from solution by alcohol or lead acetate, and 
in its activity not being diminished in the presence of hydro- 
chloric acid. 

The following species of Ficus are also considered to have 
medicinal properties ; 

Ficus Rumphii, BL King F/c 54, L 673, 84t; Wighe 

Ic, t. 640,— Pakar (Zfmc/.)» Gai-asvat {Beug.), Pair, Ashta 
{Mai\), a native of the hill slopes of North-Westcrn and Central 
India, is a tree having much the appearance of the Pipal ; 
leaves on very long petioles (6 to 8 in.), broad-cordate, with a 
short and sudden acumination, rather membranaceous with 
waved margins, finely reticulated beneath, perfectly smooth ; 
fruit paired, sessile, round, smooth, black, of the size and 
appearance of a black cherry. The juice is used in the Concan 
to kill worms, and is given internally with turmeric, pepper 
and ghf, in pills, the si^e of a pea, for the relief of asthma ; it 
causes vomiting. The juice is also burned in a closed vessel 
with the flowers of Mudar, and four gimjas' weight of the 
ashes mixed with honey is given for the same purpose. 

Ficus retusa, Linn. King Fie. 50, t. 61, 62, 84p; mg/it 

Ic, t. 642, — Kamrup {Hind 



cinally in rheumatism, the leaves and bark being pounded and 
applied as a poultice. In the Concan the following prescription 
is in use for flatulent colic : — Take of Nandruk leaf -juice, Tulsi 
leaf- juice, and ghi, equal parts; boil until all the water has 
evaporated ; do this again 21 times with fresh quantities of the 
juice of the two plants ; the residuum may then be applied to 
the belly, and fomentation with a hot brick be practised. 

III. — 44 


Rheede notices a similar use of the plant. {HorU Mal.^ m., 
t. 55.) The juice of the bark has a reputation in liver disease; 
dosCj 1 tola in milk, 

Ficus asperrima, Roxh. Wight Ict.Q^Zy—^tA-Mm^t 

{HincL), Kara-karbuda [Tel)^ Khargas [Can\ Kharvat, Kharoti 
{Ma)\)y a native of Central India and the Deccan Peninsula, 
remarkable for the roughness of its leaves, which are used as 
sand paper by the natives, and haA^e been given the name of 
Folhas da raspa by the Portuguese, is a small tree with ovate, 
alternate, very rough leaves of a pale green colour, at the apex 
of the petiole and in the axils of the leaf -veins there are small 
shining green glands as in F. hlsjjida^ except that the glands 
are more completely in the axils, and appear closed, whereas m 
the latter plant they have a distinct stoma. The leaves owe 
their roughness to the presence of calcareous hairs. Both the 
juice of the plant and the bark are well-known remedies for 
glandular enlargements of the abdomen, such as liver and 
spleen. Kheede says that the root taken in the morning with 
palm vinegar *^ visceruni ardorera compescit." The bark is 
brown, scabrous and brittle, and has a bitter and astringent 

Chemical composition. — The bark contains a crystalline 
principle soluble in alcohol, which is precipitated by alkaloidal 
reagents, and is not coloured by the stronger acids. It also 
contains an organic acid precipitated by gelatine, and darkened 
in colour by ferric chloride. The ash of the air-dried bark 
afforded 18-4 per cent, of white calcareous ash> 

Ficus hispida, Linn, Wight le,, it. 638, 641, the 

F. dcemonunioi Koenig, is the Kakodumbara or Kakodumbarika, 

It is the 

'* crows' ficr 


K^t-giilarof Hindustan, the Kako-dumar of Bengal, the Bokhara 
or Bhed-umhar of Bombay, and the Pe-attis of Madras. 
Eheede says that the fruit boiled in goat's milk is used in 


Sheriff on account of its emetic properties. The shrub 


opposite, cuneate, oblong leaves, which are scabrous above and 
downy beneath. The fruit is like a small fig and very 
downy ; it usually grows from the stem near or beneath the 
ground ; an interesting description of it by Dr. G. King forms 
one of the series of Scientific Memoirs by Medical Officers of the 
Army of India, published at the Government Printing Press, 
Calcutta. In Bombay and the Concan the powdered fruit 
heated with a little water is made into a kp, or poultice, 
which is applied to buboes, which it either disperses or brings 
rapidly to maturity. The fruit is also given to milch-cattle to 
dry up their milk, 


The emetic properties of the plant are due to the presence of 

Chemical composition. 

1 per cent, of 

tannin^ and some wax and caoutchouc-like substance . No 
alkaloid was discovered^ but a glucosidal principle, having the 
properties of saponin, was separated from a decoction by 
barium hydrate. The air-dried bark yielded 13'6 per cent, of 
mineral matter on incineration. 

Ficus gibbosa, BL King Fie. 4:, f,2 ; Wight Ic, t 650, 

is a native of the bases of the hill ranges throughout India. 
It is a climbing shrub, and often a tree with a stem as thick 
as a man's arm ; leaves alternate, very shortly petioled, some- 
what ovate, suddenly acuminated, very unequally sided, cimeate 
toward the base ; lateral nerves 3 to 4 on each side, prominent. 



The Flora of British India describes four varieties of this plant. 

In Western India tl 

and gently aperient. 


the Telug5 

Chemical coynposition , — The bark contains 4'3 per cent, of 
tannin J besides some colouring matter, a small quantity of an 
alkaloidal principle was separated from the tincture, having no 
very characteristic reactions with the strong acids. The ash of 
the air-dried bark was 15 per cent. 



Fig.—Bot Mag. i.j t. 17 ; Wight Ic.y U 1958; Bedd. Fl 
Sylv,, t. 307. The 'Upas tree {Eng,), Antiar vcneneux {Fi\). 

Hab. — The Deccan Peniusula, Ceylon, The nuts- 

r , 

Vernacular. — Chandul, Chandakuda, Sapsundl {Mar)^ 
Nettavil-maram {Tarn.), Jajhugri {Can.)^ Araya-angeli [Mai). 

History, Uses, &C. — '*Most exaggerated statements 

the close of the last century. 





of 10 or 12 miles. Criminals condemned to die 
the chance of life if they would go to the Upas tree and collect 
some of the poison. They were furnished with proj^er directions, 
and armed with due precaution^ but not more than two out of 
every twenty ever returned. The Dutch Surgeon Foersch states 
that he had derived his information from some of those who 
liad been lucky enough to escape, albeit the ground around was 
strewn with the bones of their predecessors ; and such was the 


the waters, 


and when any birds fly so near this tree that the effluvia reaches 
them, they fall a sacrifice to the effects of the poison. Out of 
a population of 1,600 persons, who were compelled, on account 
of civil dissensions, to reside within 12 or 14 miles of the tree, 
not more than 300 remained in less than two months, Foersch 
states that he conversed with some of the survivors, and pro- 
ceeds to give an account of some experiments that he witnessed 
with the gum of this tree, these experiments consisting prm- 
cipally in the execution of several women, by direction of the Em- 
peror ! Now, as specimens of this tree are cultivated in botanic 
gardens, it cannot have such virulent properties as it was stated 
to have ; moreover, it is now known to grow in woods with other 
trees, and birds and lizards have been observed on its branches. 






the ground, and wliicli is given off in such abundance as to be 
fatal to animals that approach too closely* These pestiferous 
valleys are connected with the numerous volcanoes "in the 
island. The craters of some of these emit, according to 
Heinwardt, sulphureous vapours in such abundance as to cause 
the death of great numbers of tigers, birds and insects ; while the 
rivers and lakes are in some cases so charged with sulphuric 
acid, that no fish can live in them." (Treasury of Botany.) 

In Travancore A. toxkaria is known as the sacking free, and is 
not regarded by the natives as poisonous ; the same is the case in 
Coorg, where sacks and even garments are sometimes made from 
the inner bark. In the Concan and in Canara the bitter seeds 
are used as a febrifuge, and as a remedy in dysentery, one-third 
to one-half of a seed being given three times a day. 

The use in the Malayan region of a vegetable poison to tip 
the bamboo arrows which are discharged from a blowpipe, is too 
well known to need description. To this the name Upas is 
given in Java, and Ipoh by the Malays elsewhere. Both words 
have the same meaning, and, according to Blume, signify 
poison. There is no doubt that this poison is the produce of 
A. toxicaria. In 1878, Eegnault experimented with a poison 
used by the savages of Tonkin to poison their arrows, and in a 
communication to the i^ociete de hiologle he showed that this 
substance was a powerful heart poison. Baillon identified the 
leaves from which the poison was prepared as those of 
A. toxicaria. In 1881, Sir Cecil Smith, then Colonial Secretary 
to the Straits Settlements, forwarded to Kew a bottle of Ipoh 
poison as well as foliage specimens of the tree from which it 
was obtained. These were collected by Sir Hugh Low, then 
British Resident in Perak, at the Plus River. The poison was 
subjected to a careful examination by Dr. Sidney Ringer, who 
reported that it was perfectly inert. The plant seemed identical 
with that collected by Griffith, and both were identified at Kew 
with the Javanese A. toxicaria. In 1888, Chauvet {These 
Bordeaux) examined the arrow poison of Indo-China, and came 
to the same conclusions concerning its poisonous properties as 
were arrived at by Regnault in 1878. In 1889, the Straits 


Governmeut sent to Kew further specimens of Ipoh poison, 
which were again examined by Dr. Ringer with entirely 
negative results. Botanists were not, however, unprepared for 
this result. The Dutch botanist, Blume, in his fine work 
' Rumphia,^ has given an elaborate account of the Javanese Upas 
and of the tree which yields it (pp. 46—59, tt. 22, 23), but he 
points out that Rumphius, our earliest authority on Malayan 
botany, distinguished two kinds of Upas trees, which he termed 
Arbor toxicaria femina andtnas respectively. 'K^xvcv^\\^x%\ femina 
was destitute of any poisonous qualities^ and Blume has 
described it as a distinct species under the name of A. innoxia 
{RumpMa, pp. 171—173, t. 54). He received specimens from 
the island of Timor, where Spanoghe* found that the sap was 
destitute of any poisonous effect on animals ; he also gives 
Celebes as a locality for the innocuous plant. Other botanists 
have not, however, found themselves able to attach much weight 
to the distinctive characters pointed out by Blume, and there 
can be no doubt that what weighed principally in his mind was 
the remarkable difference in the properties of the two forms. 
Species are, however, made by botanists on structural (morpholo- 
gi9al) differences and not on physiological. In the same 
species of Cinchona it is now known that there are the widest 
differences in the amount and even nature of the alkaloids 
which can be extracted from the bark. An equally striking, 
and even better known instance of differences in properties, 
unaccompanied by any difference in external characters, is 
afforded by two well-known British umbelliferous plants, 
CEnanthe crocata and Cicuta virosa, which Sir R. Christison 
found to be innocuous when grown near Edinburgh. 

Brandis in his 'Forest Flora' has identified with A. innoxia the 
A, mccidora of South-west India. According to Beddome, this is 
" the largest tree of the vergreen forests of the Western Ghauts, 
and the hills bet weem tnem and the Coast." Sacks are made of the 
thick wooll y fibrous inner bark. The method is thus described 

♦ Spanoghe's account of the innocuous Upas of Timor is printed, to- 
gether with that «f Leschenauit on the virulent kind, in Hooker's Companion 
to ih€ Boianical Magazine, Vol, I., pp. 308—317- 


by GraliamV— '*A branch is cut corresponding to tbe length and 
diameter of the sack wanted^ soaked a little, and then beaten 
with clubs till the fibre separates from the wood* This done, the 
sack formed of the bark is turned inside out, and pulled do\vn, 
until the wood is saWed off, with the exception of a small piece 
left to form the bottom of the sack, which is carefully left un- 

Brandis remarks (/. c-, p. 427) : — ^^Another species of the 
same genus {Myah seik^ Bufm.) is found in the dense evergreen 
forests of the Thoungyeen Yalley. In Tenasserim the juice is 
used by the Karens to poison arrows, but the poison does not seem 
f^qual in its effects to that of the famous Upas tree of the Indian 
Archipelago/' Mason refers the Pegu Upas to A. ovalifoUay 
a very large timber tree scattered in the forests from Mergui to 
Toungoo. The milky juice is intensely bitter, and when 
swallowed produces sore-throat. Arrows that have been smeared 
with it and hung exposed to the air, lose their power to pro- 
duce death, and there is said to be a difference in the virulence 
of the poison at different times of the year. Nothing more 
seems to be known of the tree which yields the Karen arrow 
poison, but it is very probably referable to A. toxicaria, and 
Gamble [Mantial of Indian TimberSj p. 332) refers the Burmese 
name J/ya/i seik to that species. {Archives de Physiologie^ 2,1891 ; 
Keiv Bulletin, 50,1891.) 

In 1891, MM. E. Boinet and E. Hedon examined the arrow 
poison used by the Muongs of Tonkin. They found the quan- 
tity of the poison on each bamboo arrow to be about half a gram 
of a brownish substance soluble in water. Three drops of a 
solution of 0'50 gram of the poison in 10 grams of water placed 
upon a frog's heart arrested the pulsations in seven minutes 
and a subcutaneous injection of one centigram of the poison 
proved fatal to a guinea pig. From twenty experiments it 
was found that one centigram per kilo body-weight was rapidly 
fatal to the animals experimented upon. 

The authors arrive at the following conclusions : 

Xd. — That the poison has no appreciable effect upon the 

nervo- muscular or central nervous system. 

352 URTICA0EJ3. 

2nd. — The breathing Is accelerated for a few minutes after 

the injection of the poison, but afterwards the 
number of respirations gradually decreases until 
death takes place. 

Srd, — The final effect of the poison is to stop the heart in 


In the poisoned frogs the ventricle was contracted, empty, 
hard and white. In the mammal the left ventricle was smaller 
and harder than usual, the right ventricle less contracted and 
full of dark blood. Before final stoppage the heart symptoms 
may be divided Into several stages. In mammals, at a certain 
period after the injection of the poison, a sudden want of 
rythm was observed, the heart beating very irregularly. After- 
wards the pulsations became more and more feeble, with 
occasional stronger contractions, and finally periods of great 
depression alternating with periods of stronger pulsation were 
observed. In all cases a few auricular pulsations occurred after 
stoppage of the ventricles. It was remarked also that pulsation 
could be re-induced by mechanical or electrical stimulation of 
the heart muscle. 

In the frog the first effect of the poison on the heart is a 
very marked doubling of the pulsations. Whereas in the 
normal condition the auricular contraction immediately precedes 
the ventricular, and is shown on the pulse tracing by a slight 
hitch in the curve of the total pulsation ; in the poisoned animal 
the two pulsations are separated by a marked Interval, and finally 
the auricular curve becomes so mai'ked as to equal or even 



In the second stage the ventricle only contracts once to 
several auricular contractions, that Is, it only contracts when 
it has become sufficiently distended with blood to excite con- 

In the last stage the strength of the auricular contractions 
gradually decreases, the ventricle remaining immovable, 
empty, and contracted. The authors conclude that the poison 
acts upon the intracardiac ganglia and not upon the central 
nervous system. 


The poison, we are informed, is prepared by tlie natives of 
Tonquin from the leaves of A. toxicaria, and experiments made 
by the authors with the leaves of that plant prove clearly that 
they are the only active ingredient in the arrow poison. 
{Archkes de Phys., 1891, p. 373.) 

A still more recent investigation of the Ipoh poison by 
Mr. L. Wray, the Curator and State Geologist of Perak, has been 
published in the Perak Gazette. He says :— The Samangs get the 
sap from the tree hy scoring the bark. The sap is heated on a 
spatula till evaporated, leaving a dark gummy substance in which 
the arrows are dipped ; 3^ ounces of sap will do for poisoning 100 
arro nv points. The sap was bitter and biting in taste and 
decidedly acid to test paper ; when exposed to the air it darkens 
to a brown colour, and yields when dried 29 per cent, of 
Ipoh. If this substance is placed on a glass slide and examined 
under a microscope it is seen to contain numerous crystals of 
antiarin. Some fruiting specimens of the Ipoh were sent to 
Eew in 1883, and were pronounced to be identical with the 
Javan specimens of A. toxica ria. With reference to the two 
kinds of Upas distinguished by Blume as Arbor toxkaria femina 
et mm, the latter word in Malay means " gold " ; it is so called 
from the golden colour of the inner bark. In the innocuous 
variety, so say the Samangs, the inner bark is blackish coloured, 
and so they distinguish the poisonous from the non-poisonous 
trees. They have never mixed arsenic with the sap. One 
fluid ounce of Ipoh sap was found to yield 10-85 grains of 
antiarin or 2-482 per cent. The dried Ipoh poison, of which 
the sap contains 29 per cent., therefore has 856 per cent, of 
antiarin in it. 0-086 of a grain of the dried poison is enough 
to kill an animal weighing 20 lbs., when introduced into the 
circulation. Fowls and pheasants are proof against the poison, 
but a cat struck with a poisoned dart died within 19 minutes. 
Mr. Wray's Report has since been published in the Keto 
Bulldin for October and November 1891. 

Description, — The nuts are sub-globular, the size of a 


marble, of a liglit-bt'own colour, and have a slightly prominent 
umbilicus; they are enclosed in a sweet greenish-yellow pulp, 



formiDg a small one-seeded fig with a ricli purple bloom. 
The shell is thin and fragile, the kernel, loose inside the shell, 
is of the size of a large pea, brown, sub-globular, rugose, 
especially upon the flatter side ; substance hard and very bitter. 

Chemical composiition. — When the sap of the tree is exhausted 
with boiling alcohol, a mixture of vegetable albumin, gum and 
wax remains undissolred, while a solution is formed, which 
throws down, on cooling, wax, antiar-resln, and albumin. On 
remoying the sediment and evaporating, more resin and wax 


h in boiling water Antiarin, C^^H'^^0^+2H^0, 
per cent, of the diued sap, crystallises- The 





the alcohol after boiling it 

with the sap of A. toxkaria^ consist of Antiar-resin^ C^'^H^ 

which mav be 


dry it has a glassy fracture, but becomes pasty if warmed. 

whilst antiarin causes death if introduced 
into the circulation in minute portions, {Mulder in Gmelin^^ 
Handbook, Vol. XVI., p, 217.) 

The wax deposited on cooling from an extract of the juice 
prepared with hot alcohol, and purified by boiling with water, 
is white and brittle, softening at 30°, and melting at 35 , sp. 
gr. 1-016 at 20°. It is decomposed by nitric acid, blackened by 
sulphuric acid, and not affected by hydrochloric acid or potash- 




{Ibid., Vol. XVIII,, p. 358.) 

The seeds of the Indian plant, collected in Savant Vadi, 
contain a crystalline principle, very bitter and poisonous, 
resembling, if not identical with, antiarin. It is soluble in 
water, alcohol, and very slightly in ether. It gives a reddish- 
brown colour with sulphuric acid, and a yellowish or orange 
colour with nitric acid. On allowing the dried extract to stand, 
it does not readily crystallize out, but if the alcoholic extract 
is dissolved in water, in which' it is quite soluble (showing 


absence of resinous matter), and tlie solution agitated with 
crude etter, crystals can be obtained from the decanted ethereal 
layer. The solution also reduced Fehling*s solution. About 
2 per cent- of fat, 11*33 of water, and 3'46 of ash were sepa- 
rated from the air-dried seeds. 

The juice of Artocarpus integrifolia, Linn.^ the well- 
known Jack tree, in Sanskrit Panasa, heated over the fire, is a 
popular cement for joining broken China and stoneware. 
The deposit from the milky juice is insoluble in water, partly 
soluble in alcohol, and entirely so in benzol. It is a variety 
of caoutchouc, and in the natural state can be used as a 
birdlime, or as a cement for broken articles ; after being 
washed in boiling water it becomes harder, and may be used 
for all the ordinary purposes of India-rubber. The yellow dye 
which is obtained from the wood is of a resinous nature, and 
may be extracted by boiling water or alcohol. The juice of 
A. Lakoocha, -Ro^6., oroneor two of the seeds, is a popular 

purge in Bengal ; the tree is the Dahu of Sanskrit writers, 
Rheede states that the dry leaves and juice of A, hlrsuta, 

Lamk.y together with zedoary and camphor, are applied to buboes 
and swelled testicles. The dried juice breaks with a resinous 
fracture, is only partly soluble in alcohol, wholly soluble in 
benzol and petroleum ether. The tree yields the Anjelly wood 





Ylg.—lBoL Mag., t. bl27 ; Wight Jc, t 764, 765. 

Hab. — Subtropical Himalaya, The bark. 

Vernacular. -—Kaij^hal, Kdtphal [Hind., Guz., Beng.), Kaya 
phala {Mar.), Marudam-pattai ( Tarn.), Kaidaryamu {Tei.), 
Marutam-toli {MaL), Kirishivani {Ca?%.). 


History, Uses, &C. — The bark of this tree is its most 
valuable product, and is largely exported to the plains. It is 
called in Sanskrit Katphala, and bears among other synonyms 
those of Kmnuda, Kumbhi-pski, Sriparnika, Somavalka, and 
Mahakumbhi. According to the Nighantas, it is useful in 
diseases caused by deranged phlegm, such as fever, asihraa, 
gonorrhoea, piles, cough, and other affections of the throat. It 
is an ingredient in numerous formulse for these diseases, such 
as the Katphaladi ckurna, for which Sarangadhara gives the 
following prescription: — Take of the bark of J/. Nagi, tubers 
of Cyperas rotundas (Mustaku), root of Picrorhiza Kurrooa 
(Katuki,), Curcuma Zedoaria (Sati), galls of Pistacia integerrima 
(Karkata-sringi), and root of Sammrea Lappa (Kushta), equal 
parts; powder and mix. This powder is given in doses of 
about a drachm with the addition of ginger juice and honey lu 
affections of the throat, cough and asthma. The powdered 
bark is used as a snuft in catarrh, and mixed with ginger as 
an external stimulant application in cholera, &c. 

Under the names of Dar-shishac^n, Kandul, and Ud-el-bark, 
Mahometan writers state that the bark is resolvent, astringent, 
carminative, and tonic ; that it cures catarrh and headaches ; 
with cinnamon they prescribe it for chronic cough, fever, piles, 
&c. Compounded with vinegar it strengthens the gums and 
cures toothache ; an oil prepared from it is dropped into the 
ears in earache, A decoction is a valuable remedy in asthma, 
diarrhoea and diuresis; powdered or in the form of lotion the bark 
is applied to putrid sores; pessaries made of it promote uterine 
action. The usual dose for internal administration is about 60 
grains. Dtihn-el-handul, an oil prepared from the flowers, is 
said to have much the same properties as the bark, ^V e have 
never met with it, nor does it appear to be known in commerce. 

Description. — Bark half an inch thick, externally 
scabrous, pitted from the separation of pieces of snber, of a 
mottled rusty brown and dirty white colour, suber warty; 
substance of bark and innrr surface of a deep dull red colour ; 
when soaked iu water it produces a deep red eoUition ; taste 
BtroDgly astringent. 


Microscopic structure.— Within the suberous layer is a 
remarkable stratum of stony cells ; the parenchyma throughout 
is loaded with red colouring matter, and permeated by large 
laticiferous vessels, from which a gummy latex exudes when 
the bark is soaked in water. 

- ^ 

Chemical composition. — The bark of M. Nagi contains 14 per 
cent, of tannin, which gives a purplish colour with ferric salts 
but the tincture and decoction ^\\e a greenish colour owin^ 
to the presence of colouring matter in the bark. The ash of 
the air-dried bark amounts to 7'17 per cent. 

When the bark is exhausted by water and the water eva- 
porated, a brittle vshining extract is obtained of a reddish-brown 

colour, which contains 60 per cent, of tannin with some 
saccharine matter and salts. 

Commerce. — The bazaars are supplied from Northern India; 
about 50 tons of the bark are collected annually in the Kumaon 
forests. It is always obtainable in native drug shops. Value 
about Rs. 2 per maund of 41 pounds. 



Fig. — Beddome, Forester's Man., t. 226. Tinian Pine 
{Eng.), Filao de I'lnde (Fr.). 


Hab. — East side of the Bay of Bengal. Cultivated else- 
where. The bark, leaves, and seeds. 

Vernacular, — Sinyu (Burm.), Chouk [Tarn.), Sarva {TeL), 
Kdsrike [Mysore), Am [MaL)y Vildyati-saru {Mar.). 

History, Uses, &C. — This tree is distributed through 
Chittagong, Burma, the Malay and Pacific Islands, and 
Australia, and is much cultivated on the coasts of India. In 


Australia it is called the swamp oak. Dr, Bennett {Gather- 
ings of a Naturalist in Atcstralia) remarks: -** Their sombre 
appearance causes them to be planted in cemeteries, where their 
branches give out a mournful sighing sounds as the breeze 
passes over them, waving at the same time their gloomy hearse- 
like plumes." The wood from its red colour is called in the 
colonies Beef-wood^ and is much used for fuel^ and as a 
timber on account of its hardness. The bark is astringent, 
and the ashes of the tree yield a quantity of alkali. The 
bark is used by the Madras fishermen for dyeing their 

nets. Rumphius notices the use of a decoction of the hark 
for a bath in Beri-beri, and of a decoction of the leaves in 
colic. The pounded seeds, he says, are used as a plaster m 
headache, « 

According to Corre and Lejanne {Mat. Med. et Tox. Colon.), 
the bark contains one-fifth of its weight of tannin and one- 
twelfth of Casuarine, resin, and colouring matter* A decoction, 
extract, tincture and syrup are used by the French in Tahiti, 
Cochin-China, and the Antilles as an astringent. We have 
observed that the tree yields an inferior sort of gum, not likely 
to be of much value on account of its deep colour and insolubi- 
lity in water. 

Description. — Bark never very thick, brittle, breaking 

with a coarse fibrous fracture, substance very hard, fibrous, 
and of a pink colour ; internal surface striated ; external surface 
covered with a scabrous grey suber, readily separating m 
flakes, and displaying a thin brown suberous layer closely 
adhering to the liber ; taste strongly astringent ; odour not 

Cfiemical composition. — The bark yielded 18'3 per cent, of 
tannic acid, giving a blue-black precipitate with ferric salts, 
and a bulky precipitate with gelatine. The alcoholic extract 
contained no alkaloidal principle, but a very small quantity of a 
crystalline neutral principle was shaken out of the watery 

solution of the extract by ether ; it was not coloured by strong 





"Fig.—I^gel Monogr, 58, t. 6,/. 13-19; t. 13, /. 7-14; Jacq. 
Voy. Bof., t. 158. Himalayan Bircli [Eng.), Bouleau a papier 

PJab. — Temperate Himalaya, Afghanistan, 


^ig^.~Bra7id. For. FL, t. 56; Regel Monogr. 61, /. 6, 
/. 32-34;^. 13,/. 29. 

Hab. — Temperate and subtropical Himalaya. The bark. 

F^macw/ar.— Bbujpatar (7/^^. Bazaars). 

History, Uses, &C. — These trees require a brief notice, 
as tbe bark, in Sanskrit Bhurjapatra, is mucb used all over the 
country for writing medicinal charms on, and is to be found in 
every druggist's shop. This bark is well-kn 
upon which the ancient Sanskrit manuscripts of Northern India 
are written. Dr, Biihler, in his account of a tour in Cashmere 
in search of Sanskrit manuscripts, says : — ^' The Bhurja MSS. 
are written on specially prepared thin sheets of the inner bark 




the MSS, present, therefore, the appearance of European books, 
not of Indian MSS., which owe their form to an imitation of the 
Talapatras. The Himalayas seems to contain an inexhaustible 
supply of birch-bark, which in Cashmere and other hill coun- 
tries is used both instead of paper by the shop-keepers in the 
bazaars, and for lining the roofs of houses in order to make them 
water-tight. It is also exported to India, where in many places 
it is likewise used for wrapping up parcels, and plays an import- 
ant part in the manufacture of the flexible pipe-stems used by 
huka-smokers. To give an idea of the quantities which are 
brought into Srinagar, I may mention that on one single day 


I counted fourteen large barges with birch-bark on the river, and 
that I have never moved about without seeing some boats laden 
with it. None of the boats carried, I should say, less than three 
or four tons' weight. 

" The use of birch-bark for literary purposes is attested by 
the earliest classical Sanskrit writers. Kalidasa mentions it in 
his dramas and epics; Susruta, Yarahaniihira { circa 500-550 
A. D.) know it likewise. Akbar introduced the manufacture of 
paper^ and thus created an industry for which Cashmere is now 
famous in India. From that time the use of birch-bark for the 
purpose of writing was discontinued^ and the method of prepar- 
ing it has been lost. The preparation of the ink, which was 
Uvsed for Bhiirja M>S., is known. It was made by converting 
almonds into charcoal and boilinor the coal thus obtained with 

gomutra (urina bovis) ; this ink is not affected by damp or 
water." {Journal, Bombay Branch Royal Asiatic Society y 

Vol. XIL, No. XXXIV. A.) 


Fig. — Beutl and Trim., t,2i9 ; Olivier^ Toy, dans VEmp^ 

0th. ii, p. 64, Atlas, tt. 14, 15; Steph. Sf Ghurck, t. 152, 
Dyers' oak [Eng.)^ Ohene a la galle (Fr.). 

Hab. — Asia Minor, Syria, Turkey. The galls. 

F^macu/ar.— Majuphal, Mdphal {Hind., Beng.), Maiphala, 
M6ja (Mar.), Mashik-kay (Tarn.), Mashi-kdya [Tel.), Machi- 
kayi [Can.), Mayaphal {Guz.). 

History, Uses, &C. — The Sanskrit name for galls is 
M4yin or Mayika, and signifies " magic," the gall-nut being 
used in India in magic rites. 

Galls were well known to the Greeks and Romans, who used 
them medicinally on account of their astringent properties.* 
India has probably been supplied with them from an earh'' 
date, wi the Persian Gulf, the greater portion being still 
Bhippedat Basra on board Arab vessels, hence the names Basra 

♦ Couip«re wuli D\oH.. i. 127- ir*pi «i;xi'8«v; aud PUny, 16. 9, and 24, 6. 


^lls. The 

India hardly differ from those with, which we are familiar. 



generally prescribe both kinds together in the same prescript 
tion. Mahometan writers direct the dark-coloured unper- 
f orated galls to be selected as the best. 

The Arabs call them u^ {^/^)} and say that the tree^ which is 

not of the land of the Arabs, bears one year galls and another 
Balldt (acorns). In Persia they are known as Mazu or MiSzun ; 
the author of the Bitrhdn says they are used by tanners. 

*^-H J^i u^J^"^ i^^^ (^^^^ ^t^ iSJ^ f*7 u ^'0 J 

In modern medicine tannic and gallic acids obtained from 
galls are generally used in preference to the raw material. 

The action of tannin is chiefly local, and is due to its power 
of coagulating albumen ; it is therefore a useful application 
when the skin has been deprived of its epidermis by diseases 
such as intertrigo, impetigo and eczema, as it forms with the 
exudations a protective coating, and at the same time contracts 
the cells of the skin. 

When applied to a mucous membrane, it causes dryness, coag- 
ulation of mucus, and destroys to a great extent the sensibility 
of the membrane; on this account it is employed in stomatitis, 
sare-throat, and cough due to irritation at the back of the 
pharynx, and also as an injection in chronic discharges from 
the genito-uriuary passages. 

When taken into the stomach in large doses it causes irri* 
tation, and possibly vomiting, but in smaller doses it is often 
useful inhaematemesis and intestinal hasmorrhage by coagulating 
the blood and thus acting as a styptic. In poisoning by the 
alkaloids it acts as a chemical antidote by forming tannates 
which are but sparingly soluble in the juices of the alimentary 
canal; it is also used as an antidote in poisoning by tartar 
emetic, with which it forms an insoluble tannate. When 
used as an antidote its administration should be followed by a 
purgative, as the tannates of the alkaloids will be partially 
redissolved, if allowed to remain in the intestines. 

III.— 46 


Dr. R. Stockman has conducted a series of careful experi- 
ments with gallic and tannic acids, with the object of determin- 
ing the influences which the vegetahle astringents exert upon 
the blood-vessels and animal tissues after absorption. He finds 
that tannic acid on its entry into the stomach forms alkaline 
tannates and tannates of albumin. A part of it, and sometimes 
the whole, is converted into gallic acid in the stomach and 
intestines, and it is difiicult to find a trace of tannic acid in the 
blood, although it can be detected in the urine. Dr, Stockman 
comes to the conclusion that tannic acid enters the circulation in 
combination with alkalies and albumin, and is excreted with 
such rapidity that only a trace of its presence can be detected in 
the blood, but that its presence in the genito-urinary tracts and 
in greater quantity in the intestines can be readily shown- It 
does not appear to be excreted by the mucous lining of the air 

It was found that the urine of dogs, rabbits, and 

human beings, after the administration of tannic acid, contained 
gallic acid and only a small quantity of tannic acid, but when 
tannate of soda was administered the urine contained a large 
proportion of tannic acid and but little gallic acid. These 
results may be explained in the following manner : — When free 
tannic acid is brought in contact with the contents of the 
stomach, it is chiefly converted into tannate of albumin, only a 
small quantity of alkaline tannate being formed. The tannate 
of albumin being very insoluble is retained for a long time in 
the intestines, until it is in a condition to be converted into 
gallic acid, in which form it is at length absorbed; on the other 
hand, the alkaline tannate is at once absorbed and passes off in 
the urine. Under these circumstances, the administration of 
tannate of soda naturally gives rise to the presence of a large 
proportion of tannic acid and a small proportion of gallic acid 
in the urine. 

Dr. Stockman did not find pyrogallic acid in the urine, but 

this experience is in opposition to that of other experi- 

When gallic acid was administered, that acid only was found 
in the urine. 


According to Dr. Stockman, tannic acid exerts no action upon 
tlie urinary excretion^ and gallic acid does not cause contraction 
of tlie blood-vesselsj but on the contrary dilates them even 
after contraction has been induced hj the action of an alkaline 
liquid. The neutral gallate of soda, in which form gallic acid 
circulates in the blood, was found to have no action upon the 

Catechu-tannic acid and Hhatania-tannic acid gave the same 
results; tannic acid being insoluble in a solution of chloride of 
sodium could not be experimented with in this manner. Alka- 
line tannates and tannates of albumin did not affect the calibre 
of the vessels. Fikentscher has stated that tannic acid adminis- 
tered hypodermically to frogs stimulates the vaso-motar centres 
and increases the blood pressure, but Dr. Stockman found that 
gallate andtannate of soda administered in this way to rabbits did 
not affect the pressure, Pyrogallic acid yielded similar results. 

As regards the therapeutic value of gallic acid as a local appli- 
cation or when absorbed into the blood, Dr. Stockman considers 
that it has no si3ecial astringent action, but that it diminishes 
the alkalinity of the blood and increases its tendency to 
coagulate : as a local application it is useless. Tannic acid preci- 
pitates albumin and forms a protective layer of tannate, which is 
advantageous in certain diseased conditions which we haA'e 
already noticed. In its passage through the kidneys it is very 
doubtful whether it exerts any therapeutic action, but Ribbert 
considirs that it lessens the exudation of albumin in albumi- 
nuria. Tannic acid is sometimes injected into the rectum to 

destroy thread worms, which it does by coagulating the albumin 
in their delicate tissues. 

Description. — Two kinds of gall are found upon Oak 

trees, hard and soft ; the former are the galls of commerce, and 
are produced by a Cynips which punctures the buds of the tree 
and deposits its egg in the puncture ; the latter result from 
the puncture of an aphis. 

Gall-nuts are globular or pyriform bodies, studded with 
numerous tuberosities; those which still contain the insect are 


of a blackish or bluish -green colour and heavy ; those from 
which the insect has escaped are of much lighter colour, gene- 
rally yellowish- white, on one side a i-ound hole may be perceiv- 
ed ; they are also lighter in weight and less astringent. When 
a gall is cut in two a *round cavity is seen in its centre, which" 
may or may not be occupied by the insect ; in the latter case a 
passage leads from the cavity to the exterior. 

Microscopic structure. — The contents of the central cavity, 
if present, are seen to consist of a starchy parenchyme destined 
to supply food to the larva. The walls of the cavity are formed 
of stone-cells. The bulk of the gall consists of cells arranged 
in a radiating manner, many of them containing colouring 
matter and tannin. Towards the exterior of the gall the cells 
contain dark-coloured chlorophyl ; on the very surface the 
cells are small and thick-w^alled and form a kind of rind. 

Chemical eomposition. — The principal constituent of galls is 
tannin or tannic acid. The tannin of different plants possesses 
distinctive characters ; that obtained from galls is known as 
gallo-tannic acid. It is identical with the tannin oi Rhus cori- 
fiW'm, Linn. (Sumach), 

Galls afford from 60 to 70 per cent, of tannin, and about 
2 per cent, each of gallic and ellagic acids. 

Commerce. — Grails are imported from Basra and the Persian 
Gulf ports. Value: White, Rs. 10 per maund of 37^ lbs«; 
Blue, Rs. 17. Imports about 1^400 cwts. yearly. 



Fig.— ^«gr. BoL, 1488; ReicM. FL Germ., t. 577. Great 


round-leaved Sallow, Goats' Sallow {Eng.), Marceau, Marsault 

Hab. — Persia, Europe. Cultivated in N.-W. India. The 
"bart, leaves, seeds, and flowers. 

r^r«fl'n//jr.~Bedmishk (Indian Bazars). 


History, Uses, &C. — The willow tVca was well-known 
lo the ancient Greeks, and the Greek name is considered to be 
cognate to the Sanskrit Vitika, the old German Wida, and the 
old English With or Withy. Herodotus (i.,194) mentions it, 
and Theophrastus (H. P. iii^ 13) mentions two kinds, y^evKxi 
and iiO^aiva, Dioscorides (i.,12]) notices its astringent pro- 
perties, and the various medicinal uses to which the bark, 
leaves, seed and Juice were put. Pliny (17, 20) describes the 
cultivation of the willow, and (24, 9) its medicinal properties. 
The ancients considered it to be very cooling, **Porroimpediunt 
et remittunt coituni folia salicis trita et epota "; it was also 
thought to occasion sterility in women. The concrete juice of 
the plant mentioned by Greek and Latin writers is considered 
bv Fee to have been a kind of manna. 


IbnSina, under the name of Khilaf, follows Dioscorides closely 
in his description of the medicinal uses of the willow, but he 
mentions the use of the flowers of 8. Caprea separately under 
the name of Behraraaj, a corruption of the Persian Behrameh. 
The Mahometan 2:)hysicians all mention the juice or gum ( ^-o ) 
of the plant, and Haji Zein states that it exudes from the leaves. 

It is probably the substance" described by M* Raby {Union 
Pharm,^ May, 1889), under the name of Bidengtiebine or 
" willow honey," said to be derived from the leaves and 
young branches of a willow, and to have a feebly saccharine 

In Persia S^ Caprea is known as Bid-i-Balkhi, and its flowers 
as Bidmishk ; willow bark is still a popvilar febrifuge in that 



occurring wild or cultivated in Persia : — S* pycnostachya^ 
Anders., S. acmophylla^ Boiss., 8. babylonica^ Linn,, S. Daviesii, 
Boiss., S. alhay Linn., S. songarica, Anders., and S. Caprea, 
Linn . 

In China and Persia the tree is considered to be symbolic of 
immortality. S. babyJonim is planted in burial grounds in 
the latter country, and has been introduced into India by the 
Moghals for this purpose ; among the Romans it was sacred to 

366 SALIC IN EJ<:. 

Juno Fluonia. For an account of tlie funereal use of the 

willow in China, the reader is referred to Schlegel's Uran- 

ographie Ckinoise, or De Gubernatis' Mi/th, des Plantes, article 
8 aide. 

The Persian settlers in India have introduced the flowers 
[bidmishk) and the distilled water {ma-eUhhilaf) of S, Caprea, 
both of which are used by the upper classes of Mahometans 
and Parsees, who consider them to be cephalic and cardiacal, 
and use them as domestic remedies in almost every kind of 
slight ailment. 

Raitghan-i-hidy an oil prepared by boiling two parts of the 
distilled water with one of sesamum oil until the water has all 
evaporated, is a favorite remedy for cough. 

For a long series of years the willow fell into disuse in Europe, 
but was again brouf^ht into notice in 1763 by the Rev. Mr. 

Stone, who published a paper on the efficacy of the bark of 
j8. alba as a remedy for agues. The broad-leaved willow bark 
{S. Caprea) was subsequently introduced into practice by 
Mr. James, whose observations on its efficacy were afterwards 
confirmed by Mr. White and Mr.. G. Wilkinson {Pereim, Mat. 
Med., ii., Pt. 1, p. 337), Willow bark was fonnerly official in the 
London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Pharmacopoeias, and was consi- 
dered no bad substitute for cinchona in agues. S. Caprea is 
one of those willows w^hich yield mlicin and tannin, and is 
remarkable for its large yellow fragrant catkins. 

Salicin, which was discovered in 1825, and first obtained m 
a pure state in 1830, was at first much vaunted as an antiphlo- 
gistic by Hiess and others in those cases in which salicylic acid 
is now employed; it was also used as an antiperiodic in ague, 
and is said to have been found efficient in preventing the 
development of acute coiyza and influenza, and in mitigating 
the symptoms of hay fever. It was usually administered in 




upon the temperature, and the drue- irraduallv fell into 

ery of the antiphlogistic properties of salicylic 


add, when it was again experimented with by Ringer and 
Bury, wlio sliowed that it had no influence upon the tempera- 
ture of healthy children. They observed that under full 
medicinal doses a dusky flush suffuses the face on slight 
excitement, while the expression becomes dull and heavy. 
Less constant symptoms are deafness^ noises in the ears, frontal 
headache, trembling of the hands and quickened breathing, 
Yery large doses occasion severe headache, marked muscular 
weakness, tremor and irritability, with a rapid and feeble pulse. 

Description., — Catkins 1 — 2 inches long^ thick, cylin- 
drical, bright yellow, fragrant; bracts oblong, small; scales 
obovate, blackish, hairy ; nectary ovate, papillary ; stamens 
longer than the scales, with oblong yellow anthers ; germ ovate- 
lanceolate, silky, on a hairy stalk; style hardly any; stigma 
oblong, thick^ undivided. Bark purplish-brown externally, 
minutely downy when young, internally white ; tough and 

Chemical composition. — Willow bark has been shown to con- 
tain salicin, wax, fat, gum, and a tannin which gives with 
ferric salts a blue-black precipitate, the liquid becoming pur- 
plish-red on the addition of soda. Johanson (1875) has also 
shown the presence of a kind of sugar having a slightly sweet 
taste and reducing alkaline copper solution with difficulty, and 
of the glucoslde benzohelicin, C-"H-^0^, Salicin, a glucoside, 
crystallizes in colourless plates or flat rhombic prisms, but it 
usually occurs in commerce in white glossy scales or needles. 
It remains unaltered in the air, is neutral to test-paper, in- 


odorous, and has a persistently bitter taste. It is soluble in about 

30 parts of water at 11'5° C, and is somewhat less soluble in 
alcohol. It dissolves in 0'7 part of boiling water and in 
2 parts of boiling alcohol. (United States Pharm ) Cold sul- 
phuric acid dissolves salicin with a bright red colour ; after the 
absorption of water from the air (but not after the addition of 
water or after being neutralized by an alkali), the solution 
deposits a red powder {rutilin), which after washing is yellowish- 
red, after drying blackish-brown, insoluble in water, alcohol^ 


and glacial acetic acid, and is coloured violet-red by alkalies. 

{Braconnot.) On warming salicin with somewhat diluted 

sulphuric acid and potassium bichromate, salicylous acid or 

salicyl-aldehydj C^ H^O^, is given off, recognizable by its 

peculiar fragrance, resembling that of meadow-sweet (iS/;/>'^a 

Salicin when digested with emulsin or saliva, or heated to 
80°C. with dilute sulphuric acid, assimilates 1 molecule of water, 
and is split into glucose and salicylic alcohol or saMgenin, 
C^H^O'^, which crystallizes in pearly tables, is easily soluble in hot 
water, alcohol, and ether, melts at 82'^0., and sublimes at 100°O- 
Saligenin is characterized by yielding in solution a deep-blue 
colour with ferric chloride, and when boiled with dilute acids 
by being converted into a resinous body, saUretin, C^H^^O^, 
while oxidizing agents convert it into salicylous and salicylic 
acids. Cold nitric acid, sp. gr. 1'16, oxidizes salicin, with the 
production of helicin, C^^H^^O^, which crystallizes in white 
needles, and is by ferments and dilute acids resolved into sugar 
and salicylic aldehyd. If nitric acid of sp. gr. 1-09 is employed, 
salicin yields helicoidin^ C^^H^^O^*, which may be regarded as 
a compound of salicin and helicin. {National Dispensatory.) For 
a full account of these interesting reactions, the reader is referred 
to Watts' Diet, of Chemistry, YoL V., p. 147. 

Bidangubin or ' ' willow honey " has been examined by Raby 
{Union Pharm , May, 1889, p. 201). It affords about 12 per 
cent, of sugar, estimated as glucose, and a considerable quantity 
of a sugar crystallizing in opaque hard crystals like those of 

sugar of milk. It melts at 150° to a transparent liquid, and 
dissolves in 5-5 parts of water at 15° 0. The formula is given - 
as C 'H'*0^*. This sugar evidently possesses considerable 
affinity to^ melezitose, from which it differs, according to 
M. Raby, in not being efflorescent, and in the greater rotatory 
power of the glucose derived from it by inversion over that 
obtained from melezitose. The inversion by means of dilute 
hydrochloric acid also takes place more rapidly. He therefore 

proposes to call the uew sugar hid.ngushimm. 

GNETACU^. 369 



Fig^ — Beichh. Ic. FL Oerm,y t, 539; Bertolon.^MkcelL xxiiuy 
t. 3. 

Hab. — Temperate and Alpine Himalaya, Europe, W. and 
Central Asia, Japan, 


Hab, — "Western Himalaya, Afghanistan, E, Persia, 

Vernacular. — E, vulgaris — Amsania, Butshur, Cheva (Pw«;\), 
Khanda, Khama {Kiinatoar), Pliok {8ntleJ), Ma-oh (Japan), 
E. pachyclada — Hum, Huuia {Pers,^ Bomb.). 

History, Uses, &C» — These two species are hardly 
different; E* pachyclada is rather more rohust than E. vulgaris and 
more scabrid. Of the former. Sir J. D. Hooker remarks : 
**I can find no good characters in the spikes and flowers, except 
the more or less margined bracts." A specimen of the Persian 
plant kindly furnished to one of us by Mr. K. E. Cama of Bom- 
bay, was identified at Kew as E, vulgaris. Dried branches of the 
Huma are still brou£?ht from Persia to India for use in Parsi 
ceremonial,and it is considered to have medicinal properties. The 
plant was used by the ancient Arians, and is probably the same 
as the Soma of the Yedas. Aitchison (Proc. Linn. Soc, x., 77) 
notices the medicinal use of E. vulgaris in Lahoul^ and he and 
Griffith state that the ashes of E, pachyclada are used as a snuff 
and dye in Afghanistan. Dr. N. Nagai of Tokio, Japan (Berl. 
Klin. Wochenschr.j 1887, 706), first drew attention to the fact that 
E. vulgaris contains an alkaloid [ephedrine) which possesses the 
property of dilating the pupil of the eye, and which may be used 
in the place of atropine- T. V. Biektine {Bolnitch. Gaz. Bot- 
kina, 1891, No. 19, pp. 473 — 476) has brought to notice the use 
of a decoction of the stems and roots of E. vulgaris as a popular 
remedy for rheumatism and syphilis in Hussia, and of the juice 
of the berries in affections of the respiratory passages. After 

JII.— 47 

370 GNETACE^. 

admiuistering the decoction himself in a number of cases* of 
rheumatism, acute and chronic^ he comes to the conclusion that 
the plant is especially valuable in acute muscular and articular 
forms of the disease : the pain is relieved, the pulse becomes less 
rapid and softer, and the respiration easier. Within 5 or 6 
days the temperature becomes normal, the swelling of the 
joints disappears, and after about 12 days' treatment the patient 
is cured. In several cases marked diuresis was observed before 
or about the time that the temperature began to decrease ; the 
drug was also observed to improve the digestion and promote 
the action of the bowels. In chronic cases the action of Ephe- 
dra was less marked^ and in two cases of rheumatic sciatica and 
osteo-myelitis hardly any effect was produced, but it is only 
fair to remark that antipyrine, salicylate of soda, antifebrine, 
salol, &C-, also failed to afford relief in these two cases. The 
decoction used by Dr. Biektinc was made with 3'85 grams of 
the drug to 180 grams of water. Kobert has shown that 0*20 
gram of ephedrine injected into the veins of dogs and cats 
produces violent excitement, general convulsions, exopthalmia 
and mydriasis. {J^^ouveanx Eeinedes^ -^.ug. 8th, 1891.) 

Description. — E. mlgaris is a low-growing, rigid, tufted 
shrub, with usually a gnarled stem and erect green branches 
which are striate and nearly smooth. Bracts connate to the 
middle, not margined, eciliate, rarely produced into minute 
linear leaves. Spikelets i to ^ inch, subsessile, often whorled ; 
fruiting with often fleshy, red, succulent bracts, 1 to 2 seeded. 
Seeds bi-convex or plano-convex. 

E. pachyclada has the same characters, but is usually more 
scabrid. Sir J. D. Hooker remarks: — "I have many specimens 
from N.-W. India that I do not know whether to refer to 
mlgaris or pachyclada .^^ The twigs of these plants have a 
terebinth inate and astringent taste, and sections when magni- 
fied show the tissues to be loaded with an inspissated red juice. 

Chemical compositiotK—Bv. N. Nagai {Tokio Chem. Society, 
through Chem. ZeiL, 1890, p. 441) obtained the alkaloid 
Ephedrine from the stem of Ephedra vulgaris (Ma-oh). Its 



benzoic acid, monomethylamine and oxalic acid. I^oejj/tedruie, 
melting point 114^0., is obtained by beating epbedrine, melting 
point 30°C., with bydrocbloric acid in a closed tube to 180°C. 
The constitution of epbcdrine is C^H^CH^ CH (NHCH^) 
CH^OH, and that of isoephedrine is C^H^CH^C (OH) (NH 

CH^) CH^. 

The hydrochlorate of ephedrine forms acicular crystals which 

are freely soluble in water. Mr. J. G. Prebble (1889) found 
the twigs of -E. vulgaris to contain 3 per cent, of a tannin, 
giving a whitish precipitate with gelatine and acetate of lead, 
and a greenish precipitate with acetate of iron. 



"Pig^— Richard. Conif. 33, /. 5; Eeichb. Ic. Fl Germ., 
/. 535, Juniper {Eng,)^ Genevrier {Fr.). 

Hab. — Western Himalaya, Persia. The fruit. 
Vernacular. — Hab-el-a'ra'r {Lid. Bazars). 

History, Uses, &C. — A'ra'r (^^) is a Persian word; 

the author of the Burhan notices a popular beKef that the 
Juniper is the enemy of the Date tree, and that the two will 
not grow together in the same place. Abu Hanifeh states on 
the authority of an Arab of the people 'of the Sarah, who are 
possessors of the a'ra'r^ that it is the same as ^ the Abhal (the 
latter name is applied in modern Arabic to the Juniper and 
Savine), He adds that he knew it in his own' country, and 
afterwards saw it in the province of Kazween, cut for firewood 
from the mountains, in the neighbourhood of Ed-Deylem, and 
that the fruit is eaten when ripe. J. communis is a native of 
Greece, and must therefore have been known to the ancient 
Greeksj but there is much difficulty in identifying the two 
species of 'ayKcvBls mentioned by Dioscorides. The fruit of some 


species of Juniper was, however, used by Hippocrates in certain 
disorders of the womb, and Dioscorides mentions its diuretic 
properties, its use in cough and pectoral affections, and also 
its digestive properties. The ashes of the bark were also 
applied locally in certain skin affections- 

Ibn Sina closely follows Dioscorides and gives no additional 
information concerning the plant. The several kinds of Jxmi- 
per growing on the Himalayas do not appear to be used medi- 
cinally by the Hind^is, and the berries sold in the bazaars by 
Mahometan druggists are all imported from the west via 

In modern medicine Juniper is only used as a diuretic. 

Description. — Juniper-berries are nearly globular, about 
^ inch in diameter, dark-purplish, and covered with a bluish- 
gray bloom; the short stalk at the base contains one or two 
whorls of the small scales, and the apex is marked by three 
radiating furrows, which are surrounded by ridges enclosing a 
triangular space. The three, or by abortion one or two, bony 
seeds are ovate in shape, triangular above, have six to ten large 
oil-sacs on their surface, and are imbedded in a browmsh 
pulp which likewise contains oil-cells. The berries have an 
aromatic somewhat balsamic odour, and a sweet, terebinthinate, 
bitterish, and slightly acrid taste. 

Chemical composition* — Juniper -berries were analysed by 
Trommsdorff (1822), Nicolet (1831), Steer (1S56), and Donath 
(1873). They contain from ^ to 2^ per cent, of volatile oil, 
about .30 per cent, of sugar, resins amounting to 10 per cent., 
4 of protein compounds, fat, wax, formic and acetic acids, 
malates^ and jimiperin, which is light-yellow, slightly soluble in 
water, freely so in alcohol and ether, and with a golden-yellow 
colour in ammonia. Ritthausen (1877) obtained from juniper- 
berries, containing 1077 per cent, of water, only 14'36 per cent, 
of sugar, 3-77 of ash, and 3160 of cellulose. 

Oil of juniper- berries is colourless or pale greenish-yellow, 
hrapid, but on exposure rapidly thickens and turns yellow, and 
ultimately reddish-brown, at the same time acquiring an acid 


reaction; the fresK-distilled oil from old juniper-berries istliick- 
isli and light-yellow. Its specific gravity is about "870, but 
varies between '85 and ^90; it begins to boil at 155^ C, or, if 
obtained from ripe berries, at 205"^ C. (Blancbet), has the peculiar 
odour of the berries and a warm, aromatic, somewhat sweetish 
and terebinthinate taste, shows a neutral reaction to test-paper, 
turns polarized light slightly to the left, and is slightly soluble 
in alcohol, forming with 10 or 12 parts of 80 per cent, alcohol or 
with 2 or 3 parts of officinal alcohol a more or less turbid solu- 
tion ; but it yields clear mixtures with carbon disulphide in all 
proportions. Iodine dissolves slowly in the limpid oilj but acts 
more energetically upon the thickened oil, sometimes producing 


f ulmination ; sulphuric acid colours it brown and red. Old oil 
of juniper contains formic acid, from which it may be freed by 
sodium carbonate and rectification. 

The oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons of the general formula 
C^o H^^, which differ in their boiling-point, a portion boiling at 
382''C. It yields with hydrochloric acid gas a liquid 
compound. {Stille and Maisch, ) 


Fig.— Wall. Tent FL Nep., t. 57; Grif. Ic. PL AsiaL,S76; 
BentL and Trim., U 253. Yew {Eng.), If (io\). 

Plab. — Temperate Himalaya. The leaves. 
Femac^e/ar,— Talispatar [Ind. Bazars). 

History, Uses, &C. — Under the name of Talisa-pattra 
or Talipattra, Sanskrit medical writers describe a drug which 
has carminative, expectorant, stomachic, tonic and astringent 
properties, and is useful in phthisis, asthma, bronchitis, and 
vesical catarrh ; the powdered leaves are given with the juice of 
Adhatoaa Vasica (vasaka) and honey in cough^ asthma, and 
haemoptysis. A confection called Talisadya churna is prepared 
with Talispattra, black pepper, long pepper, ginger, bamboo- 


mannaj cardamoms, cinnamon, and sugar, and is used in the 

abovementioned diseases. The author of the Burhan, the 
oldest Persian Dictionary, which contains a large collection of 
Pahlavi words, mentions the same drug under the name of 
Talisfar, and states thiat this name was applied by the Greeks to 
the leaf of the Indian Olive, or, according to some, to its root- 
bark. Ibn Sina speaks of it as an Indian bark, and describes 
its properties in the same manner as the Sanskrit writers; he 
states that Galen considers it to be possessed of hot and cold 
properties in equal proportion, but that others say it is hot and 
dry. Yahia bin Isa, the author of the Minhaj, considers Talisfar 
to be tbe leaf of the Indian Olive ; Ibn Baitar thinks that it 
is Mace. Haji Zein-el-attar identifies it with the m"*^^/^ of the 
Greeks, and says it is the root-bark of the Indian Olive, a bark 
thicker tban China cinnamon and harder and of a darker colour, 
very astringent and slightly aromatic. The author of the 
Makhzan-ehAdwiya mentions the drug in two places, and 
identifies it incorrectly with the Zarnah of the Arabs ; he also 
appears to confound it with Ilydrocotyle asiatica. Speaking of 
Zarnab, he says, "it is also called Bifl-el-jardd (locust's foot). In 


leaves, wbicb are tbe same as Zarnab, are called Talispati\ It 
is a plant with leaves broader than those of Sdfar-i-barif of a 
yellowish colour, and scented like a citron ; the flower is yellow, 
and the plant is less tban a cubit in height, with a quadrangular 
hollow stem ; it has a pimgent taste, and retains its properties 
four years. It grows in the hills of Fars, and is called Sarv-i- 
Turkistani; it is also found in Hindustan and Bengal, * 
It is hot and dry in the second degree, and has stimulant, 
astringent, stomachic, pectoral and digestive properties similar 

A 4 A 


, mixed 

roses or violets and introduced into the ear it cures cold headache. 
Substitutes, double the quantity of cinnamon, cubebs, cassia, or 
cardamoms/** **^ Again, speaking of Talisfar* an article 

* Under this name Royle obtained the leaves of Rhododendron lepidotum» 
which are highly aromatic. {Antiq, oj Hind, Med., p. 91.) 


described as one concerning the identity of which there is much 
difference of opinion, the author of the Maklizan says, ^* perhaps 
it is the same as Zarnab, which is called Talis in Hindi, and 

J ■ 

which is the narvow leaf of a tree of a dusty colour , externally and 
internally yelloicj^ If we turn to the older Arabian writers^ we 
find that we have no reason to identify Zarnab with Talisapattra ; 
they say that it is a certain perfume or certain sweet-smelling 
tree {Kdmus), or a species of sweet-smelling plant {Sihah) ; it 
consists of slender round twigs, between the thickness of large 
needles and of writing reeds, black inclining to yellowness, not 
having much taste or odour, what odour it has, being of a 
fragrant kind like citron. [Ihn titna, Book II.) According to 
the Turkish Kamus, it is the leaf of a sweet-smelling plant 
called c>\j^d:^j (locust's foot). Sprengel thought it was 
SalL^ u3Egy2)tiaca. (Confer. Hist. rei. herb., T, II., p. 270.) 
Zarnab is of the measure Jl*» and is a genuine Arabic word. 

A rajiz says 

" with my father thou shouldst be ransomed, and thy mouth, 
that is cool and sweet, as though Zarnab were sprinkled upon 
it.'' {Sihah,) 

In the tradition of Umm Zara, where it is said 

*^hj f^J f^^ ' ^ ^^J ' (-^'^ u^*'' ' *' ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^ hare, 
and the odour is the odour of Zarnab," Ibn el Athfr, author of 
the Nihayehy says that it signifies saffron [Madd-el-kamus) . 
Ainslie (ii., 407) considers Talispatar to be the leaves and twigs 
of Flaconrtia cataphractaj'Ro:s}y. Dr. U. C. Dutt, in his Hindu 
Materia Medica, states that the Talispatar of the Calcutta shops 
consists of the loaves and twigs of Abies Wehhiana^ Lindl, 
Dr. Moidln Sheriff gives the name of Talishapatri to the 
leaves of Ginnamomum Tamala, Nees. It would appear, 
therefore, that it is uncertain at the present time what 
the Talisapattra of Sanskrit writers is, and that in different 
parts of the country various drugs are used as substitutes 
for it. 

♦ Webb's or purple -coned fir. 


All the samples of the drug which we have obtained from 
Bengal, Northern, Western and Southern India have consisted 
of the leafy twigs of the yew chopped in lengths of from one 
to two inches. 

The yew was known to the Greeks and Romans as a poisonous 
plant.* Modern enquiry has shown that the leaves and seeds 
are poisonous, but not the red pulp surrounding the latter. 
The leaves have, however, been recommended in doses of 
from 1 to 5 grains in epilepsy and other spasmodic affections. 
As an abortive they have been often administered, and have 
generally proved fatal to the woman, without causing the expul- 
sion of the foetus. Moderate doses given to animals occasion 
hurried breathing and palpitation of the heart, followed by 
recovery, and larger doses produce a similar effect followed by 
death from syncope. Very large doses appear to produce death 
by syncope without pain or spasm. According to Borcher s 
(1876) experiments, taxine reduces the pulse and respirations 
and causes convulsions, with fatal asphyxia. (Husemann.) 
After death the evidences of gastro-intestinal inflammation 
have generally been slight, the heart was usually empty, the 
kidneys strongly congested, and the blood less coagulated than 
usual. The effects produced upon man by poisonous doses of 
yew resemble those above mentioned as occurring in animals: 
after large doses the nervous irritation, exhaustion and gastric 
disturbance may be very trifling, the patient dying by 

Description. — The drug consists of the small branches 
of the tree with their linear-lanceolate, narrow, rigid veinless 
leaves cut up into short length (1 to 2 inches). The male 
flowers are to be found upon some of the sprigs, and resemble 
those of the conmion yew. The wood of the larger stems is 
that of a yew, and not of a pine. 

Ohemical composition. — Statements have been made at differ- 
ent times as to the presence in the leaves and fruit of the yew 
( Tams^ baccata) o^^ nalkaloidal principle. In 1876 {Pharm. 

ra^os and trpttXa^, Dios. i, 80; Plin. 16, 20. 


Joiirn,^ [3], vii.j 894), Marme described a crystalline alkaloid 
that lie had separated from the leaves and fniit, which he 
named *^'/a,rm^/' and spoke of as being poisonous. It was 
obtained by treating an ethereal extract of the leaves and 
fruit with water acidulated with sulphuric acid and precipitat- 
ing this solution with ammonia. Messrs. Hilger and Brando 
report [Berichte, xxiii., 464) that, working on the leaves in the 
same way, they have separated an alkaloid, which they failed 
to crystallize. This taxine melted at 82^ C, and when heated 
in a glass tube gave off white fumes that condensed on the 
colder parts of the tube to oil-like drops that solidified on 
cooling, at the same time a characteristic aromatic odour was 
evolved. It dissolved in water in traces only, freely in alcohol 
and ether, with moi-e difficulty in chloroform, and was insoluble 
in benzol. It was coloured intense purple-red by concentrated 
sulphuric acid and intense red-violet by Frohde's reagent, and 
gave yellowish precipitates with the ordinary alkaloidal 
reagents, aud white precipitates, insoluble in excess, with 
the fixed alkalies and ammonia. The salts of taxine are 
mostly readily soluble in water, but only the hydrochloride 
was obtained well crystallized, and this by passing a current 
of hydrochloric acid gas into a solution of the alkaloid in 
anhydrous ether. Analysis of taxine gave results correspond- 
ing with the formula C^'H^^O^'^N, and its behaviour with ethyl 
iodide indicated that it is a nitrile base. The authors do not 
seem to have occupied themselves with the physiological action 
of taxine. [Vharm, Journ.y Mar. 29, 1890.) 


Tosoicology, — No cases of poisoning by this plant have been 
recorded in India, but considering its common use as a drug 
throughout the country, we cannot help suspecting that such 
accidents must have happened, especially as the native doctors 
do not appear to be aware of its poisonous properties. Several 
cases of poisoning by yew have occurred in England, most of 
which have ended fatally. The' prominent symptoms were 
vomiting followed by narcotism, with, in some cases, convulsions 
and dilated pupils, respiration slowed; death usually hy 
asphyxia, due to paralysis of the respiratorv muscles, 


378 ' eONlFERJS. 


¥lg,^Eoyle in,, t. 85, /. 1 ; Griff, Ic, PL Asiat, tt. 369, 


Hab. — Outer Himalaj^an Ranges, The turpentine. 

Veniacular,—^dim\ Chir {Hind.). The turpentine, Ganda- 
biroja [Tnd. Bazars). 

History, Uses, &C. — The wood, in Sanskrit Sarala, 

and the turpentine Sarala-drava, are mentioned as medicinal 
in Sanskrit works ; plasters, ointments, and pastiles for fumi- 
gations are directed to be made from the turpentine. The latter, 
under the name of Ganda-biroja, or, more correctly, Gandah- 
birozah, is found in all the Indian bazars, and appears to have all 
the properties of ordinary turpentine, though differing from it 
in odour. It is chiefly used as a pectoral plaster like the pitch 
plaster of Europe, but it has also a reputation in veterinary 
practice as a remedy for mange. The Vaids obtain from it by 
distillation without water a limpid sherry- coloured oil having 
the peculiar odour of the drug, which they call Khanno oil in 
the Deccan; it is in much repute as a remedy for gleet or 
long-standing gonorrhoea. 

Collection.— The Chir Pine, which is a large tree of Afghan- 
istan and the North-West Himalayas, is the chief source of 
this turpentine. Atkinson, who describes its collection in 
Gurhwal and Kumaon, says that it is there called Birja and 
Lisha or Lcma* and that there are two kinds collected, m*. 



making incisions in the sap-wood. The yield of a tree thus 
treated is said to be from 10 to 20 lbs. the first year, and about 
one-third the quantity the second year, after which the tree 
either dies or is blown down. {Atkinson, Bmndis.) 

rJTffr lasS; Illit. lasha; any viscous exudation of plants. 


the small chamber cut in the tree to receive the turpentine. 

An allusion to 


Description* — Gandah-birozah is a dirt}^ -white opaque 

substance^ of soft and sticky consistence, having a strong and 
peculiar odour^ more aromatic than that of common turpentine ; 
the leaves of some tree, which have evidently been used in 
collecting the turpentine, are usually found mixed with it in 
considerable quantity. 

Chemical composition, — 56 lbs. of the crude drug distilled 
with water yielded 8 lbs. of a colourlesa limpid oil, having the^ 
peculiar odour of Gandah-birozah. The resin remaining in the 
still was of a dull brown colour ; after straining to remove- 
impurities it was stirred with a small quantity of boiling water 
until hard, and afforded a very fair substitute for Burgundy 
Pitch, weighing 43 lbs. 

The oil, according to Lyon, has a specific gravity of -875 at 
82^F. ;it commences to boil at about 310^ F.^ and is dextro- 

Pinus Khasyana, the Khasya Pine of Assam, yields a 
fine quality of turpentine • A full-grown tree gives as much as 
68 lbs. of crude resin a year. The oil is^ very pure, and Dr. 
Armstrong in 1881^ reported that it had the greatest amount 
of action on polarized light of any coniferous oil of turpentine 
he had examined. 

Pinus Gerardiana, WalL Lamh. Pin. Ed. S, t. 79; 

Eoyle III 353, t. 8a, / 2; Clegham FUies^ of N.-W. KimaL, t, 4,. 
a native of Afghanistan and Persia^ yields the pine-nuts which 
are sold in the Indian bazars tinder the name of Ghilyhozeh, and 
are described in Mohonietan medical works under the Arabic- 

b-ei-sanauhar-el'Iiibdr. In Persia the tree is called 
md in xifglumistan Chil and ZanMjJiozeh. Aitchison 
[Kates on FrocL of W, Afyhmmtan and N.-E. Tenia, p. 152) 
states that the ^eds are- one of the great trade products, 
exported from the district of Kost and the Kuram Valley io> 
India ; they have stimixlating properties, and are considered 
useful in chronic rheumatic affections, and as an 

name of Hi 

Sus iu^j^) 

rheumatic affections, and as an aphrodisiac. 
administered pounded with honev, in the form 

380 CONlFEnm. 


of a confection ; they are of a brown colour, about one 
inch ia length, and have an oleaginous and terebinthinate 


Church, "Food Grains of India," found the percentage 
composition of the seeds to be Water 8*7, Albuminoids 13*6, 
Starch 22-5, Oil 51-3, Fibre 0-9, and Ash 3-0. 

CEDRUS LIBANI, Barrel, var. Deodara. 

Fig.— -Hook./. Nat. Hist. Rev. ii., t. 1-3; Forbes, Pinef, 
Wob., t. 48, 49; Griff. le. PL Asiat., i. 364. 

JJ[ab. — N.-"\V. Himalaya. The \YOod. 
F^>'«acwZar.— Deodar-ki-lakri [IncL Bazars). 

History, Uses, &C. — This tree, in Sanskrit Devadaru, 
Suradaru, Suradruma ''tree of the gods/' yields the JJhadra- 
kashtha *^' auspicious wood," Sneha-viddha "impregnated with 
oil/' which is used as a carminative, diaphoretic, and diuretic hy 
the Hindu physicians in fever, flatulence, inflammation, dropsy, 
urinary diseases, &c. It is chiefly used in combination with 
other medicines, as in the following diuretic mixture: — Take of 
Devadaru wood, root of Jloringrt pferf/rfosjyerma (Sigru), and 
Achyrantes aspera (Apamarga), one drachm each and reduce to a 
paste with cow's urine. To be given in ascites. (Chakradatta.) 
The wood is also ground to a paste with water and applied to the 
temples to relieve headache. A tar {Kilan-la-fel) made by 
destructive distillation of the wood is a favourite remedy for 


of about one drachm, and also applied locally. From the 
Sanskrit name Devadaru of thiswood^ it must not be confounded 
with the wood of Ert/throxyhn monogymimy known in Tamil as 
"Devadarum, and which, on aceoimt of itsodour, is called "Bastard 
Sandal," 0. Hhani is the Deodar of Ibn Sina, who states that 
it is called Sanuhar-el-hindi, and is useful in rheumatism, piles, 
palsy epilepsy, gravel in the kidneys or bladder and proJapauH 
ani. Hnji Zrin-el-Attar states that it^ jmVo is used in 



Harriln (Afghanistan) to tan leather (he doubtless alludes to the 


tar which is used in the Punjab to dress the inflated skins used 
for crossing rivers). 

Description. — The wood sold in the bazars is of a light 
yellowish-brown colour, very heavy^ and in thin sections trans- 
lucent, owing to the large proportion of turpentine contained in 
it. It has an agreeable terebinthinate odour. 

Preparation of the tar, — First, an earthen vessel {ghara)^ with 
a wide mouth, and capable of containing about 4 seers, is sunk 
in the ground. IS'ext^ a large ghara of about ]2 seers* capacity 
is taken, and three small holes are drilled in its underside ; 
it is then filled with scraps of the wood, and over its mouth 
another smaller jar is placed, and kept there by a luting of 
claj^; and then both the jars are smeared over with a coating 
of clay. These two jars thus stuck together are next set on the 
mouth of the receiver sunk into the ground, and the joint is 
made tight by clay. Firewood is now heaped round the 
apparatus and lighted, and kept burning from four to eight 
hours. The jars are then separated and the tar removed. 
One seer (2 pounds) of wood yields about 2*6 chittaks (5^ 
ounces) of tar. [Baden-rowell^ Punjab Prod.) 

Chemical compO'^iit mi. — An alcoholic extract of the wood was 
spontaneously evaporated to dryness by exi)0sure to air, and the 
extract agitated with petroleum ether, and the insoluble residue 
treated with caustic vSc^da and agitated with ether. 

The petroleum other extract on spontaneous evaporation left 
a transparent, pale yellow varnish-like residue, with a very 
fragrant terebinthinate odour, M'hich became hard on exposure 

in thin layers, but preserved a perfect transparency. This 
extract was treated with aqueous caustic potash and agitated, 
with ether. The mixture after standing separated into three 
layers. The lowest stratum was of a reddish yellow colour, the 
middle darker in colour, and the small amount which floated 
above the ether of a bright light yellow tint. The ethereal 
layer on spontaneous evaporation^ left a Siitiny mass of fragrant 
odour, which, on microscopic examination, consisted of interhiced 

882 CONIFEB^. 

needles and narrow plates. On ignition an alkaline ash 
was left. In sulphnric acid it dissolved with a yellow colour, 
no change being induced by the addition of nitric acid to the 
solution or hydrochloric acid and phenol. In order to obtain 
this resin acid in a free state, an ethereal solution of the potash 
salt was agitated with dilute sulphuric acid. On spontaneous 
evaporation of the ether, the acid was left as a transparent 

The middle layer mentioned above appeared to consist of a 
concentrated solution of the potash salt of the resin acid ; the 
potash salt not being very readilj^ soluble in ether. The 
aqueous stratum was treated with sulphuric acid and agitated 
with ether, the ethereal extract was. yellow, and had a slight 
odour not unlike that of valeric acid. 

That portion of the original alcoholic extract insoluble in 
petroleum ether, was now agitated wdth ether and aqueous 
potash. The ether left on spontaneous evaporation a transparent 
yellow extract, insoluble in water ; soluble in alcohol with 
neutral reaction^ and possessing a marked bitter taste. Sulphuric 
acid coloured the extract a bistre-red. The potash solution was- 
mixed with suli^huric acid and agitated with ether ; during 
agitation dark reddish flocks separated, which wex^e insoluble in 
ether even after prolonged agitation. The ethereal ^lution 
left a yellow transparent residue. In alcohol the extract was 
soluble with bitter taste and acid reaction. In concentrated 
sulphuric acid it dissolved with a dark-red colour^ the addition 
of concentrated hydrochloric acid afforded a coloui' of crushed 
strawberries, which became of a reddish violet on the addition 
of phenol. In aqueous potash the extract dissolved with a bright 
yellow coloration. Ferric chloride added to an alcoholic solu- 
tion gave a dirty brown coloration. The flocks insoluble in 
ether were of a reddish- brown colour, brittle when dry, without 
bitterness in an alcoholic solution, acid in reaction, and affording 
similar reactions with sulphuric and hydrochloric acids and 

plu'uol, and ferric chloride and caustic potash, to the resin 
soluble in ether. 




Fig^—Uichard, Conif,, t. 24—26; Bot. Mag.^ t. 2826 and 
•2827; R/ieede, Uort, Mai. in., 9, f. 13—21. 

Hab. — -Malabar Coast, Dry Hills in W. Madras. Male 
bracts and flour. 

Vernacular, — Jungli-uiadan-mast-ka-pliul ( Hind,), Madaua- 
kama-pu, Kamappu, Chanang kay {Tarn.), Rinbadam, Todda- 
pana Eentha kay {MaL)^ Malabo ri-supari (Mar.). 

History, Uses, &c 


used in Southern India as a narcotic, and are considered to be 
similar in medicinal action to the flowers of Stereospermtwi sua- 
veoleas. Both drugs are termed Madana-karaa-pu or flowers of 
Kama, and are said to contain a property that intoxicates 
insects that rest uj)on them. The bracts are powdered up with 
other substances and made into a confection as an aphrodisiac. 
Flour is made from this tree both from the stem and the nuts. 
In Malabar the nuts arc collected and dried for a month in the 
sun, beaten in a mortar, and the kernels form a flour which 
is called Lidum Podi. It is reckoned superior to the flour of 
Caryota, but inferior to rice, and is only eaten by the hill-tribes, 
and by the poorer classes, who, from July to September, when 
rice is scarce, are in danger of perishing. It has often been 
confounded with true sago. Eheede states that the fruit 
bearing cone reduced to a poultice and applied to the loins 
removes nephritic pains. 

Description. — The bracts as sold in the bazar are of the 
shape of a spear head, two inches long by half an inch broad 
clothed at the back with much fulvous down. A subulate 
incurved point rises from the exterior upper angle of each of 
the scales. When the strobile first appears, they are closely 
pressed together like the germs in the pineapple, but as it 
lengthens by age, they become detached from each other. 
Filaments none ; the anthers entirely covering the under surface 


of the scales, one-celled, two-valved, opening round the apex 
on discharging the pollen. The starch of the pith resemhles 
that of sago under the microscope. 

Chemical eomj^osition. — The bracts or scales contain, in a 
dried state, much albuminous and mucilaginous matter soluble 
in water, but no alkaloid or other principle that would account 
for its reputed narcotic action. 



Fig. — F/. Br. 924; Engl. Bot. 33., f. 2308; Ecichk Fl 
Germ, 'xiii., f, 50. Marsli Palmate Orcliis {Eng.). 

Hab.— Persia, Afghanistan, Nepal^ .Cashmere, and Europe 


Fig. — ? Boiss. FL Orient. t\, p. 71, 

fJab. — Persia and Afghanistan. The tubers. 

Vernacular, — Salab-misri, Salap-misri (Hind,), Shala-mishiri 
{Tarn.), Sala-misiri (Tt^L), Sala-mishri {MaL), Chale-michhri 
\Beng.)y Salama-misri {Miu\, Guz.), 

History, Uses, &C. — Theophrastus (P. H. ix., 19), and 

Dioscorides (iii., 132, 133, 134, 135), mention several tuberous 
roots which were used by the Greeks under the natnes of Orchis 
or Serapias and Satyrion. It is not known exactly what all of 
these were, but it is certain that some of them were the tubers 
of different species of Orchis, ^px^^ is described by the ancients 
as having a twofold root, formed of tuberosities which resemble 
the testes in appearance. The larger of these tuberosities, or, 
as some say, the harder of the two, taken in water, was thought 
to be provocative of lust; while the smaller, or, according to 
some, the softer one, taken in goat's milk, was considered to be 

^ntapliroclisiac. The tubers w^ere also used as a remedy lot 
ulcerations of tte moutk and pituitous discliarges from the 
chest, and were taken in wine as an astringent. 

Mahometan physicians describe Orchis tubers under the name 
of Khusyu-uth-thalab (or salab), '^foxes' testicles/* and state that 
the odour of them, when fresh, resembles that of semen hominisy 
nnd that they have an aphrodisiac efPect if clasped in the hand. 
The dried tubers have a great reputation in the East as a nervine 
tonic and restorative, and are much prescribed in paralytic 
affections. It Was formerly supposed that Oriental Salep was 
obtained from certain species of Euloj^hia, but the tubers of 
these plants have no resemblance to the commercial article, and 
Aitchison has now established the fact that the two plants 
placed at the head of this article yield the bulk of the Persian 
salep. Eulophia campestris^ "VValL, is, however, used locally in 
Northern India as a substitute for salep. 

In Soutliei^n India the tubers of several species of Habenaria 
and Orchis are collected by people in the hilly districts and 
sold locally as salep, but they are usually small and variable 
in appearance. 

Salep is now regarded in Europe as vei'y nutritious ; it tends 
to confine the bowels, and is, therefore, a useful article of diet 
lor those who suffer from diarrhoea. 

The mucilage is prepared by first macerating powdered salep 
in cold water, and gradually adding boiling water, with stirring, 
in the proportion of 5 grains of salep to the ounce. Instead 
of "vfater, milk or some animal broth may be used, Salep 
jelly may be made as follows : Rub 60 grains of powdered 
salep with water in a mortar until it has swollen to four times 
its original bulk ; then add gradually, and with constant 



Ainslie states that salep has the property of depriving salt* 
water of its salt taste. 

Description. — Oriental salep is of two kinds, palmate 
4nd ovoid ; the former, which was once known in Europe as 
Madh pahnee ChrUti^ is very highly esteemed by the Persians, 

III.— 4fl 

386 ORCHIDE^. 

especially if of large size. The ovoid tubers are from 1 to 1| 
inches in length, and, if of good quality^ have a creamy white 
colour, or are somewhat translucent and of a horny texture. 
They have hardly any odour and an insipid mucilaginous taste. 
The tubers should be plump and not wrinkled. When magni- 
fied, the bulk of the tuber is seen to consist of a parenchyme, 
the cells of which contain either mucilage, or starch altered by 
heat ; it is traversed by small fibre- vascular bundles. 

Chemical composition, — The most important constituent of 
salej) is a sort of mucilage, the proportion of which, according to 
Dragendorff (1865), amounts to 48 per cent. ; but it is, doubtless, 
subject to great variation. Salep yields this mucilage to cold 
water^ forming a solution which is turned blue by iodine, and 
mixes clearly with neutral acetate of lead like gum arabic. On - 
addition of ammonia, an abundant precipitate is formed. Muci- 
lage of salep j)^^ecii)itated by alcohol and then dried, is coloured 
violet or blue, if moistened with a solution of iodine in iodide 
of potassium. The dry mucilage is readily soluble in ammo- 
niacal solution of oxide of copper ; when boiled with nitric acid, 
oxalic, but not mucic, acid is produced. In these two respects, 
the mucilage of salep agrees with cellulose, rather than with 
gum arabic. In the large cells in which it is contained, it does 
not exhibit any stratification, so that its formation does not 
appear due to a metamorphosis of the cell-wall itself. Mucilage 
of salep contains some nitrogen and inorganic matter, of which it 
is with difficulty deprived by repeated precipitation by alcohol. 

It is to the mucilage just described that salep chiefly owes 



which becomes still thicker on addition of magnesia or borax. 
The starch, however, assists in the formation of this jelly ; yet 
its amount is very small, or even nil in the tuber bearing the 
flowering stem, whereas the young lateral tuber abounds iu it. 
The starch so deposited is evidently consumed in the subsequent 
period of vegetation, thus explaining the fact that tubers are 
found the decoction of which is not rendered blue by iodine, 
Sulep contains also sugar and albumin, and, when fresh, a trace 
of volatile oil. Dried at 110^ C, it yields 2 per cent, of ash. 



consisting cMefly of phosphates and chlorides of potassium and 
calcium. {Pharmacograjyhia.) Gans and Tollens. have tested 
the oxidation products, and mAnnales, 249, 245 (J". Chem. Soc, 
May 1889), they report : ^' On oxidation salep yields saccharic 
acid, but no mucic acid. No furfuraldehyde is obtained by 
distilling salep syrup with dilute acids. With phenylhydrazine 
and sodium acetate it forms a precipitate which can be sepa- 
rated by crystallization from the phenylhydrazine compounds of 
dextrose and mannose^ results which show that the syrup con- 
tains dextrose and mannose, but neither galactose nor arabinose/' 


Commerce, — In Eastern markets salep is classed as palmate 
and non-palmate. The former kind only appears in small 
quantities, and is much more highly valued than the latter ; in 
Persia it iscalled Panjeh4~sdlah, o-r ** hand salab/' a name which 
is corrupted into Funjabt in India. The ordinary salep of 
commerce is known as Abmhahen or lasaniya, '^garlic-like" ; it 
sells at Rs. 30 to 35 per maund of 41 lbs., according to quality, 
whilst the palmate variety fetches fancy prices ; if very fine 
and white^ from 5 to 10 rupees per lb. may be asked for it. 

The salep of Madras is largely supplied from the ]S"ilgiri8, 
where it is collected by the Todas and other hill tribes. The 
tubers are boiled in water, and then dried in the sun until quite 
hard, and ax^e sent into the market in coarse bags containing 
five maunds. In Ootacamund this salep sells for Rs. 5 to Rs. 6 
a maund of 25 lbs., and in Madras it realizes about twice the 
price. Mahomedans all over Southern India use this salep for 
making conjees and the sweetmeat Jmhva, 

Imitation salep is largely manufactured in India ; it is known 
as Banaicati salah or salani, and is said to be made of pounded 
potatoes and gum. 


-Fig.-^BoL Meg., f, 573; mght Zc, t. 913; Bot. Mag.y 
t. 5579 ; Roxb. Cor. PL L, t. 38 ; Rheede^ Sort. Mai. xii., tt. 25> . 


fJab, — Bengal and Deccan Peninsula. 

388 • ROB ID EM, 


Hab. — Plains of India^ Punjab^ Oudh, Bengal^ and 



Yig.— WigJd Ic, t. 1690; Bheede, Ho>t MaL xii., L 26? 

Hab. — Tropical Himalaya and Deccan Peninsula. The 


Vernacular. — Man-kand, Amber-kandj Bbui-kakali (Mar.)^ 
Katou-kaida-maravara, Katou-tbeka-maravara {MaL)j Budbar^ 
\Beng.)y Goruma {HincL). 

History, Uses, &C,— The tubers of these plants are 
used indiscriminately by the natives. The vernacular name Mun- 
hand is derived from the Sanskrit Ilanya^ which simifies '' the 

ixeck/^ and the plant is so named from a supposed resemblance 
between its tubers and scrofulous glands in the neck ; M^n (JTT^), 
the Marathi form of the word, is also applied to the scrofulous 
disease in the neck. The tubers are applied externally and 
given internally to remove the disease. They are also adminis- 
tered internally ta those suffering from intestinal worms. 
Rheede says of -E^. vircns : — ^'Suecus radicis si supra arborem 
Kansjira inveniatur amarus est, alvum laxat, bilcm promovet. 
Succus bulbi et foliorum omnem adustionem ex pulvere pyrio, 
oleo ferventi, vel igne causatam, cum sanguine canino mixtus, 
tollit. Pulvis venenum, sive externum sive internum expellit. 
Si supra arborem Java^ vermes intestinorum enecat, febri 
resistit, ventriculum corroborate flatus dissipit, Succus cum carne 
totius plantse in formam cataplasmatis redactus apostemata 
emoUit, et, sine dolore, ad maturitatem producit," Roxburgh 
describes E, virem under the name of Limodontm virens, but 
does not notice its medicinal uses. Aitchison {Notes on Pro- 
diich of W, Afghanistan and JST. E. Persia, p. 68) says :~''E. cam- 
pest r is is by uo means rare in the Punjab, Baluchistan, and 
Afghanistan. Its tubers are collected in the Punjab, and make 
up the ordinary Salop of Lahore. When the present railway 
bridge was being constructed over the Chenab, at Wazirakid, 


jsome of tlie islands over which the bridge was built were one 
season covered with this Orchis^ specimens of which Avere sent 
to me by Captain Clerk, and which are now in the Herbariuni 
at Kew/' A parcel of the tubers of E. camj^rstrfs was sent ta 
one of us from the Native State of Sirohi, with the object of 
ascertaining their commercial value if collected as Salep ; they 

were similar in form to those of E. nudaj but smaller^ and bore 
no resemblance to the commercial article. 

Description. — The tubers of E. virens are eonico-obp} ri- 
form, surrounded with circular marks showing the insertions of 
old leaves ; if they have been exposed to the air, as is often the 
case with the upper portion of the tuber, they are of a greenish 
colour, when not so exposed of a yellowish white. In the fresh 
state many fleshy fibres issue from the lower portion of the 
tuber. E. nnda has larger tubers^ often much flattened, in 
structure and colour they resemble those of E, virens^ the leaves 
are larger, and the flowers often purple, though in some 
specimens they are green like those of E. "eirens. The tubers 
of E. campestris are of a similar character. Under the micros- 
cope the gum cells are seen, and the exterior cells contain 
bundles of raphides. The small tubers exhibit starch granules, 
but in large tubers these are entirely absent. 

Chemical composition. — The fresh tubers contain a large 
quantity of clear white mucilage, which is not precipitated by 
ferric chloride or neutral acetate of lead, but is precipitated by 
basic acetate of lead and alcohol. The mucilage, unlike that of 

' > 

salep, is not coloured violet by iodine solution. Nitric acid 
forms no mucic acid when allowed to act upon the gum. The 
ash of the dried tubers amounted to 3*6 per cent, 


Fig. — Xeu. OrcJiid. »/., t. 118. 

Hab. — Sikkim, Kliasia Mts., The Concan, and Nilgiri Hills. 
Tlie plant. 

Vernacular.— ZixQXvii, Jiba-sag {Hind.), Jibai, Jibanti {Beng.\ 

Jivanti [Mar., Gnz.). 


History, Uses, &c.— This plant is the Jivantr of San- 
skrit writers. In the Kighantas it bears the synonyms of Jivani, 
Jiva "life-giving," Jivaniyd "supj^ortiug life," Jiva-sreshtha, 
Saka-sreshtha "hest of herbs," and Yasas-vini "renowned." 
It IS also spoken of as Jiva-bhadra and Mangalya "auspicious,'' 


hidosha-ghna, i.e., a remedy for the disorder of the three humors 

em, known to Hind 

as tridosha. The whole plant is used in decoction along with 
other drugs supposed to have similar properties ; it must not be 


modern Hindus. D. Mi 

to have been noticed by any of the European writers upon 
Indian Materia Medica. 

Description. — A much-branched plant, often found on 



terminating pseudo-bulb, four to eight inches long, sessile ,- 
flowers white, side lobes of lip sprinkled with red, solitary at 
the base of the leaf, one in front and one behind ; middle lobe 
of the lip much dilated, and the disk with two louf^itudinal 
fleshy crests. This plant has from its coloration been well 
named pa rdali Hum or panther-like by Eeichberg.. 

Chemical composition.— The alcoholic extract of the dried roots 
and stems was mixed with water acidulated with sulphuric acid 
and agitated with petroleum ether, ether, and then rendered 
alkaline and reagitated with ether. The petroleum ether 



soft consistence. In cold absolute alcohol the greater part 


and had the characters of a wax. During agitation with 
petroleum ether, chocolate flocks separated. 

The acid ether extract formed a waxy, transparent red 
yarmsh, which repelled water, and was insoluble in it. In 
absolute alcohol the extract dissolved with strong acid reaction. 
I he extract was treated with caustic soda and agitated with 

OECEIDE.m. 391 

ether. Tlie etlicr extract formed a yellow varnisli indistinctly 
crystalline in places. By the action of acidulated water traces 
of an alkaloid were separated. The extract when acted npon 
by cold absolute alcohol afforded a bright yellow solution with- 
out bitter taste; the portion of the extract insoluble in cold 
alcohol was white, by heating with alcohol it dissolved, and on 


cooling white M'oolly flocks separated^ which on microscopic 

examination presented the appearance of interlaced hair -like 

masses. The amount of this principle was very small and its 

nature could not be determined. The alkaline solution of the 

original ether extract was acidulated and reagitated with ether, 

which left on separation a red transparent waxy varnish, 

insoluble in water, easilv soluble in cold absolute alcohol with 

strong acid reaction and bitter taste. This principle had the 

properties of a resin acid, and we propose terming it ^ JibanttG 

acid. The alkaline ether extract contained traces of a white 

alkaloid without bitterness, crystallizable from ether, and 

giving a faint yellow coloration with Frohde's reagent in the 

cold, deepening slightly on warming ; no reaction with nitric 

acid, ^YQ provisionally call this alkaloid Jibantine. This 

alkaloid appeared similar to tie one contained in the acid 
ether extract. 

The chocolate-coloured flakes referred to as having separated 
on agitation with petroleum ether, were repeatedly agitated 
with ether, which on evaporation afforded a small amount of 
extractive similar to the original acid ether extract. The 
insoluble flocks were then dissolved in caustic soda and reao-i* 
tated with ether, the ether affording a small amount of 
extractive. The alkaline solution was rendered acid and 
reagitated with ether, which separated a certain amount of a 
bitter acid resin, similar to the one we have termed /3 Jibantio 
acid, while chocolate flocks remained insoluble. 

^ Jibantic acid when freshly precipitated from an alkaline 
solution by acids would appear to be easily soluble in ether but 
the flocks after standing become less soluble. The chocolate 
flocks just referred to were repeatedly agitated with ether, 
dissolved in caustic soda, precipitated with acid, and rpjio-ifof J 

392 vncntDBM. 

\vith etlier,' in order to separate 3 Jibantic acid. Finally tlid 
flocks insoluble in etlier were dissolved in alcoliol, which 
afforded a red solution with only sight bitterness. We pro- 
visionally call this acid « Jibantic ackk 

The chief points of difference and resemblance between these 
two acids may be summarised thus — bitterness, and easy 
Bolubility of the /3 acid, when freshly precipitated^ in ether : 
slight bitterness and insolubility of the a acid, when freshly 
precipitated, in ether. The /3 acid is precipitated in lighter 
coloured flocks from an alkaline solution than the a acid. Both 
Q-cids are soluble with equal readiness in alkalies and cold absolute 




Fig.—Bot. Reg., t. 506; JfigM Jc, t. 9] 6; FL des Sores, 
ii., f. II ; Beichh. FL Exot.^ ^.121. 

Hab. — Bengal, Behar, Guzerat, Concan to Travancore> 
The roots. 


Fig.— -Bo^. Reg., t 1552. 

Hab.- — Bengal and the Lower Himalaya, Assam, the 
txangetic Delta, the Circars and Tenasserim. The roots. 
Vernacular, — E-asna [Ind. Bazars)^ 

History, Uses, 8lC^ — We have already stated (Tol. n> 

J). 260) that we consider it probable that th^e original Easna of 

the Arians was Inula Meleniiun, as the two drugs at the head 

^f this article arc notably deficient in the propertie:^ ascribed to 

Rasua by Sanskrit writers ; for instance, the plants under 

consideration cannot be described as Gandha-mula ^'hai-iug a 

strong smelling root." Dutt {iilaL Af^d., p. 258) remarks : 

*' Under the name of rasna, the roots of Vanda Roxhiiryhii and 

Aavnpe prfpUfom are both indiscriminately used by native 

physicians. They are very similar in the appearance of their 

voots and leaves, thoun;b they diiXcr much in their flowers and 


fruit. On-e native physician ^yhom I consulted, pronounced 
both of these plants to be rasna ; when, however, I showed him 
the different flowers and fruit of the two species, he was 
puzzled." The description of the properties and uses of rasna 
will, we think, convince our readers that the original drug was 
not what is now used, 

Kasna is said to be bitter and fragrant, and useful in rheuma- 
tism ; the Rasnapanchaka is a decoction of rasna; Tino&pora 
eordlfoUa, wood of Cedrus Dcodara, Ginger, and root of Ricinus 
communis, of eacTi equal parts; it is a popular prescription 
for rheumatism. Eusna guggula is a ghrlta composed of eight 
parts of rasna and ten of bdellium beaten into a uniform mass 
with clarified butter ; it is given in drachm doses in sciatica. 
llcisna is also an ingredient of several oils used for external 
application in rheumatism and neuralgia, such as Malum asha 
taila, Madhjjama Narayana taila, -8^0. Vanda is a general name 
in Sanskrit and the vernaculars for parasitic plants ; other 
♦Sanskrit names for these plants are Vrikshddaniand Vrlksharuha 
" growing on trees." They arc further distinguished by the 
addition of the names of the tree on which they grow, thus 
Amara-vanda y^owlA. signify the Vanda of the Amara or mango. 

Description. — V. A'oa;i«rf//«V.— Stem climbing, 1 — 2 feet ; 

leaves 6 to 8 inches long, prmmorse, narrow, complicate ; 
peduncle 6 to 8 inches, 6 to 10 -fid ; sepals and petals yellowish- 
green or bluish, except from the clathrate-brown nerves, 
margins white, lip half as long as the sepals or more, disk 
of mid-lobe convex with fleshy ridges and white margins and 
mesial lines, spur conical. 

8. 2m}yiUomm.—fiievL\ climbing, 2 to 3 feet ; leaves 3 to 4 
inches long, obliquely notched, narrow, complicate ; scape ] to 2 
inches, closely scarred at the base, intcrnodes closCj bracts serai- 
circular ; flowers f of an inch in diameter, mid-lobe of lip ovate, 
spur conical, pubescent within, petals yellow marked with red 
lines, lip white. 

In the Concan S. Wightianum^ Hook, f., Rheede, Ilovt. MmL 
xii., t. 4, and S. pramonmn, Hook. f. E/icede, Ilort. 




t. 4, very similar plants, are used as Rasna. The Marathi 
peasants call these plants Kcinhher. 

Ordinary hazar Rasna both in Calcutta and Bombay consists 
of long branching roots, having something the appearance of 
sarsaparilla^ but of a dark greyish-brown colour. The bark is 
thin and marked by numerous longitudinal furrows, the 
substance of the root light-brown and very fibrous ; a transverse 
section shows the woody portion to be arranged in wedge- 
shaped bundles. The root is inodorous, and has a starchy 
bitterish and astringent taste. 

In Bombay a second kind of Rasna is sold at a much higher 
price, which bears no resemblance to the oi'dinary commercial 
article ; it occurs as straight pieces of a root about the size of a 
■crowquillat the thickest part, gradually tapering to a point, and 
tied up in small bundles with thread. This root is of a light 
brown colour, with a thick and very hard bark; it has a faint 
peculiar odour when powdered, which recalls that of ipeca- 
cuanha. It is called KhadaM-rasna in Bombay. Under this 
name we have also received the roots of TylopJwra adhmatica. 

Chemical composition. — The standard Busna of the Indian 
bazars yielded the following principles when an alcoholic 
extract of the whole dried plant was treated in a similar manner 
to that described under Jibanti p. 390 : a — resin acid of a cho- 
colate colour, insoluble in petroleum ether and other: /3 — resm 
acid soluble in ether : neutral yellow resin : an alkaloidal 
principle: a white neutral principle: a neutral fluorescing 
principle. In physical and chemical properties the first five 
principles were similar to those described under Jihanti. An 
examination of the more expensive lldsna of the Bombay 
market gave the following results :— 

A tincture prepared with 80 per cent, alcohol, gelatinized on 
concentration, after separation of the whole of the alcohol, the 
extract was agitated with amylic alcohol, and water acidulated 
with acetic acid. Amylic alcohol was selected for the first 
extvactiou, because preliminary experiments indicated that 
when petroleum ether or ether was used for agitation with an 


OaCEWEJE. 395 

aqueous solution of the alcoholic extract, the liquid formed an 
emulsiou which showed little or no tendency to separate. The 
amylic alcohol tincture was evaporated on a water bath, and, 
when dry, was repeatedly agitated with ether, until colouring 
matter ceased to be dissolved. The extract insoluble in ether 
was then redissolved in amj^ic alcohol and agitated repeatedly 
with baryta water^ until the baryta water ceased to be colored 
yellow. During agitation a soft varnish-like mass sei)arated 
and adhered to the sides of the bottle. By this treatment the 
original amylic alcohol extract was separated into three fractions : 
(1) The amylic alcohol solution, (2) the varnish-like residue 

solution - 


(1) The amylic alcohol solution on evaporation left a solid 
residue, which, after being pounded, and agitated with ether, to 
remove traces of adherent amylic alcohol, possessed the proper- 
ties of a saponin-like principle ; it frothed considerably with 
water; treated with concentrated sulphuric acid, a dirty reddish 
coloration was slowly developed; in water and aqueous 
ammonia it was only slightly soluble, but dissolved easily in 
ordinary acetic acid. As extracted the principle was not pure, 
it contained colouring matter and barium. 


(2) The varnish-like residue was dissolved in acetic acid and 
agitated with amylic alcohol, the extract being treated with ether 
to remove traces of amjdic alcohol. This extract also behaved 
like a saponin-like principle : after purification it formed a 
yellowish powder, it frothed considerably with water ; treated 
with concentrated sulphuric acid, it developed in a shorter period 
than the first extract a beautiful bright carmine coloration: in 
water it was easily soluble, a concentrated solution having 
much the physical appearance of an aqueous q^^ albumen, and 
it dissolved readily in aqueous ammonia. 

(3) The baryta water solution contained much colouring matter 
and a small amount of a principle which frothed with water, 
which was probably a mixture of the two princii^los already 


The original aqueous solution of the alcoholic extract^ left 
after agitation with amylic alcohol was acidulated with acetic 
acid and aoitated with ether. The ether extract contained a 
neutral resin-like principle, a very bitter resin acid, the 

hitter taste of the drug being probably due to this resin, and 
a white crystallizablc acid. 

Finally, the acid acpieous solution was treated with sodic 
carbonate in excess and reagitated with ether. The ether 
^separated traces of an alkaloidal principle, which afforded a 
faint yellow coloration with Frohde's reagent, deeping slightly 
on heating, 

Vanda spathulata, Sjjreng., Is the Ponnampou'mara' 
rara of Rheede (12, 3), and is supposed on the Malabar Coast 
to temper the bile and abate pbrcnzy, and the golden yellow 
flowers, reduced to powder, are given in consumption, asthma, 
and mania. (See Ainslie, Mat. MecL, ii., 321.) 

Rhynchostylis retusa, Blame, is also mentioned by 

Ehecde (xii., 1), also Cymbidium tenuifolium (xii^ ^ 

and 6) and C.ovatinn (xii., 7), as emollients. C. aloifolium 
(xii., 8) is said to be emetic and purgative. 



Ylg.—Salhh. Farad, L 96; Ease, SciL, f.103; Wight Ic, 
t. 2005 ; Bof. Mag., L 1546. Wild Turmeric, Yellow Zedoary, 
Cochin Turmeric {En^.), Zedoaire jaune (io\). 

Hab. — Throughout India, wild and cultivated. The 

FmrncHZar.— Jangli-huldi, Ban-lialdi {Hind.), Ban-lialad 
{Beny.), Kun-halud, Vedi-halad {Mar.), Amba-halad {Gm.), 
Kaslituii-manjal {Tain.), Kasturipasupa, Kattu-mannal {Tel.), 
Kasluri-ansbiua, Kad-arishina {Can.), 


History, Uses, &C. — Thisplaivt is tlie Yana-liaridra or 
'* wild tui'raeric" of Sanskrit writers. The Arabian and Persian 
physicians do not notice it, and probably did not distinguish it 
from turmeric, Roxburgh and Ainslie wrongly supposed it to 
be the Jadwar of the Arabians (see Vol. I.; p. 20), It is the 
turmeric-coloured zedoary of Ainslie, who states that the 
Mahometans of Southern India suppose it to be a valuable 
medicine in snake-bite, administered in conjunction with golden 
orpiment, costus, and ajwain seeds. Guibourt {n.^ p. 214) 
calls it Zedoairejaiine, and states that the plant which produces 
it has been well described and figured by Eumphius, and is his 
Tommon hezaar or Tommon jyrmMm, which has been wx'ongly 
referred by most writers to the Curcuma Zcdoaria of Hoscoe, 
(7. Aromatica is identical with the Oassumunar described by 
Pereira {Mat Med., VoL II., Pt. I-, p. 236), and the "Cochin 
Turmeric " noticed by Fliickiger and Hanbury (Phar- 
macographiay p, 580). The properties of this drug are very 
similar to those of turmeric, but its flavour being strongly 
camphoraceous is not so agreeable. It is used medicinally by 

ombiiiation with other drugs, as an external 


application to bruises, sprains, &c., and is applied to promote 
the eruption in the exanthematous fevers ; it is seldom used 
alone, but is combined with astringents when applied to bruises, 
and with bitters and aromatics to promote eruptions ; it is never 
used as a condiment in India, but a kind of arrowroot is 
prepared from the tubers in Travancore. The plant under 
favourable circumstances produces central tubers as large as a 
small turnip. One of us has had it under cultivation for some 


The flowers 

almost disappears when they attain their full size. 

appear in May or June, with the first leaves, just before the 

the rainy season. 

Description. — Central rhizome oblong or conical, often 

more than two inches in diameter, external surface dark -grey, 
marked with circular rings and giving ofP many thick rootlets ; 
at the ends of some of them are orange-yellow tubers about the 
size and shape of an almond in its shell ; lateral rhizomes about 



as thick as tlie finger, with a few fleshy rootlets. Internally 
both central and lateral rhizomes are of a deep orange colour 
like turmeric ; the odour of the root is strongly camphoraceous. 

MicroscojnG structure. — Similar to that of turmeric. 

Chemical composition, — The drug yielded to analysis : 
Ether extract (essential oil, fat, and soft resins)... 12-06 

Alcoholic extract (sugar, resins) ,.. 1-14 

Water extract (gum, acids, &c) 6*50 



Crude fibre ^... 8*42 



Moisture , 13-33 

Albuminoids, modifications of arabin, &c 30*63 


The root had an odour of ginger; curcimiin was present. 
The water extract gave a crystalline precipitate with lead 
acetate, which was found to be due to the presence of malic acid. 

Commerce. — The plant is chiefly grown at Alwaye, North- 
east of Cochin, and is also collected in Mysore, Wynaad, and 
other localities in Southern India for export to Europe as a 
substitute for turmeric to be used in dyeing. It is exported 
from Cochin and Bombay. Value, Es. 24 to 25 per candy of 
5^ cwts. for the unpeeled root, Rs. 27 to 28 when peeled. 

A European firm of Druggists in Bombay, writing to London 
for the ingredients to make Warburgh's fever tincture, was 
supplied with this article as Zedoary. 

Exports of Turmeric from Cochin : 

Europe, &c. India, Burma, &c. Total ewts, 

1884-85 5,154 6,361 11,515 

1885-80 7,610 2,776 10,386 

1886-87 6,031 1,967 7,998 

1^87-88 2,356 2,039 4,395 

1^88-89 459 1^817 2,276 

^^^^-^0 2,013 6,704 8,717 



Fig,— Rose. SciL, t. 109; Roxh. Cor. PL, t. 101; Bheede, 
Hort. Mai. xL, t. 7. Zedoary {Eng.), Zedoaire {Ir.). 

Hab. — Eastern Ilimalaya, cultivated throughout India, 
The tubers. 

Vernacular. — Kachura {HiiuLy Seng.^ Mar,, Can., Gtiz,), 
Kichilick-kizhanghu, Pulau-ldzhanga [Tarn.), Kichili-guddala^ 
Kachoram {Tel.), Kacholam, Kachuri-kizhanna, Pula-kiz- 
hanna (MaL). 


History, Uses, &C. — This plant Is the Sati and Kra^ 
chura of Sanskrit writers, and the Zerumbad and Uruk-el-kaf ilr, 
*' camphor root," of the Arcibians, It is noticed by the later 
Greek physicians under the name Covpofi^ib^ a corruption of the 
Arabic name, which, in the Middle Ages, was variously written 
as Zeruban, Zerumber, and Zerumbet. It is not the C^Soap of 
^tius (A. D. 540—550) or the rC^rbvapiop of 3Iyrepsus, or the 
Zedoar of Macer Floridus (A. D. 1140). Barbosa (1516) speaks 
of Zedoaria and Zeruban as distinct articles of trade at Caunanore, 
so that it must have been some time after this date that 
Zerumbet came into use in Europe as a cheap substitute for the 
Zedoar of the earlier physicians, which, we have no doubt, was 
the same drug as the Jadwar of the Arabians. This name, 
correctly written by iEtius, is the jlj j>J (Zhedwar) of the 
ancient Persians, and is described in the Burhdn (A. D. 1046) 
as a drug used as an antidote to poisons, the same as the 
Jadwar of the Arabians, and also called Mahjjurvin. Ibn Sina 
of Bokhara, who lived about the same time (980—1037), 
describes Jadwdr shortly in the following words: 
*i>o ^3^1^ .^J^I^jJlA^^ ^5 &xa{J\ ~"it has the form of 

the root of Aristolochia, but is smaller/' Haji-Zein-el-att^r, 
the well-known Persian physician and apothecary, and the 
author of the '^Ikhtiarat" (A. D. 1368), describes Jadwar as a 
root about the size and shape of the Indian Cyperus root, but 
harder and heavier, and the same as the Indian diaig Nirbisi, 
the best internally of a purplish tint. He states that there 


are, as far as lifs experience goes, four drugs sold as Jadwar, 
viz., a wliitc kind, a purplisli, a black and a yellow ; the people 
of Catliay call tlie yellow kind Kurti and tlie purplish Bnrbi, 
the other two kinds come from India. As to the locality iu 
which the drug is collected, he states that there is a mountain 
called Farajal between India and Cathay, where the plant grows 
along with the aconite, and that the latter, whenever it grows 
near the Jadwar, loses its poisonous j^roj^erties and is eaten with 
impunity by the inhabitants. Where the Jadwar does not grow, 
the aconite (Bish) is a deadly poison, and is called Ilalahal by 
the natives (Ilalahala, Sanskrit). In the Diet. Econ. Prod, 
of India (ii.^p. 656), the following interesting account of certain 
drugs collected in Nepal by Dr. Gimlette, the Residency Surgeon, 
substantially confirms Haji-Zein's description of Jadwar or 
JsTirbisi :— According to Dr. Gimlette, ''the Kala hikh oi the 
Nepalese (the Dulingi of the Bhoteas) is a very poisonous form 
of Aconiiiim ferox^ so poisonous. Indeed, that the Katmandu 
druggists will not admit they possess any, Pahio (yellow) htkh 
is a less poisonous form of the same plant, known to the 
Bhoteas as Ilolimji, while Setho (white) hikli (the JSirbisi sen oi 
the Bhoteas) is A. NapcUus^ and Atis is Aconitum hetero- 
phi/Ilmn. The aconite adulterants or plants used for similar 
purposes are, Cynanthm lohatm^ the true Nirbisi of Nepal, the 
root of which is boiled in oil, thus forming a liniment which 
is employed in chronic rheximiitism. Delphinium demidatum^ 
the Nilo (blue or purplish) hikh of the Nepalese and the Nirbisi 
of the Bhoteas, Dr. Gimlette says, is used by the Baids of Nepal 
for the same purposes as the Setho andFahlo hikh. Geraniiini 
coUinum [var-Donianum) is the Ratho (red) hikhoi the Nepalese, 
and the JSfirhin-niini of the Bhoteas, and, like the Setho hikhy is 
given as a tonic in dys]3epsia, fevers, and asthma. Lastly, a 
plant never before recorded as used medicinally, namely, 
Caragana crassicaulis, is known as the Arfiras of the Nepalese, 
and the Kurti of the Bhoteas; it affords a root which is 
emj)loyed as a febrifuge." 

The Jadwar or Nirbisi myth appears to have been invented 
m the East to account for the curious occurrence on the 

S err AMINES. 401 

Himalayas of poisonous and non -poisonous aconites growing 
side by side (see Vol. I., pp. 1, 15, 18, 20). 

It would appear also that tlie Curcumas have no claim to the 
name of zedoary, which was probably first given to them about 
the middle of the 16th century, as Clusius*s figure of Gedwar is 
certainly meant for the pendulous tuber of a Curcuma. The 
substitution of the cheaper for the more expensive article is 
rendered highly probable by the fact that Zerumbet was con- 
sidered by the Arabians to be very little inferior to Jadwar as an 
antidote to poisons. Ibn Sina, Ibn Baitar, and Ibn Jazla in the 
Minlidj use almost the same words in speaking of these drugs ; of 
Jadwar they say :-t^l'^'j cA^J ' J^ 'a- ^'. f-^--" O^^J -?r, "^it 
is an antidote for all i^oisons, even those of aconite and the viper"; 
and of Zerumbet -J I J '^:?-' I -J ^ c/^ '-^^ ^h^^^t^'^ ^H u^ 
"it is most useful against the bites of venomous animals, and is 
almost equal to Jadwar. " Both drugs were considered to have 
properties similar to Darunaj (see Vol. II., p. 292). Ainslie 
{Mfit hid., i, 492) remarks that 0. ZeJoaria is the Lampooi/ang 
of the Javanese, and the Lampuium of llumphius {nerh. Amh, 
v., p. ] 48), and that it is a native of the East Indies, Cochin- 
China, and Otaheite. He quotes Geoffroy's description of the 
drug, whicJi leaves no doubt as to its identity with the modern 
Ivachora— " Foris cinerea, intus Candida; sapore acri-amaricante 
aroniatico ; odore tenui fragrante, ac valde aromaticum suavi- 
tatera, cum tunditur aut manducatur, spirantc et ad camphoram 
alifpiatonus accodente." Guibourt states that C. Ze(loaria is the 
Zerumbet of Serapion, Pomet, and Lemery. The following is 
his description of it :— " The round zedoary is greyish-white 
externally heai^, compact, grey and often horny internally, 
having a bitter and strongly camphoraceous taste, like that of 
the lono- zedoary, which it also resembles in odour. The odour 
of both° drugs is analogous with that of ginger, but weaker 
unless the rhizome be powdered, when it developes a powerful 
aromatic odour, similar to that of cardamoms." [Hist. Nat. 
G""^ Ed. Vol. IL, p. 213.) In our opinion there is no doubt 
that 0. Zedoaria is the source of the round and long zedoary 
of commerce. The plaiit is common in Bombay gardens, and 

III.— 51 


was probably introduced by the Portuguese, whose descendants 
and converts at the present day use the leaves in cookery, 
. especially with fish. From Dr. Hovels account of Bombay in 
1787 it appears that Kachura and Turmeric were cultivated 
at that time in the cocoanut woods at Mahim, The natives 
chew the root to correct a sticky taste in the mouth ; it is also an 
ingredient in some of the strengthening conserves which arc 
taken by women to remove weakness after child-birth. In 
colds it is given in decoction with long-popper, cinnamon and 
honey, and the pounded root is applied as a paste to the body, 
liheede says that the starch of the zedoary is much esteemed, 
and that the fresh root is considered to be cooling and diuretic, 
it checks leucorrhosal and gonorrhceal discharges and purifies 
the blood. The juice of the leaves is given in dropsy. One of 
us has had the plant in cviltivation for some years ; it blossoms 
in the hot weather just before the rains, when the first leaves 
begin to appear. 

Description. — Guibourt's description already giA'en 

agrees exactly with the Kachura of India, but it is often cut 
into transverse slices instead of into halves and quarters. 

Microscopic structure. — This is essentially the same as that 
of turmeric, but the resin and essential oil in the cells is of a 
yellowish -white eoloui% and the greater portion of the starch 
grains are ovoid or pyriform, instead of narrow and elongated 
as in turmeric. 

Chemical composition. — Zedoary contains, according io 
Bucholz [Repert. Pharm. xx.^ 376), volatile oil, a bitter soft 
resin, a bitter extractive matter, gum, starch, &c. The oil is 
turbid, yellowish-white and viscid, has a camphoraceous taste 
and smell, and consists of two oils, one lighterj the other heavier 
than water. Trommsdorff obtained from the root a substance 
which he called Zedoariny but did not further describe it. A 
proximate analysis afforded : 

Essential oil, resin, curcurain, &c 3*79 

Resins, sugar , -gO 

Gum and organic acids " ' * 1 5-22 

otarcn ,,, »..,., 17^0 



Crude fibre 10-92 



Moisture lOvSl 

Albuminoids, Arabins, &c 35 "60 


CommercG. — The Bombay market is supplied from Ceylon, 
Value, Rs. 20 to Rs. 30 per candy of 7 cwts. The drug is 
chiefly used in India as a cosmetic. Roxburgh states that 
Bengal is supplied from Chittagong. 

CURCUMA C^SIA.i?^^^^. 

Hab. — Bengal. Often cultivated. The tubers. 

Vernacular.— '^siv-'kn^hxiva., Kali-haldi [Hind., Guz.), Kali- 
halad [Mar.), Kali-lialad, Nilkanth [Beny.), Mana-pasupu 

History, Uses, &C. — This drug is one of the two 

Zerumbads of modern Persian writers on Materia Medica. 
Strange to say, it is not noticed by most European writers on 
Indian drugs, though it is well known and to be found in all 

the shops. It is the Tommon itam of Eumphius, and the 
Carcuma long, of Guibourt, who classes it with the turmerics. 
See Hist. Nat.^ II., p. 210, C"^ Ed., where a figure will be 
found. Gruibourt's description is as follows : — " Ce curcuma 
est en tubercules cylindriques, o'est-a-dire qu'il conserve 
sensiblcmcnt le meme diametre dans toute sa longueur, malgre 
ses differentes sinuosites. II est plus long que le precedent, 
mais beaucoup plus mince, n'etant jamais gros comrae Ic petit 
doigt ; sa surface est grise, souvent un pen verdatre, rarement 
jaune, chagrin^e^ ou plus souvent nette et unie. II est k 
rinterieur d'une conleur si foncce qu'il en parait rouge-brun, 
ou meme noir. II a une odeur aromatique tres developee, 
analogue k celle du gingembre ; sa saveur est egalement tres 
aromatique et cependant assez douce et nuUement amere. II 
est impossible de meconnaitre dans cette racine les articles 
dierites du Carcuma domedica minor* Knfin, on trouve dans le 
curcuma du commerce, mais en petit quantity, des tubercules 


roDcIs de la, grosscur d'une aveliue, sou vent didynies, on off rat 
Ics restes de deux stij^es foliaces. Ces tubercules oirreut 
d' tous les caracteres des precedents, et sontles inatriccs 
radicis du Curcuma domestica minora Nar-kachura appears 
to have been once imported into Liverpool under tlie name on 
Kutchoo. [Pilar. Jour. (II.), Vol. I., p. 1 7.) Aitchison {NotcH on 
Prod, of IF. Afghanistan and N. E. Persia^ p. 51) remarks: 
^' Zcdoavy, J idwur J fkwar J Ixadnir, hachulj is imported in quantity 

from India, most of it to be jDassed on to Turkistan* Tlie long 
tubers are called nar-kachul^ and the round ones mada-haclad^ 
as if they were tbe products of tAvo different plants, but I have 
onlj^ seen them mixed together, and not sold as two distinct 
roots. The Turkomans employ these roots as a rubefacient, to 
rub their bodies down 'with after taking a Turkish bath. In 
this i)art of the country, in lieu of these, the nodes on the roots 
of Eremostachys lahiosa and another species arc collected and 
sent on to Turkistan. Curcuma roots are employed a little 
in native medicine, and as a condiment/^ 

The plant is a native of Bengal, and is cultivated there to 
supply the Indian market. Nar-kachura is considered to have 
nearly the same medicinal properties as Kachuru ; it is chiefly 
used as a cosmetic. The author of the Maldizan describes it 
as a kind of Zerumbad, (See il/<:/M2*7>/, article '^ Zerumbiid.") 
Through the kindness of Surgeon-Major Peters we have been 
sui^plied with living tubers of this Curcuma from Dinapore ; 
he informs us that it is common in gardens in Bengal, and is 
used as a domestic remedv in the fresh state much as turmeric 
is in this part of India. The fresh tubers are of a pale yellow 
colour, but after boiling and drying we find that they assume 
the couleurfoncce of the drug found in the shops. 

Description and Microscopic structure. — Th 

minute structure of this tuber hardly differs from that of the 
zedoary. The starch contained in the cells of the parenchyme 
has been altered by heat, and appears as a finely granular mass 
nearly tilluig the cell. The resin cells are about as numerous 
u^ m the zedoary, but the contcut^ are of a dusky orange 
colour. The vascular system consists of sculurifutm and spiral 


vessels. As to tlie drug, it consists of small nearly globular 
central tubers, fx'om wLich spring numerous lateral rhizomes 
about the size of ginger. It is of a dark-grey colour externally 
and marked with circular rings. Internally it is \eTj hard 
and hornvj of a greyish black, but when cut in thin slices of a 

•/ - *_-/%/ 

greyish-orange. The odour and taste are camphoraceous. 

Chemical cowposit ion. — A proximate analysis of this curcuuia 
afforded : 

Essential oil, resin, &c. 4'47 

Resins, sugar, &c ]-2l 

Grum, organic acids, &c 10' 10 

Starch 18-75 

Crude fibre 25'20 



Moisture 976 

Albimiinoids, &c. 22*94 


Commerce. — The drug comes overland from Bengal. Yalue, 
Rs- 4 to Rs. 5 per maund of 41 lbs. Guibourt appears to have 
become acqiuiinted with it from its admixture with the turmeric 
of commerce. 

Curcuma Amada, — Roxh,, Rose. SciL t. 99, a native 
of Bengal, is the Am-haldi or Ara-ada (mango ginger) of the 
natives of India. The lateral tubers, which are of the size and 
s]iai)e of ginger, and of a pale yellow colour, ha^'e an agreeable 
odour like the rind of the mango fruit. They are much used in 
Bengal as an ingredient in c/atfneys, and are considered to be 
carminative, stomachic, and cooling. In their medicinal pro- 
perties tliey resemble ginger. The plant is hardly known iu 
Western India, and is not the Amba-halad or mango turmeric 
of Bombay, which is Curcuma aromatica. 

Indian or Curcuma Arrowroot is obtained from 

the following plants : — 

Curcuma auf/u^ti/olia, Roxb., a native of the tropical Ilima- 
lava and Oudh. 


Gurcitma hucorhiza^ Roxb., a native of Behar. {Rosc^ SciLy 
t 102.) 

Curcuma montana, Eosc.^ a native of tLe Concan and Circars. 
{Itoxl), Cor, PL, f. 151.) 

Curcunia longUy Linn. The Turmeric plant. [Beutl. ^ Trim,, 

t. 209.) 

Curcuma aromatica, Salisb., a native of the plains of India. 
[Base. Scityt ]03.) 

Curcuma rubescenSj Roxb., a nativ^e of Bengal. 

Hitchenia eaulina, Baker, a native of the Concan. [Jonrn. 
Bomh. Nat. Hist. Soc, II., 140.) 

Vernacular. — Tikhur (ffind.y Beng.), Tavakhir {Mar.). 

History, Uses, &C. — Tavakshiri, and Tavakshiryeka- 
pattrika are Sanskrit names for certain species of Curcuma, 
from which are derived the vernacular terms Tavakhir and 
Tikhur J now in common use for Curcuma starch. The starch is 
prepared in many parts of India by grating or pounding the 
tuberSj mixing the pulp thus obtained with water, straining it 
through a cloth, and allowing the liquid to stand until the 
starch separates. This, after several washings in water, is 
dried in the sun, and after powdering is ready for use. 

The following account of the experimental cultivation of 
C. angustifolia and of the preparation of its starch at the Saida- 
pet Experimental Farm, Madras, gives the most exact inform- 
ation we possess regarding the yield and cost of Curcuma Arrow- 
root; — "A flat measuring 0*25 acre was planted with this crop 
at the end of 1879, and remained down during the year under 
report. It was taken up at the end of Januaiy 1881 and 
yielded 986 lbs. of tubers, or at the rate of 3,944 lbs. per acre. 
The yield of flour obtained has generally been about 12| lbs. 
from 100 lbs. of tubers, so that the above yield would represent 
an outturn of 493 lbs. of flour per acre. In another case in the 
College Experimental Garden, a plot measuring 1,160 square 
yai-ds, planted with this crop yielded 1,793 lbs., or at the rate 
of 7,500 lbs. per acre. The cxdture of the plant is very simple : 
it is only necessary to plant the sets in properly prepared soil, 


and to water tliem occasionally during tlie dry season. The 
removal of the crop is tedious unless the tubers can be ploughed 
out, as potatoes are in England, Avhich is seldom possible, OAving 
to the dryness of the soil. The flour can be sold profitably at 
four annas per pound, and at this rate Rs. 400 per acre could be 

Mr. Hamilton, F.C.S., to whom samples of the starch were 
submitted^ reported that the mucilage yielded by a sample 
marked ^'Ist sort" was nearly as good as that of Maruuta 
arrowroot, but that the sample when soaked m cold water gave 
indications of the presence of slight acidity, and also contained a 
small proportion of soluble starch. He suggested the avoidance 
of unnecessary exposure to the sun, and the addition of ^ an 
ounce per gallon of caustic soda to the water used in steeping the 
pulped roots. All the samples sent to him contained extraneous 
matters, black particles, straw, &o., introduced during the 
process of drying, which, it is hardly necessary to say, would 
render the article unsaleable in Europe. 

Curcuma arrowroot is inferior in colour to Maranta arrow- 
root; under the microscope it may differ greatly in appoarance, 
as the starch grains of diffei^eut species of Curcuma are variable 
in size and shape. 

Commercc—^Ladrds in 1869-70 exported 3,729 cwts. of 
Curcuma arrowroot, A^aluei at Rs. 14,1-32. In Bombay "Mala- 
bar Arrowroot " fetches from Rs. 3 to Rs. 4 per maund of 2S Ib^. 


pig^—Benfh and Trim., t 269 ; Uheede, Hod, Mai H., 

i. 11. Turmeric {Eng.), Curcuma, Souchet des Indes, Safran 
des Indes {Fi\\ 

Hab. — Parasnathin Behar, Cultivated elsewhere. The 


Veniacula}\--'\li\\A\, Haldar, Halja {Ilhul)^ ITalad {Ben(/ , 
Mar., Gnz\ Manjal {Tanu), Pasapu {Tel), Mannal, Marinalu 
(J/u/.), Arishina [Can,). 


History, Uses, &C. — Turmeric appears to have come 
into use in India as a substitute for saffron and other yellow dyes, 
which were used by the ancient Arians before they invaded the 
country. The Arians were, as we krK)W, great worshippers of 
the solar system, hence they held in special estimation those 
plants which yield a golden-yellow dye resembling sunlight, 
and attributed to them protective and auspicious properties. 

Turmeric, best known as Haridra in Sanskrit, has forty-six 
synonyms, such as Pita ''yellow,'' Gauri *' brilliant," Yarnavat 
** having colour,'' Kaniala " lustful,'' K'isa, Eajani, and all 
other words which signify ''night." The use of the hitter 
synonyms is variously explained." A distinguished professor of 
Sanskrit, whom we consulted, referred us to one of the best 
commentators on the AmaraJwsriy who states that turmeric 
being a substance ixsed for dyeing came to be called rajcuv^ 
wliich etymologically means the material by which a thmg is 
dyed, because the word rajani had already come to be used m 
the lano^uajje to denote *' ui>rht." A well-known Bombay Vaid, 

o — r>" '" o 

to whom we put the question, replied, "We have tradition 
that it is called ' night/ because in former times married women 
used daily to apply turmeric in the evening." On further 
enquiry we learned that this practice is not extinct, as he sup- 
posed, but still prevails in Goan villages, about Asnora, and 
probably elsewhere. Married women in the evening, when i^Q 
house-work is completed, dip their hands in turmeric water 
and pass them lightly over their cheeks : the mistress of the 
Louse also performs the same office for any married friend who 
may happen to drop in at this time, and on some pretence 
detains her until the lamps are lighted. The reason they gi^'O 
for doing this is that the goddess Lakshmi may visit 
the house at this time. This goddess is reijarded as the wife of 
Surya, and the practice is probably a survival of sun-worship. 
In Hindu ceremonial turmeric is almost always necessary - 
Amongst the most important occasions on which it is used we may 
mention the following as prevailing in most parts of India : 

A few days before the marriage ceremonies commence, five 
mairied women, or five virgins, anoint the bride with turmeric 

8C1T AMINES. 409 

ani Oil upon the forehead, head, breast, back, and feet, and the 
bride puts on a robe dyed with turmeric, which she wears 
until the day of the marriage. Turmeric and oil is sent from 
the house of the bride to the bridegroom, who is anointed in 
a similar manner, and sends back a similar present to the bride. 

The marriage contract is stained or spotted with turmeric. 
During the ceremonies the sisters of the bridegroom perform 
aria before him with a dish of turmeric water, and, dipping 
their fingers in it, touch his forehead. 

A portion of the wall is daubed with turmeric and dashes of 
hinl-H after the arrival of the bride in the bridegroom's house, 
and before it are placed the kul and all the clothes and orna- 
ments constituting the marriage presents ; the bridegroom, and 
after him the bride, prostrate themselves before this spot. 

The brideo-room ties a thread round the bride's wrist, to 
which is attached a piece of turmeric and a betelnut. 

Towards the end of the ceremonies the bridal party play 
with turmeric water, dashing it over one another. 

A woman who performs scUi and married women when they 
die are taken to the funeral pile clothed in a robe dyed with 

At all times when i?/(/a, or worship of the gods, is made, 
turmeric is necessary. 

When a new sari (robe) has been purchased, two threads are 
drawn out, one of which is offered to Surya, and the other to 
the goddess Tulasi, and turmeric is applied to the corner of the 


Turmeric powder and kiinku (a pigment made with turmeric 
and lime) is presented to women who have husbands living, 
and to temple dancing girls, in the month of Chaitra, or upon 
the occasion of the Nauratra. 

The Akshata rice used in various ceremonies is coloured with 
turmeric and lime* 

In the Uamayan turmeric is mentioned as one of the eight 
ingredients of the Arfjhyaj a respectful oblation made to gods 

III.— 52 


and venerable men. The follo\Ymsr are the lines as given in 
tlie Hindi version of that poem : 

^ Liit. t^iXV ^J..^^^ ^^^ J-, 

Dahi, (lurbfi; rochan, phal, miilay 
Nav Uilsi (lal, mangal-ffiula. 

Curdleil milk, Durva grass, 

Yellow gall stones of the cow, Fruit, 

Roots, Lotus and Ttilsi leaves. 


Medicinally turmeric is described in the Nighantds as hoty 
bitter, pungent, astringent and drying ; it corroborates the 
humors, prevents skin diseases, is a usefvil application to swell- 
ings^ boils, &c., and is given in jaundice. As a domestic remedy 
it is in daily use ; rubbed down with oil it is applied to any 
roughness of the skin, with lime to bruises, sprains, and all 
kinds of wounds; a decoction forms a cooling eyewash, boiled 
with milk and sugar it is the popular remedy for a cold, the 
fumes are inhaled by those suffering from severe coryza, cloth 
dyed Avith turmeric is used as an 03^0 -shade, and r/Li mixed with 
powdered turmeric is given to relieve cough. As a spice the 
pow^dcr is an ingredient in cuijies and sweetmeats, and is used 
by every native of India. The leaves are also used as a 
condiment, especially with fish, which is wrapped in them and 

It is doubtful whether turmeric was know^n to the Greeks. 
Dioscorides mentions an Indian root as a kind of fcvn^ipos resem- 
bling ginger, but having, when chewed, a yellow colour and 
bitter taste* The Mahometans use turmeric medicinally in the 
same manner as the Hindus ; they also prescribe it in affections 
of the liver and jaundice on account of its yellow colour. There 
arc many Arabic names ; the best known are Uruk-es-sufr ^^ gold 
root," and Fruk-es-sab^ghin *' dyers' root.'' The modern 
Tersian name is Zard-chubah ''stick saffron." The editor of 
the Phavh^acof-ia of India speaks favourably of the use of a 
dr-octionof turmeric in purulent, conjunctivitis ; he says it is 
very effoc.oid in rclie\4ng the pain. In coryza he slates that 
the J^uiUL, of burning turmeric directed into the nostril,^ cause a 


copious mucous discliarge, and relieve the congestion. (0/j. cif. 
p. 231.) 

Cuttimtion. — Turmeric requires a loamy soil and abundance 
of manure and water ; tlie ground must be well worked and 
raised into ridges, 9 or 10 incbcs bigh and 18 to 20 broad, with 
intervening trenches 9 to 10 inches broad. The sets, which 
consist of small portions of the root, are planted on the tops 
of the ridges, at about 1 8 inches to 2 feet apart. One acre 
requires about 900 such sets, and yields about 2,000 lbs. of tho 
fresh root {Roxh.). Other authorities state the yield at from 
1,000 to 2,000 lbs. Dalzell and Gibson give very much 
higher figures for the best garden soil in Guzerat, viz., 5,000 to 
20,000 lbs.' per acre. They state that the return to the culti- 
vator is equal to that obtained from sugar-cane, dz., Rs. 300 
per acre. The time for planting is usually about the end of 
May, but it depends greatly upon the setting in of the rainy 
season. The crop may be raised in the following March or 
April ; if left in the ground new shoots appear upon setting in 
of the following rains and the crop is lifted about 20 to 21 
months after planting. In some parts of India it is not con- 
sidered good practice to Hft the plants the first year. When 
lifted, the roots have to be scalded in boiling water or by steani- 
ing them in their own juice, and to be dried in the sun or in an 
oven. Turmeric being much cultivated along with other crojis 
it is impossible to obtain any reliable acreage returns. 

Description* — The rhizome of the tumicric plant, like 
that of most Curcumas, consists of a central ovoid portion and 
several lateral elongated portions, all of a deep orange colour, 
from these proceed a number of radicles, at the ends of some of 
which colourless oval tubers are produced. The central and 
lateral rhizomes form the round and long turmeric of commerce. 
The former vary a good deal in size and shape ; they may be 
pyriform, ovoid, or almost round, and are generally cut up into 
two or more pieces ; the latter arc cylindrical, tapering towards 
the extremities, and often more or less bent ; both arc marked 
by transverse furrows, and bear remains of the rootlet^s aud 


leaf-btids. Turmeric is of a deep brownish-yellow colour, of 
firm resinous consistence, and has a peculiar aromatic odour. 

Microscopic sfriwf lire. — Sections of the fresh rhizome show 
the exterior to be composed of several layers of compressed 
brown cells. The parenchyme consists of delicate polj'gonal 
cells of a yellow colour^ the majority contain starch grains 
which arc mostly elongated, but some are pyriform or OA^oid ; 
a smaller number of cells contain globular masses of yellow 
resinous matter, and a rich orange- yellow essential oil ; those 
cells which contain much resin have little or no oil, when the 
resin is in small quantity there is much oil. The vascular sys- 


tern consists of scalariform and spiral vessels, which are most 
abundant near the boundary line which separates the cortical 


from the central portion of the rhizome. This boundary line 
is composed of small emptj^ cells, having thicker walls than 
those of the rest of the parenchyme. 

Chemical eomjwsit ion. — Turmeric contains about 1 percent. 
of an essential oil. Curcumin^ the yellow-colouring matter 
of turmeric, has been examined by several chemists, whose 
experiments have led to the conclusion that its formula is 
either C^^II^^O' or C^'^II^^ 0^ that it melts at 172^ forms 
red-brown salts with alkalies, is converted by boric or 
sulphuric acid into ro.wcjjanine^ by reduction with zinc-dust 
into an oily body, by oxidation into oxalic or terephthalic acid, 
and by fusion wdth potash into protocatechuic acid. The 
experiments of Jackson and Menke have, however, led to 
results diifering in many respect from those above detailed, 
which were probably obtained from impure i3reparations. 

The Curcuuiin used in their experiments was prepared by 
treating ground turmeric root (Bengal or Madras) with light 
petroleum to remove turmeric oil, and then with ether, which 
dissolves the curcumin together with a large quantity of resin; 
and it was finally purified by crystallization from alcohol. The 
quantity of cmx^aniin thus obtained was only 0'3 per cent, of 
the root ; the total quantity contained in the root is, however, 
much larger, as a con^dderable amount remains mixed with the 


resinous Impurities, aud some also in the oil. Curcumin tlius 
prepared crystallizes from alcohol in stout needles, appearing on 
microscopic examination to be made up of well-formed prisms 
with, square ends, or in spindle-shaped crystals often arranged 
in radiate groups. It has an orange to yellow colour, according 
to the size of the crystals^ with a beautiful blue reflex; its solution 
in ether exhibits a strone^ i2:reen fluorescence. It is inodorous 

o & 

w^hen pure ; melts at 178°, apparently with decomposition. It 
is nearly insoluble in water, somewhat soluble in cold, more 
readily in hot ethyl and methyl alcohols, more soluble in glacial 
acetic acid, less in ether, very slightly in benzene and carbon 
bisulphide, and all but insoluble in light petroleum. Strong 
sulphuric acid dissolves it with a fine reddish purple colour, 
gradually changing to black from charring; curcumin dissolves 
readily in alkalies and alkaline carbonates. Its ammoniacal 
solution gives off ammonia when boiled, and deposits unaltered 
curcamin. Baryta water converts it into a blackish-red powder, 
but lime water gives a red solution like that obtained with 
calcium carbonate. Curcumin is not afiected by acid sodium 
sulphite. Pure curcumin gives^ as the mean of several analyses^ 
G8'30 per cent, carbon and 5*63 hydrogen, loading to the 
formida C^'H^^O', which requires 68'29 carbon, 5'G9 hydrogen, 
and 26'02 oxygen^ and this formula has been confirmed by the 
analysis of several derivatives. For an account of the deriva- 
tives of curcumin, confer. P/u(/\ Jonrn.y Dec. 30th, 1882. 

Turmeric oil or Tunnerolj to which turmeric (and therefore 
curry powder) owes its aromatic taste and smell, has been ex- 
tracted from Bengal turmeric by C- L. Jackson and A. E, 3Ienke 
with light petroleum, and after being freed from the higher- 
boiling portion of that solvent by heating to 150^ in a flask, 
it formed a thicldsh oily yelloAV liquid having a pleasant aro- 
matic odour. It was purified by fractional distillation under 
diminished pressure^ and was thereby separated into three 
portions, the first boiling below 103^, the second at 193° to 
198*^, and the third consisting of a viscous semi-solid residue. 
The middle portion consisted of nearly pure turmerol ; the first 
of that substance contaminated with hydrocarbons from the 


petroleum. The middle fraction^ after further puvlfieatlon l)y 
distillation in a vacuum, gave, as a mean result of several 

analyses, 83'62 per cent, carbon and 10"42 hydrogen, ogrcein 
nearly with the formula 0^^ 11^'^ 0, which requires 83-81 0. 
and 10 29 H, Turmerol is a pale yellow oil having a pleasant 
aromatic smell, and a density of 0*901G at J 7^. It is optically 
dextrogyrate, [a] = 33-52. Tinder ordinary pressure it boils at 
280^^ to 29G*^j but decomposes at the same time, yielding a sub- 

stance of lower boiling point. {Am^r, Cliem. JoHrn^jT-Y., pp. obH- 
374.) Schimmel and Co. (Bcncht, Oct 1890) state that during a 
scientific investigation of Curcuma oil they proved it to contam 

Commerce. —T^lie bulk of the turmeric cultivated in India is 
consumed in the East as a dye and condiment, and the con- 
sumption must be very large as every one uses it. Full parti- 
culars cannot be learned, but a trans-frontier trade exists, and 
the various Indian ports exchanged in 1886-87, 281,117 cwts., 
valued at Es. 24,38,260. During 5 years from 1884 to 1888 
Tuticorin exported 6,802 cwts. of turmeric at the average 
valuation of Rs. 7-8 per cwt. In the foreign trade turmeric is 
treated as a dye, and the statistics include the wild or Cochin 
kind. In ] 885-86 the exports wore 156,287 c^Yts., valued at 
Us. 14,00,000; in 1886-87, 140,994, cwts. Avere exported, valued 
at Rs. 10,32,025. The trade fluctuates greatly: in 1881 -82 
only 70,783 cw^ts. were exported; in 1876-77, 123,824 cwts. 


Fig. — Rose. SciL, t 92; Wight Ic, t. 899; E/iecde, Hort. 

Mai. xi., t. 4:). 

Hab. — lu the plains throughout British India. The tubci-s. 

VcniacuIar.—Chandva-mula (Hind.), Chandu-miila, Iluuiuhi 
(Bo?i7.), Kachula-kalangu {3Ial., Taw.), Chaudra-mnla, ITtncu 
{Mar.), Kapiir-kachri {Giiz.). 


History, Uses, &C.--Thc plant is called Chandra-mula 
or Oumdra-uiuliku iu ^uiskrit, hut it is not mentioned in (he 


Haja-nirg'liaiita. It is much cultivated in gardens by the 
Hindus, whose women use the aromatic leaves and roots as a 
perfume when washing their hair; on this account the 
vci'uacular names TJtnen and Kapur-kachri have Leen given to 
it in Western India, as its odour exactly resembles that of tho 
root oi Uedijchium spicatum^ which is sold in the bazars as a 
Kainir-Jirfclirij and is an ingredient in the TJtnen or perfumed 
powder for the hair, which has been described in Vol. ii., p. 234. 
lihcedc states that the tubers reduced to powder and mixed 
with honey arc given in couglis and pectoral affections^ boiled 
in oil they are applied externally to remove obstructions in the 
nasal passages. In tho Did. Econ. Prod, of India [lY ^ 561), it 
is stated on the authority of ilason that the I'oots are often seen 
attached to the necklaces of Karen women, for the sake of their 
perfume, and that they also place them in their clothes for the 
same reason. They arc also said to be used as a masticatory 
along with betel leaves and areca nut. 

Description. — The roots consist of branched tubers, 
resembling ginger in form, which give off fleshy fibres bearing 

white pendulous tubers ; they have a peculiarly agreeable 
camphoraceous odour, exactly like that of the Kapur-kachri of 
the bazars. The leaves are radical, petioled, ovate-cordate, 
between acute and obtuse; margins membranaceous and waved; 
upper surface smooth, deep green; under surface pale and 
somewhat woolly. The leaves are much crowded, but when they 
can find room they spread flat on the surface of the earth, the 
petioles are hid beneath the soil and form cylindric sheaths 
enclosing the fascicles of flowers, which are of a pellucid white, 
or white marked with purple sj)ots, and have the same fragrant 
odour as the leaves and roots. All parts of the plant have a 
bitterish and camphoraceous taste. 

The roots arc not met with in commerce, but, judging from 
some which we have sliced and dried, would ap2:)ear to be 
copable of supplying an article equal to the Kapur-lcachri of the 
shops. ' (Sec Ih\hjchlnm Hpkalnm). The plant is cultivated 
with the greatest ease, and yiulds a large crop of roots. 


Chemical compomtion. — The fatty matters dissolved out of 
tins tuber by ether consisted of a fragrant liquid oil, and a 
solid AA bite crystalline substance separated by petroleum etlier. 
The alcoholic extract, amounting to 2*7Q per cent., contained 
some white ti'ansparent prisms of an alkaline nitrate, and a 
few nodules of a circular- shaped crystals of a yellowish colour. 
This extract contained a small quantity or alkaloid^ and some 
sweet body reducing Fehling's solution. A large quantity of 
starch is present, and 4' 14 per cent, of gum. The tubers dried 
at lOO^C lost 4' 11 per cent, of moisture, and jdclded 13 '73 
per cent- of mineral matter. 


Yig.—Rosc. Scit, t 97 ; Bot. Mag., t. 920 and 6054; JFiy/d 
Ic.f t 2029 ; RJicedc, Hort. MaL xi., t. 9. 

Hab. — Throughout India, often cultivated. 

Vernacular. — Bhurae-champa [RincL), Bhin-champa [Beng,)^ 
Bhin-champo {Gnz.)j Bhin-chapha {Mar.), Konda-kalava (TeL), 
Malan-kua {MaL) 

History, Uses, &C. — This plant, called in Sanskrit 
Bhurai-champaka, *^ ground champaka," from the sweetness of 
its flowers resembling that of the champaka (Michelia), though 
not mentioned in the E.aja-nirghanta, is one of the commonest 
domestic remedies of the Hindus. Its small globular pendu- 
lous tubers, at one time supposed to be the " round zedoary '* of 
the druggists^ are used throughout India as a local application 
to tumours, wounds, and swellings of all kinds. Rheede states 
that in Malabar the whole plant, when reduced to powder, and 
used in the form of an ointment, is considered to be of wonder- 
ful efficacy in healing fresh wounds, and that, taken internally, 
it is thought to remove any coagulated blood or purulent matter 
that may bo within the body ; he adds that the root is a useful 
application to anasarcous swellings. In Western India the 
tubers are used as a popular local application in mumps* {Gal- 

Tuberous roots were used by the ancients for the same purpose. Cf. 
Scrib. Larg, Comp. 4ri. 


gan(l)y but as they are generally combined with more active 
remedies, such as Croton seeds, Aconite, and Nux Vomica, it is 
probable that they do not contribute much to the cure. The 
root consists of several central, almost globular rhizomes, from 
which proceed numerous, thick, fleshy rootlets, all of which 
terminate in small, oblong, or round tubers ; the substance of 
the rhizomes and tubers is of a pale straw colour, and has a 
bitter, pungent, camphoraceous taste, much like that of true 
zedoary ; the whole plant is aromatic. 


Tlg.—Bot Mag., t 2300. 

pjab. — China Himalaya. The tubers. 

Vernacular. — Kapur-kachri, Kachur-kacha, Kachri {Hind.), 
Kiipur-kaohari {Mar,, Guz.), Shi'mai-kichilik-kizhangu {Tarn.). 

History, Uses, &C. — Sati, the Sanskrit name for Cur- 
cuma Zedoaria, is sometimes erroneously appKed to this plant, 
which is not mentioned in the Raja Nirghanta. In the Hima- 
layas it is known as Shediiri^ and the leaves are made into mats 
which are used as sleeping mats by the hill people. The aromatic 
root-stocks are used as a perfume along with Henna {Lawsonta 
cilha) in preparing the cloth known in the Xorth-West Provin- 
ces as Malagiri {Watt). The sliced and dried root is an article 
of considerable importance in Indian trade, as it is a principal 
ingredient in the three kinds of Abir, or scented powder, used by 
the Hindus in worship, and as a perfume. White Abfr is made 
from the following ingredients:— The root of Androjmjon murica' 
tus, the tubers of EedycJihtm spicafum, sandalwood and arrowroot 
(Indian), or flour of Sorghum. The kind of Abir called Ghisi 
in Hindi, and Fadi in Guzerathi^ contains in addition to the 
above ingredients the seeds of Prunus 3Iahalib, Artemisia Sierer- 
siana, the wood of Cedrus Deodoray the tuber of Curcuma Zedo- 
aria^ cloves and cardamoms. Black Abir, or Bulcha of the Dec- 
can, contains in addition to all the above ingredients. Aloes- 
wood, costus, the root of Nardostachys Jatamansi, and liquid 
Storax. The scented powder of the Jains called Vasakhepa or 

IIL— 53 


VasaJtshepay does not contain it, but consists of sandalwood, 
saffron, muskj and Borneo camphor. Two kinds of Kapur- 
kaclirf are found in the Bombay market, viz^^ Chinese and 
Indian ; the latter was supposed by Eoyle to be the Sittanttee 
or lesser Galangal of Ainslie (Mat. Ind. I., p. 140), but 
Moidin Sheriff states that the Sittarittee of the Tamils is the 
true lesser Galangal, which statement appears to be correct. 
Powell informs us that the rhizome is pounded with tobacco 


Description. — Indian Kdpdr-kachri occurs in slices, 
mostly circular, but sometimes the section is made in a sloping 
direction ; the slices are | an inch or less in diameter, and 
vary much in thickness ; they are white and starchy, and when 
freshly pared exhibit a faint line dividing the cortical from the 
central portion ; the edges of each slice are covered by a rough 
reddish-brown bark marked with numerous scars and circular 
rings ; here and there rootlets remain attached ; the odour is 
like that of orris root, but more powerful and strongly cam- 
phoraceous ; the taste pungent, bitter, and aromatic. The 
Chinese drug is a little larger than the Indian, whiter, and less 


pungent; the bark is smoother and of a lighter colour. 

Microscopic structure.— The rhizome consists of a delicate 
parenchyma, most of the cells of which are loaded with large 
ovoid starch grains, a few contain a yellowish resin, and essen- 
tial oil ; the epidermis is composed of several rows of compress- 
ed, nearly empty, reddish-brown cells. From the unaltered 
condition of the starch it appears that the rhizomes are not 
exposed to heat. 

Chemical composition. — The dried tubers have been examined 
by J. C. Thresh [Fharnu Jonrn. [3] XY, 361). The proximate 
analysis gave the following results: — 

Soluble in petroleum ether — 

Ethylmethylparacoumarate 3'0 I c.q 

Fixed oil and odorous body 2'9 j 

Soluble in alcohol-— 

Indif. substance ppt. by tannin.,,, 1 ^^>j 

Acid resin, &c- •••............ .. 


Soluble in water 

Glucoside or saccharine matter I'O 

Mucilage 2*8 

Albuminoids^ organic acid^ &c 1*9 



]^roisture .•••..*! 136 



Cellulose, &c < 15-2 


The odorous principle was entirely taken up by petroleum 
ether, upon allowing the petroleum ether to evaporate slowly, an 
abundant crop of large, colourless, tabular crystals was obtained, 
together with a pale yellowish-brown oily fluid. These crystals, 
after washing with cold petroleum, were submitted to a series 
of recrystallizations in order to remove traces of the odorous 
matter. They were finally obtained quite odourless, and foimd 
to possess the following properties : — Soluble in petroleum 
ether, ether, alcohol, chloroform and benzol. Insoluble in 
diluted solutions of potash, soda or ammonia. Sulphuric acid 
dissolved it in the cold without production of colour, but if 
heated the solution became purple red. The alcoholic solution 
was neutral in reaction, not coloured by ferric chloride or 
precipitated by basic lead acetate. It did not reduce silver 

The melting point (uncorrected) was found to be 120 — 121 
F. (49° C), and after melting it would remain fluid at ordinary 
temperatures for days if left undisturbed. 

By burning with copper oxide in a current of oxygen the 
following results were obtained : 

'2931 gram yielded 7490 gram 00' and -1804 gram H' O. 
•2703 gram gave '6912 gram CO' and -1690 gram H^O. 
These results agree with the empirical formula C^^ff *0 

The uncrystallizable portion of the petroleum ether residue 
was found to consist of the odorous principle, a fixed oil and a 
very considerable proportion of ethylmethylparacoumarate, the 
latter doubtless prevented from crystallizing by the presence 


of the former. Upon saponification of tlie mixture with alco- 
holic potashj two crystalline acids were obtained; the rndhyl- 
paracoumaric and another, apparently a fatty acid. This latter 
\yas totally insoluble. in boiling water, but crystallizable from 
alcohol. The quantity obtained did not enable the author to 
identify it with certainty. A minute quantity of the oily fluid 
abovementioned drojDped uj^on the clothes, rendered them 
highly odorous for a considerable length of time, or, if exposed 
caused a large room to be pervaded with an odour rcsembliug 
that of hyacinths. 

Commerce, — The Chinese drug which fonns by far the greater 
proportion of the commercial article is shipped to Indian ports 
i)ia Singapore, and is valued at lis. 4| per matmd of 37^ lbs. 
Sir E. Buck {Dye^ and Tans of the N.-W. Provinces) gives the 
export from Kumaon in 1875-76 as 95-^^ cwts., and also states 
that in the same year an equal quantity was exported from 
Garhwal, and 40| cwts. from the Bijnor district. In Davies' 
Trade Rejjort 25 maunds (about 2^000 lbs.) are given as the 
annual export via Peshawar to Afghanistan ( Diet. Econ. 
Prod. Ind. ly., p. 208). The Indian kind is valued in Bombay 
at about Us. 6 per maund of 37^ lbs. It is not so handsome 
in apj)earance as the Chinese, but is more odorous. 


Fig. — Benfl. and Trim., t. 270 ; Jxo.^c. Moiinnd. PI., 83 ; 
WoodviUe, t. 250j Steph. and C//., i. 96. 

riab — Cultivated througliout the East. The rhizome. 

Vernacular. — (Fresh) adrak, adi, (dry) South [Hind.) ; (fresh) 

Alen, (dry) Sonth {3Ia}\); (fresh) Ada, (dry) ^out {Ben (j.) ; 

(fresh) Inji, (dry) Shukkn [Tarn.) ; (fresh) Alhmi, (dry) Sonti 

{Tel.); (fresh) Hasisnnthi, (dry) Vana-simthi {Can.); (fresh) 

Adu, (dry) Sunth {Guz.) ; (fresh) Inchi, (dry) chukka [Mai.). 

History, Uses, &c. — Ginger has been cultivated in 
India from prehistoric times ; it is a native of the East, but is 
jiqt now known in a wild state. In Sanskrit it bears manv 


-names, sueli as Mahausliadha ^^ great remedy/' Visra " perva- 
der/' YisYa-blieshaja '^panacea/* Sringavera ''antlered/' Katu- 
badra 'HLe good acrid/' &c. When dried it is known as 
Suntlii and Nagara in distinction from Ardraka " fresh 
gin O'er.'' In the Nighantas it is described as acrid and 
digestive, useful for tlie removal of cold Lumors, costiveness, 
nausea, asthma, cough, colic, palpitation of the heart, t3au- 
panitis, swellings, piles, &c. Ginger is one of the three acrids 
(trikatu) of the Hindu physicians, the other two being black 
pepper and long j)eppor ; combined with other spices and 
sugar, as in the preparations known as SamaHcirlcara chnrna and 
SaiihJiagi/a suntht, it is given in dyspepsia and loss of appetite. 
In rheumatism preparations of ginger and other spices with 
butter are given internally, and it" is an ingredient in oils used 
for external application. The juice of the fresh tubers, with or 
without the juice of garlic, mixed with honey, is a favourite 
domestic remedy for cough and asthma, with lime juice it is 
used in bilious dyspepsia, and a paste of dry ginger and warm 
water is applied to the forehead to relieve headache. In Western 
India, ginger juice, with a little honey and a pinch of burnt 
peacock's feathers, is the popular remedy for vomiting. In 
old Persian we find the names Shmgabir or Shangahir and 
Adrak applied to ginger, and it was probably through the 
Persians that the Gi'eeks first became acquainted with it, as 
their C^yy^l^^pt is evidently derived from the Sanskiit Srhigavera 
throu<^h the Persian form of the word. Tlie Arabic name 
Zanjahil is of similar origin, the chief difference being tbe 
substitution of the letter J for g, whicli is not in the Arabian 

Ginger is described by Dioscorides as hot, digestive, gently 
laxative, stomachic and having all the properties of pepper ; it 
M'as an ingredient in collyria and antidotes to poison. Pliny 
notices it in his diopter on peppers, but very briefly, and it does 
not appear to have been regarded as an article of much 
importance in his time. 

In the second century of our era, ginger is mentioned as liable 
to duty (vectigal) at Alexandria along w^ith other Indian spices. 



n. and Nav. of the Ancients^ III, 695). Galen recom- 
paralysis and all complaints arising from cold hu- 
rnorsj Paulns in neuralgia and gout. Ibn Sina and other Arabian 
and Persian physicians closely follow tlie Greeks, but enlarge 
upon its aplirodisiacal properties^ In modern medicine the 
■value of ginger as a carminative in atonic dyspepsia and flatulent 
colic, and as a masticatory in relaxed conditions of the throat 
is generally admitted. 

The manufacture of ginger beer and ginger ale forms a large 
portion of the mineral water trade in England^; indeed, some 
makers have acquired a special reputation for their production. 
Besides the large number of fermented and aerated ginger beers 
consumed at home, a good deal of ginger ale is shii:)ped in glass 
bottles from Belfast, especially to the United States. About 
16,000 packages or casks arc so exported annually, for it has 
become a fashionable beverage in America among all classes. 

According to the American ofEcial returns the imports in the 
two years ending June were as follows (the duty being 20 
per cent.); — 

1888. 1889. 

Dozen bottles. Dozen bottles. 

Ginger ale and beer 231,721 261, 828 

Ginger cordial 


Preserved ginger (35 jDcr 

cent, duty) value $14,289 $2,670 

Hundredweights. Hundredweights. 

Raw glnger(duty free) 34,194 27,718 

The value of the ginger ale and beer imported there was in 
1887, $153,376; in 1888, §126,987, and in 1889, $92,00L 

The manufacture of ginger ale seems to have been com- 
menced there also ; for last year 3,512 dozen quarts were sent 
away from New York and New Orleans, besides what wa3 
locally consumed. 

Tne niunber of uses to wtich ginger is applied besides as a 
spice, confection and medicine are many ; for instance, we have 
gmgerade, ginger ale, ginger beer, ginger brandy, ginger bread, 


ginger champagne, ginger cordial, ginger essence^ giiiger 
lozenges and ginger wine. 

On the Continent o£ Europe, ginger is less used and appre- 
ciated than in England. 

Soluble essences of ginger are required for making good 
ginger beer^ and Belfast and American ginger ales. There are 

aerated and fermented ginger beers ; the best unbleached 
Jamaica ginger, well bruised, being used for the latter* Ginger 
is also used for a kind of cordial and champagne. 

Lastly, yoimg ginger is candled and preserved to a con- 
siderable extent lu the East, and comes into commerce under 
the section of "succades." The quantity imported into England 
from India and China ranges from 300,000 to 600,000 pounds, 
of the value of £1 1,000 to £25,000. The mode of preserving it 
is to steep the rhizomes in vats of water for several days, 
changing the water once. When taken out it is spread on 
tables and well pricked or pierced with bodkins. The rhizomes 
are then boiled in a copper caldron, then steeped for two days 
and nights in a vat with a mixture of water and rice flour. 
After thi3. they are washed with a solution of lime, then boiled 
with an equal weight of sugar and a little white of egg is added 
to clarify. 

After the ginger has been boiled a second time it is put in 
glazed jars of pottery, holding 1 pound, 3 pounds or 6 pounds, 
and covered with syrup. The syrup is changed two or three 
times, and then thev are shinned in cases holdini? six iars. 

in barrels. (P, L, 

SimmondSy Amer, Jn. Pharm. 1891.) 

Description, — Many qualities of giuj 
Eastern commerce^ which vary greatly in appearance ; the fresh 
tubers also vary in size, flavour and colour in different soils 






m two terms, namely, the rhizome with its epidermis 


case It is called coated; or deprived of epidermis, and theu 
termed scraped or uncoated. The pieces, wliicli are called by 
the spice dealers 7rwes or hands, rarely exceed 4 inches in Icngtli 
and have a somewhat palmate form, being made np of a series 
of short, laterally compressed, lobe- like shoots or knobs. 
TJncoated Cochin ginger, which is the best kind produced in 
India, has a pale buff hue, and a striated, somewhat fibrous, 
Surface. It breaks easily, exhibiting a short and farinaceous 
fracture with numerous bristle-like fibres and closely resembles 
Jamaica ginger in appearance and flavour. " Black " Cochin 
ginger is that dried in the wet weather by means of hot ashes. 
Bengal and Bombay gingers have a brownish or reddish 
external surface, and the fractured surface is harder and darker, 
the flavour is less delicate than that o£ the Cochin sort. Coated 
gingers are now seldom met w^ith, but Indian commercial 
samples usually contain a proportion of shrivelled and im- 
perfectly scraped roots. 

Chemical composition. — Ginger has been very completely 
examined by J. 0. Thresh. {Pharm. Journ. (3} xil., 721). 
He found Cochin ginger to contain volatile oil r350 ; fat, wax 
(?) and resin (in the petroleum other solution), 1*205; neutral 
resin -950; a. and &. resins, '865; Gimjeroly -600 ; substance 
precipitated by acids, 5'350 ; mucilage, 1'450; indifferent 
substance pi^ecipitatod by tannin, organic acids, &c., C800; 
extractive soluble in alcohol not in ether or water, '280 ; alkaloid 
a trace; raetarabin, 8120 ; starch, 15-790 ; pararabin, 14*400 ; 
oxalic acid (as CaC'O^), '427; cellulose, 3'750; albuminoids, 
5-570; vasculose, &c., 14-763; moisture, 13'530 ; ash, 4-800. 
The essential oil is pale-yeUow, loevogyre and not acrid. 
Gingerol, the active principle, is a straw-coloured, viscid, 
odourless fluid of extremely pungent taste* 


cent, of oleo-resin, whereas Jamaica ginger only yields 5 per 
cent.^ It may be best extracted by alcohol, ether or chloroform, 
benzin wiU dissolve it, but it docs not exhaust the drug a a 
eatisfactorily as the other solvents. 


Commerce.— Ginget is extensively cultivated in British India, 


In the Himalayas it is successfully reared at elevations of 4,000 
or 5,000 feet, requiring, however, a moist soil. The Malabar 
ginger, exported from Calicut, is the produce of the district of 
Shernaad, situated to the south of Calicut. In the Dacca 
district the natives cleanse the roots in boiling lime water, 
which probably injures much of the fragrant pungency, whereas 
m Jamaica they use simply plain water. 

In order to dry ginger into what is called " sonth '* in India 
that is, to enable it to keep— the fresh roots are put into a 
basket, which is suspended by a rope, and then two men, one 
on each side, pull it to and fro between them by a cord 
attached, and thus^shake the roots in the basket ; this process 
is carried on for two hours every day for three days. After 
this the roots are dried in the sun for eight days, and again 
shaken in the basket ; the obj ect of the shaking being to take 
off the outer scales and skin of the roots. Two days further 
drying completes the process, and the ginger sells at about a 
rupee, or two, for 6 or 8 pounds. The value of the East Indian 
ginger exported went on increasing from about £63,000 (44,457 
hundredweights) in 1881 to over £199,000 (133,280 hundred- 
weights) in 1887; but in the last three years it has retrograded, 
having fallen to £70,398 (61,774 hundredweights) in the 
financial year ending March, 1890. 

Last year, of 63,500 cwts. imported into England, India 
sent 53,500 cwts., Jamaica, 5,900 cwts., and West Africa, 2,600 
cwts. (P. L. Simrnonds.) 


Fig. — Roxh. in As. Research. 11, t, 7; Bot, Mng., t. 1426; 
Rox. Monand. PL 

Hab. — India. The rhizomes, 
III. -54 


Vernacular. — Ban-ada {Bong.), Nisa, Mulabari-halad {MaT.\ 
Karpushpu {Tel.)^ Ban-adruk, Ban-adi {Bind.). 

History, Uses, &C. — This plant, in Sanskrit Vaarn- 

draka or ^'wild ginger," tkough not mentioned in the Rdja 
Nirghanta, appears to be well known in most parts of India 
as a domestic remedy among tke peasantry^ wlio rnb down 
the tubers with water for administration in diarrhoea and 
colic. Though Roxburgh has named this plant Cassumtmar, 
it appears to be very doubtful whether its roots have ever 
been exported to Europe or have everbeen an article of commerce 
in India. Kattu-mannal is a Malabar name for the yellow 
^edoary, and it appears to be this plant which has furnished the 
Cassumunar root of the druggists (cf. Pereira^ Mat, Med., 
ii., Pt. 1, p. 236), In odour and taste both roots are very 
similar. The Marathi name Kisa is Sanskrit and signifies 
'* turmeric/' and seems to indicate that the tubers of this 
plant are used as a substitute for that article by the 

Description. — The fresh rhizomes are 1 to 2 inches in 
diameter, jointed, compressed, with numerous white fleshy 
radicles, to some of which white tubers are attached. Each 
Joint of the rhizome is furnished with a leaf bud. The 
epidermis is scaly, light-brown, the interior of a rich golden 
yeUow, the odour is powerful and not very pleasant, like a 
mixture of ginger, camphor, and turmeric ; the taste hot and 

Microscopic structure. — The epidermis is formed of many 
layers of compressed and obliterated cells. The parenchj^na 
consists of large polyhedral cells ; those in the cortical portion 
of the rhizome are nearly free from starch, but those m the 
central portion are filled with large ovoid starch granules. In 
all parts of the rhizome large ceUs full of a golden-yellow 

r-^ential oil abound. The vascular system resembles that 
of turmeric. 

8 C IT AMINES. 427 

Chemical composition. — The drug yielded to analysis : — 
Ether extract (essential oil, fat, and soft resins) ,., 6"9G 

Alcoholic extract (sugar, resins) 7*29 

Water extract (gum, acids, &c.) 13'42 

Starch 1508 

Crude fibre 12-61 



Moisture 7'66 

Albuminoids, modifications of arahin, &c 30' 18 


The root liad a pungent odour, similar to a mixture of cam- 
plior and nutmeg, the soft resin had a bitter and burning taste. 
The colouring matter had many of the reactions of curcumin,. 
but was more readily bleached than true curcumin, and the 
colour of the powder was very fugitive. The water extract 
gave a crystalline precipitate with lead acetate, which was 
found to be due to the presence' of malic acid. The root 
contained more mucilaofe and su2:ar than that of Curcuma aro- 

a^ ^^v* «v*j- 

matica. We were unable to separate any of the " soapy extrac- 
tive" mentioned in the analysis of Cassumuuar root by Luca* 

Costus SpeciosUS, Sm.^ Lam. III. L^ t. 3 ; Eheede^ Hort. 

MaL xi.y t. 8. 

Vernacular. —Ken {Hind, and Beng.)^ Penva T?r (Afar.), 
Kemuka (Sans.). Roxburgh notices a preserve made of the 
fresh roots which is considered wholesome and nutritious. 
C. speciosu^ is the Tjana-kua of Eheede and the Hcrha spiralis 
hirsuta of Eumphius. Ainslie, quoting Brown's History of 
Jamaica, says that the root is there used as a substitute for 
ginger, but is very inferior to it. {Mat. Ind. ii., 167.) In the 
Calcutta Exhihifion Catalogue^ the root is described as depura- 
tive and aphrodisiac ; similar properties are attributed to it in 
the Concan, where it is very abtmdant in moist situations. The 
rhizome resembles the great Galangal in growth and structure, 
but has no aromatic properties, the taste being mucilaginous 
and feebly astringent; it could only be used as a substitute for 
ginger by being preserved with a quantity of that root suffi- 
cient to flavour it. 



Fig. — Rheede, Hort. 3IaL xi., ft. 4 and 5 ; BentL and Trim.y 

t 267 ; Woodville, t. 231 ; Boxh. Cor. PL iiu, t. 226. Malabar 
Cardamom {^ng.)y Oardamome du Malabar {M\). 

X ■ 

Hab.^ — AYest and South India. The fruit. 

Vernacular. — Chhoti-ilayachi or ilachi (Rind. ) , Elaich, 
Gujrati-elaich {Beng.), Elchi (Ouz.), Veldoda {Man), Ella-kai 
{Tarn.), Ydlakki {Can.), Elettari {MaL), Elakaya, Yittula {Tel.). 

History, Uses, &c 


Ela, is mentioned by Susruta. In the Nighantas it bears 

various synonyms, such as Truti, Kapota-varni " grey. 



The large or Nepal cardamom (Amommn suhulatum) is called 
Sthulaila *' large Ela/^ and is described separately. Both kinds 



piles, and diseases of the bladder and kidneys. These two 
oardamoms are described by Ibn Sina under the name of ^ ^ 
(kakulah) ; he also describes separately under the name of 
^j^.O^^x (hilbawa) another kind of cardamom as more easily 
digested than the hakulah* This latter cardamom is the true 
Cardamomttm majiis or Nutmeg cardamom of Africa to which 
Pereira has given the name of Amomimi Icorarima. We think 
that there can be no doubt that the Grreeks were acquainted 
with the cardamoms of India which they appear to have first 
obtained from the Persians through Syria and Armenia. 
Dioscorides says: — *^ Choose that which is tough, well filled, 
closed ; if not in this state, it is too old and has lost its aroma. 

taste is pun — "^ '^ ^"^ i-'i-^-- >> 



the name Katidaus, the Greeks appear to have applied it to 
this spice in much the same way as the Persians applied the 


plant whicli was used for flavouring bread. In tlie Burhdn it 
is stated tliat tlie name kakulah is also given by some to a fruit 

like saj)aHdan (a kind of cress), which is the same as Ilachi, 


Besides the two Indian cardamoms, there is a large kind of 
cardamom which comes from Ceylon, now found in commerce. 




Ekttaria cardamonnan. 3Iatoiij var* major — tlie Ensdl of the 

As a mi 


small cardamom is preferred by the natives, but the other 
kinds, which are cheaper and of less delicate flavour, are largely 
used by the sweetmeat makers. 

CiiUivation. — There are two ways of propagating the plant, 
viz., by sets or by seed. The chief requirements for successful 
cultivation are a rich loamy soil, and a site sheltered from 
strong winds and too much direct sunlight. Clearings in 
forest land, with a few trees left here and there, in order to 
give the requisite shade and shelter, are found to offer the best 
conditions for the production of good crops. In the planting 
of sets, young ones of one to two years old should be chosen. 
Holes one foot deep and 18 inches wide are dug, and into these, 
after they have been prepared as beds, raised a few inches 
above the surrounding ground, the sets are inserted Just below 
the surface of the soil. 

The spaces between each plant may be from 6 to 12 feet, 
according to the quality of the soil. The ground should be 
well cleared of weeds, stones and rubbish, but when the plants 
have grown to a certain size, no further weeding will be necessary, 
as nothing will grow under their shade. Seeds should be sown 
in prepared nurseries, care being taken not to sow too deep. 
The seedlings, when 6 to 8 inches in height, should be 
transplanted and treated in the same manner as sets. {Did. 
JScon. Prod. hid. iii., p. 229). For the particulars of 
cardamom cultivation in the Wynaad, Travancore, Mysore, 
Madura, Coorg, and Canara, the same work may be 
consulted. To prepare cardamoms for the market, they are 
washed, bleached, and starched. For washing, 2 lbs. of pounded 
soapnuts and } lb. of Acacia concinna pods are mixed with about 


5 gallons of water, and a separate solution of common country 
soap is made. Three quarts of tlie soapnut mixture are added 
to 8 quarts of water, and in this 10 lbs. of cardamoms are well 
agitated by hand and then transferred to a basket to drain for a 
few minutes. They are then washed a second time in 7 quarts of 
water, one of the soapnut mixture, and one of the soap solution, 
drained and thrown upon a mat. Then they are continually 
sprinkled with fresh water by relays of women until sunrise 
next morning, when they are spread out on mats to dry for four 
or five hours. The stalks are then cut off with scissors, at 
which work some women are so expert as to be able to nip 
90 cardamoms in one minute. This done, the cardamoms are 
sorted for export. The starching process, which has only lately 
been introduced, consists in sprinkling the cardamoms with a 
thin paste made of rice and wheat flour, country soap, and 
butter milk, and rubbing them between the palms of the hands. 

The washing mixtures are used for two lots of cardamoms 
and are then thrown away. The women who wash are paid 3 
annas per diem ; the night watchers 4 annas, and the nippers 
2^ annas per 13 lbs. 

Description.- — The cardamom of commerce is a dry, 
three-sided, oblong, or roundish capsule of a yellowish-brown or 
dirty white colour. The pericarp is tough, and divides into 
three valves, from the middle of the inner surface of each a 
partition projects towards the axis, so as to divide the capsule 
into three cells, each of which is filled with closely packed 
angular seeds, each surroimded by a thin transparent membrane 
(aril}» The seeds are of a rich brown colour, about two lines 
long, transversely rugose, with a depressed hilum, and deeply 
channelled raphe. The capsule is almost tasteless. The seeds 
have a pungent, camphoraceous, agreeable flavour, and leave a 
sensation of cold upon the tongue when chewed. 

Microscox>ic stradure.—ThG testa of the seed is formed of 
three layers: Ut, a layer of thjck-wulled striated cells; 2nd, a 
layer of large thin-walled cells ; 'ii/y/, an internal layer of dark- 
brown radiating cells, with very thick walls. The albumen is 

801 T AMINE JjJ. 431 

colourless and consists of polyhedral cells containing starch, 
and generally rbomboidal masses of albuminous matter, which 
can be easily seen when thin slices of the albumen in almond 
oil are examined by polarized light. 

Chemical composition, — The parenchyme of the albumen and 
embryo is loaded with fatty oil and essential oil, the former 
existing in the seed to the extent of about 10 per cent. The 
essential oil, which amounts on an average to 4' 6 per cent., 
has the odour and flavour of the seeds ; it consists chiefly of a 
liquid having the formula C^° H'^'-^ 0^ According to Fluckiger, 
the raw oil is dextrogyre, and deposits after a time a camphor, 
which he considers to be identical with common camphor, as 
it agrees with that substance in optical properties and crystal- 
line form. The water which comes over when cardamoms are 
distilled, contains acetic acid. The ash of cardamoms, which, 

to Warnecke, amounts to 6'12 per cent, in common 
with that of several other plants of the same order, is remark- 
ably rich in manganese. 

Commerce. — The trade in Indian cardamoms seem^ to have 
been declining for some years past. In 1880-81 the exports 
to foreign countries were valued at Rs. 8,20,257, but the 
returns for that year were the highest on record. For 
subsequent years they were as follows: — 1883-84, Rs. 5,68,334; 
1885-86, Rs. 5,60,012; and 1887-88, Rs. 2,04,858. In 
1883-84, the United Kinjrdom received of the above, cardamoms 
to the value of Es. 4,05,649, but last year only Rs. 52,G58. 

After the United Kingdom the other receiving countries are 
generally in the following order of importance : — Arabia, 
Germany, Persia. On the other hand, the imports of foreign 
cardamoms seem to be on the increase. In 1880-81 they 
were valued at Rs. 4,134, and taking the same years as have 
been given for the exports, the imports were in 1883-84, 
lis. 18,351; 1885-86, Rs. 92,205; and 1887-88, Rs. 2,60,450. 

During this year the bulk of the imports [viz., Rs. 2,51,211 
worth) came from Ceylon, and of the total of these foreign 
imports, Bombay received Rs. 2,16,455 worth. Of the internal 



trade in cardamomSj full statistics are not available^ but exclud- 
ing the transfrontier trade by land, it was last year valued 

at Rs. 25,11,053. 

In Travancore the cardamom cultivation and trade are a 
monopoly of tbe State. The drug is grown on the Cardamom 
Hills, and is broi _ 

ported. The following table gives a Statement of the sale of 
Travancore cardamoms during the last sixteen years : 

Statement of the Sak of Travancore Cardamoms, 1875 

Year M. E. 












in candies of 

600 E. lbs. 






Average price per 
candy in Rupees. 

Total amount realized 


























This table includes all cardamoms sold. Some will be 
exported by sea and some sent by backwater to Cochin, so 


Avliat is sent to Cochin will also appear as exports from tliat 

The following notes have been kindly furnished by ^h\ T. 
F. Bourdillon, Conservator of Forests, Travaueore, late Superin- 
tendent of the Cardamom Hills : 

The cardamom plant is indigenous in the evergreen forest of 
Travancore, between the elevations of 400 and 4,000 feet, but 
thrives best at the higher of these altitudes. 

The spice is divided into 3 classes : (1) Ma gar a clam, or those 
cardamoms which ripen in the month of Magaram (January) ; 
(2) Kanni clam, those which ripen in the month of Kanni 
(September) ; and (3) Neela elam, or long cardamoms. 

The first two classes grow on the same variety of the plant, 

the whole plant being smaller than that of the long variety, and 
the difference in the time of ripening is due to dilterences of 
altitude and climate. 


The scapes on which the capsules are borne, in the case of the 
first two classes, always trail on the ground, whereas the 
scapes of the long cardamoms stand erect, and are often 2h ft. 


Magara elani are considered the best. The plants that pro- 
duce them are grown at an elevation of 3,000 ft, and upwards 
on the eastern edg-e of the Travancore Territory, where the 
rainfall is comparatively light, reaching probably not more 
than 60 inches. In this comparatively dry district the capsules 
take longer to mature, and though the plant flowers in March 
and April, at the same time that it flowers elsewhere, the 
capsules do not ripen till January, and are considerably larger 
and contain more seed than the other kinds. 

Kanni elani come second. The capsules are very round 
and sweet, but are smaller than those of the Magara elani. 
The plants which produce them grow at elevations between 
1.000 and 2,500 ft., ia a moistcr (100—200 inches) and more 
forcing climate than the others, and the fruit ripens more 


lii -^^ 


Necla elam come last. The plants are larger, and the scapes 
stand upright as already said. The capsules are long and less 
aromatic than those of the other two kinds* . This variety is 
found on the hills of South Travancore, where the rainfall is 
heavy (150 — 200 inches) and where the sea breezes blow. The 
elevation is between 1^000 and 3,000 ft. 

Although cardamoms are wild in the forests, they have been 
cultivated in gardens from time immemorial, and from old records 
it is seen that the oldest gardens which were in existence 
when Lieut. Ward made his survey of the country in 1817 are 
still the most productive. These gardens are found on the 
eastern edge of the Travancore hill-plateaux, where the 
Magam clam are produced, and this variety yields about f of 
the total produce of the country. Some gardens are met 
with in the Kanni elam district, but these are more modern, 
and the yield is about ^ of the total crop each year. ''Long 
cardamoms" are not grown in gardens; they are all collected 
Mild from the forests. 

When a person intends to open a garden, and has obtained 
permission to do so (for cardamoms are still a monopoly m 
Travancore), he selects some heavy forest^ wdiere there are 
already a few plants of cardamoms growing, carefully avoidm 
those places where reeds grow, as indicating poor soil. The 
common saying is that where the Anjili {Artocarjnts hirsuta) 
and white cedar [Df/so^f/Ion malaharicum) grow^ there carda- 
moms will thrive. 

The smaller trees and imdergrowth arc then cut down, only 
the larger trees being left to form a close canopy overhead. 
The garden is then kept clear of weeds by a cutting over and 
weeding twice a year, and cardamom seeds are sprinkled about, 
or the rhizomes are planted out when the plants have not come 
nj) properly. In about 3 years the garden begins to bear, and 
may continue to do so for upwards of a century if the light is 
not allowed to enter too much. Should any of the larger trees 
fall down and let the light in, the cardamom plants turn yellow 
and give a heavy crop, but then die out until shade has been 
again allowed to grow up. 

8CIT AMINE m. 435 

Each year when the cardamoms ripen, thej^ are collected and 
dried on rocks, and when thoroughly dried they are delivered 
to the Cardamom Superintendent, who weighs them in and 
despatches the crop under escort to the Court, where it is sold, 
and the grower gets two-iifths of the price realised at the 
annual auction, the Government retaining the other three-fifths. 

The crop yielded per acre is not large, and, indeed, a heavy 
crop is a disadvantage, as it would imply that the garden was 
about to die out. Equal crops of good fidl capsules are to be 
desired,, and as the trees above drop their leaves and manure 
the plants below, no further manuring is necessary, though it 
is generally admitted that manuring would largely increase the 
crops were it feasible to carry out such operations. 

It has been estimated that there are about 26,000 acres under 
cardamoms in Travancore, and 13,000 thulams (of 20 lbs. each) 
is a large crop. Even supposing that the area was much over- 
estimated, it is probable that the annual crop docs not exceed 
10 lbs, to the acre, though we have heard it placed at double 
that amount. 

It will be seen by the figures quoted above that the crops of 
cardamoms in Travancore vary very considerably, the fact 
being that the setting of the blossom in March, April and May 
ia very much dependent on the weather, frequent showers dur- 
ing those months bein^ most favourable to a good crop, while 
a heavy monsoon is said to destroy the young fruit. Here too, 
as in the caser of most fruit crops, a good year is followed by 
one or two bad ones and vice versa. 

Formerly, when Travancore used to supply the world with 
this spice, the price realized was very good, but since Ceylon 
and Curg cardamoms have come into the market, the price has 
fallen to about i of its former level,, so that the annual 
amount realized by the Government hardly pays for the 




the adjoining district of Madura in British India, scarcely 
secure any return for their work, and it is now in contemplation 
to abolish the monopoly altogether. 


A considerable proportion of the cardamoms in Indian 
commerce consists of tlie seeds, without the husks. These seeds 
are obtained from overripe fruits which have burst in the field 
or during manipulation, and are of two kinds, Indian and 
Chinese, The- latter are said to be the seeds of Amormim 
wanthioides. {Uanhurify Science Papers^ pp. 100, 178, 250, 


Amomum subulatum, -Ro^^,, is much larger than the 
true cardamom, of a dark-brown colour and coarsely striated, 
three- valved, each valve being furnished with three ragged, 
membraneous wings, which extend f ix>m the upper part of the 
f iniit and gradually disappear towards the apex. The seeds are 
arranged as in the true cardamom, but are more numerous, and 
are held together in each cell by a dark viscid saccharine pulp. 
Their taste is aromatic and camphoraceous. They are much 
used in the preparation of sweetmeats on account of their 
cheapness. Value, Rs, 12 per maund of 37^ lbs. 

The Nutmeg Cardamom, or true Cardamomum 

majus,^ made its appearance in the Bombay market in 
1885. Up to that time the only large cardamoms we have met 
with have been the Bengal or Ceylon kinds. Under the name 
of Hil-bawa it is correctly described by the Arabian physicians, 
who no doubt were acq^uaiated with the genuine article. 
Persian and Indian writers are evidently not acquainted with 
it, although they copy the description given by the Arabs. 

The PhannacograjyJna has the following account of this rare 
Cardamom: — ^^ The tvMO Cardamomum majus is a conical fruit 
in size and shape, not unlike a small fig reversed, containing 
roundish angular seeds, of an agreeable aromatic flavour, much 

resembling that of the Malabar cardamom, and quite devoid 
of the burning ta^to of grains of Paradise. Each fruit is 
I>erfora*^d, having been strung on a cord to dry ; such strings 
of cardamoms are sometimes used by the Arabs as rosaries. 
The fruit iu question is called in the Galla language Korarima, 

* Valerius Cordus, Hist. Plant, iv., 28 ; Mutluolus i., 27. 


but IS also known as Gumgi spice, and by its Arabic names of 
IleiJ and Ilah-cUhahashi. According to Beke, it is conveyed to 
the market of Baso (10° N. lat,), in Southern Abyssinia, from 
Tumhe^ a region lying in about 9^ N- lat. and 350 E, long.; 
thence it is carried to Massowah, on the Red Sea, and shipped 
for India (?) and Arabia. Yon Heuglin speaks of it as brought 

from the Galla country* It is not improbable that it is the 
same fruit \\hich SjDcke saw growing in 1862 at Uganda^ in 
lat. 0°, and which he says is strung like a necklace by the 
Wagonda people. 


Fig. —Bentl and Trim., t 27L The lesser Galangal {Eng.), 
Petit Galanga, Galanga de la Chine {Fr.), 

Hab, — China. The rhizome. 

Vernacular. — Kulinjan, Pan-ki-jer [HincL), Shitta-rattai 
{Tam.\ Kulinjan {Mar.), Kulanjan ( Guz.), Kunjara-kathi 
[Sind.)y Sannaelumparash-trakum [TcL)^ Kalanjan {Can.). 

History, Uses, &C. — The Chinese call the Galangals 

LB ^^ 

Kaon-Icang-lieang and Liang-heang. From the first of these 
names the Arabs have derived their name Khulanjan or 
Khowlanji'm, which is applied to the greater and lesser galangal, 
and is the source of the European name for these drugs. The 
same name occurs in the Nighanta's, which makes it evident 
that the Hindus first became acquainted with Chinese galangal 
through the Arabs. The earliest notice of the drug occurs in 

Persian literature (cf. Bnrhan), where it is stated that Khusru- 
daru, "Chosros remedy/' was introduced in the time of 
Noshirwan (6th century). It probably reached Persia by the 
Central Asian trade route, as we find that it is still used by the 
Tartars to flavour their tea- Paulus ^gineta (7th century) 
calls ityaXayyay, and latter Greek writers x^^^'^i^^> y^^^^^^s nndi 
*:oXovrCta, Ibu Khurdadbah (9th century), in enumerating the 
productions of a country called Sila, names galangal, and 
Edrisi^ three hundred years later, mentions it as brought from 


India and China to Aden. Ibu Sina and other early Arabian 
, physicians also notice it shortly as a stomachic and stimulant- 
Curious stories as to its source were current in those days ; Haj i 
Zein states that in Yunan a kind of hawk is said by travcllem 
to build its nest of the roots of the Khulanjan upon the sea-^hore, 
and that the only way of obtaining the drug is to rob these 
nests ; this the merchants do, and, after washi 
them up into short pieces. 

Although this drug has been so long known^ its botanical 
source was only discovered in 1870, when a description of the 



plant was communicated to the Linnean Society of Lend 
Dr. H. F. Hance, made from specimens collected by M. 
Taintor near Hoihow^ in the north of Hainan. {Journal 
Linn. Soc, 1873, XIIL, 6.) 

Galangal is described by Serapion on the authority of Ishak 
bin Amran as hot and dry in the third degree, useful to 
phlegmatic persons, and in humidity of the stomach ; it 
promotes digestion by its heat and the solution which it 
occasions in the stomachy and thus relieves colic ; gives 
fragrance to the breath, and warms the kidnej-s: it sets the 
semen in commotion, and when a piece of it is held in the 
mouth it occasions erections of the memhrum mile. Other 
Arabian writers give a similar account of it. Indian Mahome- 
tan writers, with reference to the name Pdn-kl-jar, say that the 
drug may be the root of very old plants of Piper Betle, but 
they are evidently in doubt about its being produced by that 
plant. {Mahhzan, article '' Rhidanjan'') Mir 3Iuhammad 
Husain describes Galangal as tonic, stomachic, carminative, 
stimulant, and aphrodisiac. He tells us that if given to young 
children it makes them talk early, and that a paste of the 
powdered drug made with oil or water will remove freckles. 
It is a stomachic tonic, used by native practitioners to reduce 
the quantity of urine in diabetes. It is used to correct foul 
breath when chewed, and the juice swallowed stops irritation 
m the throat, {^Emermn.') Galangal is one of the ingredients 
of Warburg's tincture. It is not used in Endish medicine, 




used for a variety of purposes, as for flavouring tlie liqueur 
called Nadoiha, it is also employed by brewers, and to impart 
a pungent flavour to vinegar, a use noticed by Pomet so long 
ago as 1694. As a popular medicine and spice, it is mucb sold 
in Livonia, Estbonia, and in Central Russia. It is also in 
requisition as a cattle medicine, and all over Europe there is 
a small consumption of it in regular medicine [Hanhury). 
Irvine [Med. Topog. of A jmeer, -p. 171) says tbat the natives 
add Kulijan to bazar spirit to make it more intoxicating. 

Description. — The dried rblzomes are about as tbick aa 
the little finger or often less. They have evidently been cut into 
short lengths ( 2 to 3 inches) while fresh ; many of the pieces 
are branched, and all are marked by numerous circular ridges 
of a light colour. The external surface of the rhizome is of a 
deep reddish-brown, the interior pale red, hard and tough; 
the odour is aromatic and the taste hot and spicy. 

Microscopic structure.— The bulk of the rhizome consists of 
a uniform parenchyma traversed by fibro-vascular bundles, 
some of the parenchyme cells are full of resin and essential oil, 
but most of them contain large starch grains of an elongated or 
club-shaped form. 

Chemical com.position. — Galangal contains from f to J per 
cent, of an essential oil, which is the odorous principle ; according 

^!l, its formula is C'°H'^0. Brandos extracted from 
Galangal with ether a neutral, inodorous, tasteless, crystalline 



compounds from the root: Kdmpheridj C'^H'^O^H-O, 
crystallizing ia yellowish needles (m. p. 221°J, which are 
slightly soluble in water, ether and benzine, freely soluble in 
alcohol, soluble in alkalies to an intensely yellow solution, and 
in concentrated sulphuric acid to a yellow solution with a strong 
blue fluorescence. Galangin, C ' ^H ' "0 "^11- 0, crj-stallizing from 
its solution in aqueous alcohol in yellowish-white needles 
(m. p. 214°). The reactions of this body are very similar to 
those of kuuq>herid ; its solution in concentrated sulphuric acid, 
however, is non-fluorescent. 


Alfinin^ C^^H^'^O^, crystallizes in yellowish iicccIIgs (in. 
p. 173^). Its reactions are similar to ttose of galangiu. „ 

( Arch 


1882, p. 199.) The resin, which is probably the acrid principle, 
has not been examined. 

Dr. Thresh (1884) has isolated from Galangal root an active 
pungent principle, which he has named Gaiangol, and which 
resembles the pungent principles of Ginger, Capsicum, and 
grains of Paradise in certain respects. He records the follow- 
ing j^roximate analysis of 100 parts of the rhizome; — Volatile 
oil 0-6, resin 0*2, fat and Galangol 1*6, kampferid, &c., 1"4, 
other saline matters soluble in ether but not precipitated by Pb, 
A'^ 1-2, tannin Q-Q, phlobophane ]'2, other substances soluble in 
alcohol 3*2, glucose, mucilage, &c., 3'5, oxalic acid 0"3^ galangal 
red 2'8, starch 23'7, albuminoids 2-6, moisture 13-8, ash 3'8, 
cellulose, &c., 39*5. The active principle could not be isolated 
in a state of purity. 

Cojnmerce. — The imports of Galangal into India average 
3,300 cwts. yearly. In 1883-84 they amounted to 
3,870 cvvts., valued at Rs. 35,982, of which Calcutta took 
686 cwts,, Bombay 1,750 c^vts., and Madras 1,434 cwta. Of the 
total imports 1,230 cwts. came from Hongkong, 2,540 cwts- 
from the Straits Settlements, and 100 cwts. from other countries. 
During the same year 1,670 cwts. were re-exported to Arabia 
and Persia. 

Galangal is valued in Bombay at al)out Rs. 3.| per maund of 


Fig. — Enmph. Amh, v., t. 63. Tlie greater Galangal, 
Java Galangal [Eng.), Galanga grand, Galanga de Java {Fr.). 

Hab. — Java, Sumatra, Soutliern India. Cultivated in 
Bengal. The rhizome. 

rt'>->iac" 'ir.-^Bara-Kulinjan {IlimL, Gnz.), Motha-kolanjan, 
Kosht-kolaujan, Malabari-kolanjan {Mar.), Pera-ruttai {Tain.}, 
roddu-dumparash-trakan (7VY.), Pera-ratta {J£uL), 


History, Uses, &;C. — The great Galangal is known in 

China by the same names as the lesser Galangal, and does not 
appear to have been distinguished from the latter drug by the 
Greeks, Arabs or Persians, Hanbury [Science Pa^^ers, p, 373) 
remarks that Garcia D'Orta was the first writer to point out 
(1563) that there are two kinds of Galangal — the one, as he 
says, of smaller size and more potent virtues, brought from 
China, the other, a thicker and less aromatic rhizome, produced 
in Java. Loureiro describes the plant which produces it under 
the name of Amomiim Galanga^ and gives Cao Learn Kiam as its 
name in Cochin-China. Roxburgh (i., 60) fully describes the 
plant grown in Calcutta from roots sent io him by Dr. Charles 
Campbell from Bencoolen, and quotes a note by Mr. Colebrooke 
to the effect that the roots are the Kulanjana of the Eaja 
Nirghanta, and the Sughanda-vacha and Malabari-vacha of the 
Bhavaprakasha. From the latter name it appears that the 
Hindus regard the plant as a native of Malabar or of Western 
India ; the correctness of this opinion has been confirmed by 
Dalzell and Gibson, who found it growing truly wild upon the 
Wagh Dongar or "tiger hill" in the Southern Concan. {Bomb, 
FLy p. 274.) The root of the Indian plant does not, however, 
appear to have been collected for commercial purposes until a 
comparatively recent date, which has given rise to the supposi- 
tion that the plant is not a native of India. At the present 
time it is cultivated both in Malabar and Bengal. 

The fruits of A. galanga furnish the Galanga Cardamom. In 
the fresh state they are of the size of a small cherry, obovate, 
smooth, and of a deep orange-red colour. Hanbury {Science 
Paj}en, p. 252) describes the dried fruit [Kaon-leang-lcemg-taze, 
Chinese) as about half an inch in length, of an oblong form, 
somewhat constricted in the middle, or occasionally pear- 
shaped ; some obscurely 3-sided. Each fruit prominently 
crowned with the remains of the calyx; in a few the lower 
extremity still attached to a slender pedicel. Most of the 
capsules much shrivelled on the outside, a few plump and 
smooth. Pericarp from pale to deep reddish-brown, glabrous, 
thin. Seeds united in a 3-lobcd mass, completely invented in 



a whitisli integument, each cell or lobe containing usually two, 
placed one above tlie other; these are ash-coloured, flattish, 
and somewhat 3-angled, finely striated, and have a pungent 
taste like that of the root. {For figure, see Science Papers, 

p. 107.) 

The root is readily distinguished from that of A. offlcinarum 
by its larger size, feebler odour and taste^ orange-brown exterior 
and yellowish-white interior. The statistics of Indian commerce 
do not enable us to distinguish this drug from China galangal. 

It is valued in Bombay at about Rs. 50 per candy of 7 cwts. 
Galangal cardamoms are not found in Indian commerce- 
In the Kew Bulletin for January 1891 (p. 5) an interesting 
account is given of the identification of the plant yielding the 
rhizome employed to make the well-known Chinese preserved 
ginger. As long ago as 1878, Dr. E. Percival Wright, of 
Trinity College, Dublin, called the attention of Mr. Thiselton 
Dyer to the fact that the preserved ginger has very much 
larger rhizomes than Zi^igiher officinale, and that it was quite 
improbable that it was the produce of that plant. The 
difficult}^ in identifying the plant arose from the fact that, 
like many others cultivated for the root or tuber, it rarely 
flowers. The first flowering plant was sent to Kew from 
Jamaica by Mr. Harris, the iSuperintendent of the Hope Garden 
there. During the past year the plant has flowered both 
at Dominica in the West Indies and in the Botanic Garden 
at Hongkong. Mr. 0. Ford^ the Director of the Botanic 
Garden at Hongkong, has identified the plant as Alpinia 
galanga, the source of the greater or Java galangal root of 
comnierce. Mr. Watson, of Kew, appears to have been 
the first to suggest that the Chinese ginger plant is probably a 
species of Alpinia, and possibly identical with the Siam ginger 
plant, which was described by Sir J. D. Hooker in the Botanical 
Magazine (tab. 6946) in 1887 as a new species, under the name 
of Alpinia zingiherina. Mr. J. G. Baker, in working up the 
Scitaminea) for the ' Flora of British India,' arrived at the 
conclusion that it. is not distinct from the Alpinia galanga, 

8 CIT AMINES. 443 



Willd. The Siam and Chinese gingers are therefore identical, 

and both are the produce of Aljpinia galanga, WilkL Fharm. 
Joum., Jan 31st, ] 891. 


Fig,— JKoajJ. Cor. PL UL, if. 275; Eheede, Hort. Mah i. 
tt. 12—14. Plantain {Eng.)y Bananier (Fr,). 

Hab, — Cultivated throughout India. Thefruit, leaves and 


Vernacular, — Kela (Hind 


Vazhai-pazham {Tam.)^ Anati-pandu, Amti-pandu {Tel), Bdli 

History, Uses, &C. — The cultivated plantains are called 
Kadali in Sanskrit, and tlie wild plantains, wticli, we believe, 
to be their progenitors, Aranya-kadali and Eambha. There 
are many synonyms, such as Bhanupbala or Ansumatphala 
" having luminous fruit," Charupbala "having delicious fruit," 
Rajeshta ''liked by kings," Yana-laksbmi "beauty of the 
woods," &c. "We think there can be little doubt that the 
plantain has been under cultivation in India from prehistoric 
times. The Greeks under Alexander must have become 
acquainted with it ; Theophrastus and Pliny describe a tree 
called Pala, with leaves like the wing of a bird, three cubits in 
length, which puts forth its fruit from the bark, a fruit 
remarkable for the sweetness of its juice, _a single one (bunch?) 
containing sufficient to satisfy four persons ; this tree is sup- 
posed to have been the plantain. The word pdla signifies 
" leaves," but we are not aware of its ever having been applied 
to the plantain. The Arabs call it Mauz and Talk, and under 
the latter name it is mentioned in the Koran— c^i^J^ I o 5=:^ I j 

^jAijo UJs , ^jwai* j'i*»(y *(^i*i-" v^"*' *'* (and the com- 

-x^ J '2.^'^ J 

ght hand, happy compamons 

among Lotus trees free from thorns, and plantams with their 
lapping clusters of fruit). 

Under the name of Mauz, Mesne describes the fruit as useful 
in soreness of the throat and chest with dry cough, and in 


irritability of tlie bladder ; he considers it to be npliradisinc^ 
diuretic and aperient, and recommends it to be cooked witb 
sugar or honey."* Eaten in excess it gives rise to indigestion. 
-Abu Hanifeh in the 9th century described very accurately the 
manner of growth of the plantain, and quotes a saying of 
Aah\ab, to his son, as related by As, " Wherefore do»t thou not 
become like me ?" to which he answered, "Such as I is like the 
Mauzahy which does not attain to a good state until its parent 
dies/' {lladd'Cl'kamiis.) The early Italian travellers called the 
plant Fieo cVAdamo^ and thought they saw in the transverse 
section of the fruit a cross or even a crucifix. Mandeville 
calls it the Apple of Paradise* The varieties of the plantain 


viii., 2). 


used after they have been cooked ; others, as the Iclcihi, are small 

delicate in flavour. The 


the unripe fruit, called il/oc/^a/ca in Sanskrit, is used medicinally 
on account of its astringent properties in diabetes ; it is made 
into a ghrita with the three myrobalans and aromatics. Youngs 
plantain leaves are universally used as a cool dressing for 
blisters and to retain the moisture of water dressings ; they 


serve also as a green shade for the eyes. Emerson notices the 
use of the sap to allay thirst in cholera. Mir Muhammad 
Ilusain in the Makhzan tells us that the centre of the stem^ 
Kanjiyaly is eaten with fish as a vegetable in Bengal, that the 
kind called MdlbhoJc is used as a poidtice to burns, and that 
called BoJJiGd is boiled and used as an ointment to the syphilitic 
eruptions of children; he also notices the use of the ashes oa 
account of their alkaline properties, and of the root as an 
anthelmintic. MM* Corre and Lejanne state that the fruit 
stems sliced and macerated in water all night, yield a sudorific 
drink ; and that the charcoal of the skin of the fruit is re- 
commended by Chevalier as an application to the cracks in the 
sole of^ the fi>ot from which Negroes suffer, Pereira {Bfat. 
Med., li.. p. ^>-i'.>) has drawn attention to the nutritive properties 
of the meal prepared froxu the fruit. In India the lower 


portion of tlie stem of the wild plantain is a valuable resource 
in famine seasons on account of the large quantity of starch it 
contains. Starch prepared from tiie unripe fruit is used in 
the treatment of bowel complaints in Bengal. A specimen we 
examined consisted almost wholly of pure starchy with a trace of 
astringent extractive. In America a syrup of bananas is said 
to be singularly effective in relieving chronic bronchitis. The 
preparation is simple, requiring only that the fruit shall be cut 
in small pieces and with an equal weight of sugar be placed in 
a close jar, which is set in cold water and slowly heated to the 
boiling point, when it is to be removed from the fire and allowed 

to cool. 


CJmnical composition. — Professor Johnston, in the Journal of 
i^ie Agricultural Society of Scotland^ says: " We find the plantain 
fruit to approach most nearly in composition and nutritive 
value to the potato, and the plantain meal to that of rice. 
Thus the fruit of the plantain gives 37 per cent., and the 
raw potato 2b per cent., of dry matter. In regard to its value 
as a food for man in our northern climates, there is no reason 
to beKeve that it is unfit to sustain life and health ; and as to 
warmer or tropical climates, this conclusion is of more weight." 
The only chemical writer who had previously made personal 
observations upon this point (M. Boussingault), says: '^I have 
iiot sufficient data to determine the nutritive value of the 
banana, but I have reason to believe that it is superior to that 
of the potato. I have given as rations to men employed at 
hard labour about 6^ pounds of half-ripe bananas and two 
ounces of salt meat.'' Of these green bananas he elsewhere 
states, that 38 per cent- consisted of husk, and that the internal 
datable part lost 56 per cent, of water by drying in the sun. 
The composition of the ash of the plantain also bears a close 
t^osemblunce to that of the potato. Both contain much alkaline 
matter, potash and soda salts ; and in both there is nearly the 
^me percentage of phosphoric acid and magnesia. The 
growing parts of the plant contain much tannic and gallic acida. 
The sound ripe fruit contains as much as 22 per cent, of sugar^ 
1<^ per cent, being crystallizablo. In the nallve sugar-cane the 



proportion of cane sugar, according to Payen^ is 18 per cent- 



in the proportion of inverted sugar ; an over-ripe fruit contained 
only 2-84 per cent, of crystallizable and 11-84 per cent, of 
uncrystallizable sugar, being a total of 14'68 per cent, or two- 
tbirds of the original quantity. 

For tbe follo\ying analyses of E. Indian plantains we are 
indebted to Assistant Surgeon C. L. Bose, Calcutta. * Tbe 
samples represent tbe most commonly used varieties : 

Percentage of Pulp and Pericarp in Pipe Fruit 
















PercenicKje Composition of Pulp 




Kantali G7-G8 

Champa 71'4i7 






Alkalinity of 

Ash in terms 

of Normal 


7'09c. c. 

8'08c. a 

7*34 0, c. 






ft agar. 


8-30 7*75 




10-37 7-41 



Total acidity 

of Pulp in 
terms of 





3"90 c. c. 

7*87 c. c. 

4-57 c, c. 







No n nitro- 
genous ex- 
by diSorence 













Konig gives the following as the composition of the fruit 
from Brazil and Yene'zuek— the first analysis being by 
Corenwinder, and the other by Marcano and Miintz : — 

Brazil. Venezuela. Mean. 


73-8 73=10 

Albuminoids -. 2-14 1-60 1-87 


<dQ -30 -63 

Mtrogen free extractive ... 23-09 23-00 '2?y^o 



, -38 -20 -29 

103 MO 1-06 

The fruit consisted of about 40 per cent, -pericarp and 
60 percent, pulp. The pericarp afforded 14*7 per cent, of solid 
residue, containing I'G per cent, of grape sugar. The 
anhydrous fruit from Brazil contained 1 '24 per cent, nitrogen 
and 83*66 per cent, carbohydrates ; that from Venezuela, -97 per 
cent, nitrogen and 87-78 per cent, carbohydrates. Plantain meal 
from' Venezuela had the following percentage composition : — 

Water 1490 

Albuminoid's 2-90 



Mtrogen free extractive 77*90 



The nitrogen free extractive from the ripe fresh fruit and 
meal had the following composition ; 

Brazil. Yeneziiela- Meal. 

Cane sugar 15-90 5'90 l"^^ 

Grape sugar ......... -S'oO 6-40 ^'3*^ 

Starch , -60 -40 66-10 

The ash of the fruit from Brazil had the following percentage 
composition :— Potassium sulphate, 3-61; Potassium chloride, 
14-34 ; Magnesium phosphate, 8-77; Potassium oxide, 27-12; 
Potassium carbonate, 41-66 ; Calcium carbonate, 1*17; Oxide 
of iron, -36 ; Sand, 2-06 per cent. 


Tile asli of the husk of the ripe fruit was fouud to conttun 47-98 
fcarbonate of potash, 6'58 carbonate of sodium, 25 '18 chloride 
of potassium, 5' 66 alkaline phosphates (with a little sulphate), 
7-50 charcoal, 7-10 lime^ silica, earthy phosi^hatcs, &c. In the 
juice of the flower stem of the same plant, Comnille {J. Pharm. 
(3) 48, 269) found 25'27 per cent, potash, 9*52 soda, 15'85 lime, 
h-Q magnesia, 0'87 alumina, with a trace of ferric oxide, 6-30 
chlorine, 0'96 sulphuric anhydride, 0*87 phosphoric anhydride, 
0-81 silica, and 34*17 carbonic anhydride (calculated from the 

Commerce. — Dried plantains are an article of commerce in 
India, and are excellent when stewed with sugar or fried in 
butter. Bombay exports annually from 300 to 400 cwts» 

Fig.— Eheede, Eort. Mai. xL, t. 43. Indian Shot or Bead 

{Eng.), Balisier (i^/^ ) . 

Hab. — Uncertain. Common throughout India in gardens 

and cultivated ground. The fruit and root. 

FcrwacM^ftA— Sabba-jaya, Akalbar {Hind.), Sarba-jaya 
{Beng.), Kandamani-cheddi (Tarn.), Krishna-taniara (TcL), 
Katd-bula (Mtif.), Sugundaraju-gida {Can.)> Deokeli, Kumakshi 

History, Uses, &c.— This plant, though common every ^ 
^here, is not truly w^ild in India ; how and from whence it has 
been introduced is not known ; it occurs also in Burma and 
Ceylon, and the seeds are used as prayer-beads by the Burmese. 
In the West Indies, especially in St. Kitts, a nearly alHcd species 
is cultivated for its starch, M^hich is known as "Tons ks mois" 
or " Fecuh de Tolomane," and is remarkable for the great size 
of its starch grains. No starch is prepared in India from 
C. «>if//cr7, but its fruit and root are used medicinally by the natives. 

The flowers are sacred to Shiva and Purga, as is indic^uted by the 
Hindi, Bengali, and Marathi names which are derived from the 
^Sanskrit Sarva-jaya "all conquoriug" (Shiva), and Kdmakshi, 
a nam c of the goddess D urga. la the Di'-L Econ . Prod, of IndvJ, 



the Sapskrit name Silarambha is wrongly attributed to tliis 

plant, it is properly the name of the wild i^Iantain or Kashtha 

Kadali. Eheede, describing the medicinal uses of C. indica, 

says : — " E f ructibus parvum testis succus elicitur, qui auribus 

immissus dolores illarum mitigat. Ex iisdem et saccharo massa 

componitur, et umbilicali regioui applicatur contra diabetera, 

ex calidis fcbribus ortam. Succus radicis Mercurii sublimati 

toxicum infringit." Atkinson {Him. Dist. 730) states that the 

root is used as a diaphoretic and diuretic in fevers and dropsy. 

When cattle have eaten any poisonous plant, which is generally 

discovered by the swelling of the abdomen, the natives 

administer to them the root of this plant, which they break up 

in small pieces, boil in rice-water and pepper, and give them to 

drink. {Bmnj.) Badeu-PowcU {FmiJ. Prod. 382) states that the 

seeds arc considered to be cordial and vulnerary. 


Description. — An herbaceous plant, 2-3 feet; leaves 
large, ovate-lanceolate, stem-clasping; flowers bright scarlet or 
yellow, inner wing of the corolla trifid, segments lanceolate^ 
straight; anther single, attached to the edge of the corolla; 
capsule bristly, 3-celled, many-seeded; seeds round, blacky 
hard and shining, the size of a pea or buck-shot. 

Chemical covipodiion. — The seeds reduced to powder "were 
exhausted with alcohol, and the alcoholic extract mixed with 
water acidulated with sulphuric acid, and agitated with petro- 
leum ether, then with ether, and after the addition of an 
al]<:ali, again with ether. 

The petroleum ether extract contained yellowish fatty matter, 
from which white n odules separated on standing, the taste was 
camphoraceous and somewhat pepper-like. The acid ether 
extract bad the odour of vanilla ; it was partly soluble in water 
with acid reaction , the aqueous solution giving a bright green 
colorntion with ferric salts, slightly precipitating gelatine, but 
giving no reaction with potassic cyanide. 

No alkaloidal principle was detected in the ether extract, the 
aniount of which did not exceed a trace. 

'i'he frcah roots were contused, and treated in the same 

munuvr as the seeds. The t. ,^f +i tit i i 

j-nt T.t ol the ulcoholic extract was 

inWEJi. 451 

sliglitly pungent wifh a flavour of ginger. The petroleum 
ether extract was yellow and consisted of resinous and fatty 
matters; it was partly soluble in absolute alcohol, the solution 
givinn- a dirty-green precipitate with ferric chloride. The acid 
other extract was partly soluble in water, and the solution gave 
a saae-ffrccn coloration with ferric chloride, precipitated 

tannin, but gave no reaction with potassic cyanide. The 
portion insoluble in water was nearly wholly soluble in 
ammonia, affording a deep yellowish-brown solution, from 
which acids precipitated yellowish flocks. The alkaline ether 
extract contained traces of an all^aloid which failed to afford any 
special colour reactions. 

The seeds have been stated by Dalzell and Gibson {Bombay/ 
Flora) to afford a beautiful but evanescent dye ; we failed to 
detect the presence of any such dye principle in either the 
seeds or roots. The roots contain mucilaginous matter and 
starch ; starch was also present in the seeds. 




¥ig.—BoL Mag., t 670; BoL Reg,, t 818. Orris root 

{Eng).y Racine cVIris {Fr.). 

Hab,— Central and Southeru Europe, Northern India, 
and Persia. The rhizome. 

Vernacular. — Bikh-i-banafshah, Kcorc-ka-mul {Lid. Bazars). 

History, Uses, &C. — W'o have already stated (Vol. II., 
p. 296) that wo consider Orris root to be the Pushkara-mula of 
Sanskrit writers, though it is not now recognised as such by 
tho modern Hindus. It appears also to be the Kusht-el-bahri 
and Kusht-cl-hali, '^ sweet costus," of tho Arabs. The Greek 
name Iris is probably of Persian origin, and cognate with 
Acrsa, and probably with Arastan, an old form of Arastan, "to 
adorn, to obey." Among Sanskrit synonyms for Tushkara- 
mula, we find Padma-pushkara " blue lotus," Pushkardnghrija 
"born of the lotus rout," Pushkarahva « chalLugii*- tho 

452 miDE^. 

lotus,'* Pxisliakarasgam **sea lotus," and Kasmira "Caslime- 
riau " : at the present time /- nepaknsis is called " blue lotus"* 
in Kuniaon. The root is described as having properties similar 
to costus, and appears to have been regarded by both Hindus 
and Arabs as a kind of costus. In the Burhdn the plant is said 
to be called Irsa, because its flowers are blue, yellow and white 
like the rainbow ; it is also called in Persia Susan-i-asmanguni, 
" sky-coloured lily." The Iris is mentioned by Theophrastus. 
(H. p. iv., 7; ix. 7), Dioscoridcs (i., 1), and all the Grreek 
medical writers which we have consulted. A celebrated 
unguent^ the '!pivou ^vpov^ \Yas prepared from the root for which 
Macedonia, Elis and Corinth were famous. Visiani {FL Dalmat.) 
considers that the /. germanica is the lUyriaii iris of the 
ancients, which is highly probable, seeing that throughout 
Balmatia (the ancient lUyricum) that species is plentiful, and 
/. florentina and J. pallida do not occur. According to Hooker, 
/. germanica is cultivated in Cashmere, but we have ^ot heard 
of its beinrr under cultivation in Peraia. The Persian name of 

this drug, Bikh-i-banafshah, is applied also to the root of Viola 
odorata in Southern India. 

Iris root ia considered by Mahometan hakfms to be deobstru- 
cnt, aperient, diuretic, especially useful in removing bilious, 
obstructions. It is also \\sed externally as an application to 
small sores and pimples. From the largo number of diseases 
in which this drug is recommended, it would appear to be 
regarded as a panac^. 

Description, — Eastern orris root differs from the Euro- 
pean drug, inasmuch as the bark of the rhizome has not been 
removed ; it is also smaller and of a darker colour. 

Microscopic stnicfiire.-~ThG rliizomos of d^l^Vrc^t species 
of Iria taidly differ iu struoturc. They consist of a brown 
epidermis composed of compressed and nearly empty cells, 
covering a white cortical cellular tissue containing starch ; this 
is separated by a layer of brownish compressed empty cells 
from the ceutnd ^yoody yellowish tissue of the rhizome. The 
latter is built up u£ large thick-wulU.l, spherical, porous cells, 

IBIDEM ' 453 

loaded with starch ; here and there between the cells may be 
seen a prism of oxulate of lime. The vascular bundles are 
numerous, in each irregular rings of spiral vessels surround a 
central bundle of jointed vessels. 

Chemical conqwsUion. — The authors of the P/iarmacof/rapIiia 


say: — *' When Orris root is distilled with water, a solid 
crystalline substance, called Orris CampJwr^ is found floating 
on the aqueous distillate. This substance, which we obtained 
from the laboratory of Messrs. Herrings & Co., of London, is 
yielded, us we learn from Mr. Umqey, to the extent of 0"12 
per cent., that is to say, 3 cwt. 3 qrs. 23 lbs, of rhizome afford- 
ed of it 8| ounces. Messrs. Schimmel & Co., of Leipzig, also 
presented us with the same substance, of which they obtain 
usuallj^ O'GO to 0'80 per cent. Orris camphor has the exquisite 
and persistent fragrance of the drug ; we have proved that this 
presumed stc^^roptene or Camphor of Orris root consists of 
myridic acid, C^'H^^O*, impregnated with the minute quantity 
of essential oil occurring in the drug. The oil itself would 
appear not to pre-exist in the living root, but to be formed on 
drying it. 

"By exhausting Orris root with spirit of wine, a soft 
brownish resin is obtained, together with a little tannic matter. 

The resin has a slight!}^ acrid taste ; the tannin strikes a green 
colour with persalts of iron.^' 

Conniiercc. — India is supplied with Orris root from Persia 
f^nd Cashmere. The average value is about 2 annas per lb. 



^- i)0. Saffron (Eng.), Saff ran (i^r. ) . 


Hab. — Greece, Asia Minor, Persia. Cultivated elsewhere. 


Vernacular.— Kc^^v {Hind.), K^shar (Mar., Guz.), Jufnin 
i^cnr/,)^ Kunguma-pu (Tarn.), Kunkuma-puvva {TeL)^ Kun- 
kuniuduhuvu. Kesari iCan.), Kunkuraa-pavva (MaL). 

45 1 JRIDEJE. 

History, Uses, &C. — Sallron, on account of its brilliant 

yellow colour, like that of the rising sun, has been especially 
valued by mankind from the earliest ages ; in Sanskrit it bears 
the name of Kunkuma (a name also given in India to the red 
colour prepared from turmeric), and is described as Charu 
"fair/^ Vara "suitor," Agnisikha '^having a crest of fire," 

Saurabha "fragrant/^ Mangalya " propitious,^' &c. In Persia 
the word Zard^ derived from the Zend^ signifies "yellow, and 
saffron,^' and the sun is called Zard-rii "yellow or golden- 
faced/^ and Zardah"i-kamran 'Uhc fortunate yellow/'' Saffron 
is the Karkom of the Hebrews, a name borrowed from the Per- 
sians, and in the Song of Solomon the beauty of the bride is 
likened to it. Amonn-st the Greeks <poKos sio-nified both saffron 

,.^ v«.v. ^.^^^.^ , .-.^Q 

and yellow ; Eos or Aurora^ the goddess of the morning, is clothed 
in it, and in Homer she is described as accompanying the 
Sun throughout the day* 

Yellow, and plants having that colour^ have also an erotic 
signification, hence we find them playing an" important part in 
marriage ceremonies and the relations between the sexes : Juno 

in the Iliad is represented as preparing a bed of saffron and 
hyacinths when she wishes to tempt Jove, and Jayadeva in the 
Gifa Govinda represents Ilari as inviting Radha to repose upon 
Q, bed made of the saffron-coloured flowers of the Asoka. The 
following lines indicate the significance which is attached to 
this colour in popular estimation in India : 

Sanjh suni piyd aran piyari, sundarnari singar banai; 
Piar kesar, piar besar, piat bar liya larkai, 
Piar chir diyo kamlapati, piar chandan de lagui^ 
Piar pan ki biri lagi, piyari piri bhai, piu nahin ai. 
** The loved one heard that her lover would come in the 
evening, and made a grand toilette : yellow saffron, a yellow 
nose-ring, and a threaded necklace of yellow flowers. She has 
donned a yellow robe, applied yellow samLJwood, and x>l^iced 

1 leaves iu her mouth. The damsel herself has 
grown yellow waiiiuo^ fo^ ^ loyor who ha.^ not conic/' 


The Urcrian Hctair... and also effeminate youths used to wear 
the <i^-K^r.H, or ^^^aitVou.coluured y^ivm-KC' and the Arabs 


relate that Abu JaLl dyed his *^'^\ {ist) with salTroiij mid was 
addicted to the enormity^ termed /"^^J ' (ubnah). lie was a 
great eneiny of the Prophet^s, and is promised in the Koran a 


A similar uec 

of saffron by the libidinous old witch Zatel-Dawahi is mentioned 

Niglits : — ^'^^ \^^ 15 1 jls ! ^ ]^j 

OJI^ It-JJI jKj3/f (jj\^s:)\ cl^)/ j4^yi ^^ VJ-V=^ ^7^^J 

Magic properties are ascribed to saffron in Persia; Haji-Zein- 
el- Attar (1368) states that it is called Jadu-i-dihkan, "peasant's 
magic^'* and that pregnant women w^ear a ball of it^ about the 
size of a walnut, at the pit of the stomach to ensure speedy deli- 
very and expulsion of the after-birth. The saffron bag was not 
imknown in Europe in the Middle Ages, and even later. The 
Arabs believe that saffron kept in the house will driv e away the 
lizard called Sam Abras, which they greatly dread ; they also 
say of a man who is melancholy or a little odd ^^^ (^^J /-J I 
(innahu lafi sufrihi), i ^-^ that he is in a state in which he 
requires to be rubbed with saffron. 

Zanldby or saffron water, is considered to have magical virtues 
in Persia, and we hear Indian conjurors ascribe the same virtues 
to turmeric water when they say Pihalad ant ho (jora in the 
sense of '' Hocus Pocus/' &c* Saffron ink is used in India to write 
Mantras with. That auspiciousncss is attributed to these plants 
on account of their colour, and not on account of any inherent 
properties, is shown by the fact that other plants furnishing 
yellow dyes are considered auspicious. In Persia Belphmnm 
Zalil is much esteemed as a yellow dye, and is even brought to 
India for that purpose, where it bears the Sanskrit names of 
Trayamana " preserving,^' Mangalya " auspicious,'' &c. It is 
quite possible that this plant was used in ancient Iran before 
saffron, as the word trayamana occurs in old Persian with the 
nicaning of " yellow." Dr. Aitchison speaks of D. Zalll as vcrj- 
common in Khorasan, and remarks that when in flower it gives 
a wondrous golden hue to the pastures. 


456 iniDEM 

A ycllo\\^ 



Vasanta, or Spring, and Krishna are represented as clotlied in 
this colour, and Vasanti- coloured garments are worn at the 
Basant panthami in many parts of India ; at this season also 
garlands of yellow floAvers are offered. This custom is alluded 
to in the Bara?nasa, where the wife says : 

Naliin ghar kanth, leke basant ai ghar raalan, 
Main kaise pijun, sakhi, nahin ghar sajan. 

h ■ 

*^My husband is away,, and the gardener's wife has brought 
(yellow) spring flowers. How can I make an offerings my 
diear, when ray beloved is absent ? 

A yellow garment, called Bamnti, was worn by the Rajputs 
when about to sacrifice themselves in a desperate conflict, a 
sacrifice to their supposed ancestor Surya (the sun). YelloW 
is the favourite colour of the Buddhists, and the Sakya family 
was a branch of the great Solar race of Gautama. Senart 
considers that the Buddha is the Sun- god, and that the details 
of his life have been taken from Solar mythology. 

The use of saffron and turmeric for colouring and flavouring 
food is universal throughout India, and saffron is still used for 
this purpose in Germany, Switzerland, and in Cornwall, cakes 
made on festive occasions being coloured with it. There is a 
curious story about saffron-coloured rice in the Persian BurJuaiy 
where it is called Birinj-i-shamalah, "candle rice.*' The 
author relates that in former times there was a cook at Shiraz, 
who was in the habit of sitting by the roadside every evening 
and preparing a dish with yellow rice, before which he lighted 
two lamps, or sometimes two torches, and cried out — " Come 
to the rice of the candle," and repeated the following couplet : 

" The lijrhts which burnt in the heart of Bushak were 


kindled by the passing of the light of the rice of the candle. 

Who was Bushak, or Bashak ? We cannot help thinkin 
that he must have been some sturdy fire -worshipper testifying, 
as far as he durcd, in the presence of u Mahomedun population, 
to his ancient faith. As the story was an old one when the 

miBE^, 457 

Burhun was written, it shows at any rate that the use of saffron - 
coloured rice in Persia is of great antiquity. The earliest 
European travellers in India called turmeric Croats tndwuSy 
"Indian saffron/^ and eyidently regarded it as a suhstitute 
for that article. In those days saffron was of much more 
importance in Europe than it is now, and the punishment for 
adulterating it was death. 

Saffron was much employed by the Romans for seasoning 
food, and to make an essence with wine and water which was 
used as a perfume {VUny, 21, 6, 17; Lucretius^ ii., 416; Odd A^ 
A. 104, &c.). The name Zafarcm occurs in the ^iliah of El 
Jowhari who wrote in the 10th century, and from Arabian 
writers (Istakhri, Edrisi) we learn that it was cultivated at this 
time in Persia at Darband and Ispahan. It is not improbable 
that the plant was carried from that country to China, as, 
according to the Chinese, it was introduced by Mahometans. 
Chinese writers have recorded that under the Yuen dynasty 
(A. D. 12S0 — 1368) it became the custom to mix Sa-fa-lang 
(Zafaranj with food {BretsGhucidei% Chinese Botanical WorliSy 
Foochow, 1870). Saffron appears to have been cultivated in 
Spain in the 10th century. The Baja Nirghanta^ which was 
written about 600 years ago by a native of Cashmere^ sj^eaks 
of saffron as coming from Cashmere, and the plant is still 
cultivated there on the Karcewahs* near Pampur ; the plants 
are arranged in parterres, and flower about the end of October; 
the inhabitants of the district are then summoned to gather the 
crop ; during this time they live in the gardens which are 
guarded by police to prevent theft {luce, Ilandhoolc of Cash- 

The earliest medical writers mention saffron^ and describe it 
as cardiacal and aj^hrodisiacal, improving the complexion, in- 
creasing the brilliancy of the eyes, and promoting the delivery 
of women. They also considered it to be diuretic, astringent, 
deobbtruent, and cmmcnagogue. Sa ffron, formerly as highly 

* AUuvihI ilfits from 100 to 200 feet Wv^h and 2 to 5 tniles loui^, situated 
along the borders of the Cashmere Valley ; they are sepanitcil from each 
other by tiecp raviues, and have the flj)pearauce of flat-topped liilLs. 

Ill,- 58 


cstcemecl in Europe as in the East, is still considered })j some 
European physicians to have emraenagogne propertieH^ but is 
generally regarded as a colouiing and flavouring agent only. 
Saffron has recently been deleted froni the drug list of the 
Medical Store Depots in Bengal. For much interesting 
information con corning the early history of saffron in Europe, we 
would refer our readers to the Phar mac agraphia of Fliickiger 
and Hanbury. 


small portf 

style and three long tubular stigmas of a rich orange colour ; 
the upper extremity of each stigma spr^ds out to fomj a flat 
lamina with a dentate border. The stigmas simply dried 
and thrown together loosely, form the ordinary hay saffron of 
commerce. Persian saffron is, with the aid of some sticky 


material, pressed together so as to form a thin round flat cake ; 
it is known in Bombay as Kesar-kUroti (bread saffron)- 

Chemical composition. — Fliickiger and Hanbury have the fol- 
lowing summary : — "The splendid colouring matter of saffron 
has long been known as Pohjchroit ; but in 1851, Quadrat, 
who instituted some fresh researches on the dru^, ^ve it the 

name of CrociUy which was also adopted in 1858 by Kochleder 
The experiments of Weiss in 1867 have shown 

Is^ — That this substance (Polychroit, Crocin of Kochleder) 
is a peculiar glucoside, which, by the action of acids, splits into 
sugar, volatile oil, and a new colouring matter. ' 

2nd — That saffron contains only a minute quantity of ready- 
formed essential oil and sugar. 

3r6? — That this free essential oil is probably identical with 
that which is produced in the decomposition of polychroit* 

Wi — That polychroit, as hitherto prepared, has always 
contained a certain proportion of the new colouring matter 
produced by decomposition." 

For the natural glucoside, Weiss retains the name of 
polychroit, while the new colouring matter which results from 
its decomposition by an acid he terms crocin. It agrees with 
the crocctin of rvochleder. 

I EI DEM 459 

Polycliroit was prepared by Weiss in the following manner : 
*' Saffron was treated with ether, by which fat, wax, and essen- 
tial oil were removed, and it was then exhausted with water. 
From the aqueous solution, gummy matters and some inorganic 
salts were precipitated by strong alcohol. After the separation 
of these substances, polychroit was precipitated by addition of 
ether. Thus obtained, it is an orange-red, viscid, deliquescent 
substance, which, dried over sulphuric acid, becomes brittle and 
of a fine ruby colour. It has a sweetish taste, but is devoid of 
odour, readily soluble in spirit of wine or water, and sparingly 
in absolute alcohol. By dilute acids, it is decomposed into 
crocin, sugar, and an aromatic volatile oil having the smell of 
saffron. Weiss gives the following formula for this decom- 
position : 

Polychroit. Crocin, Essential oil. Sugar. 


Crocin is a red powder, insoluble in ether, easily soluble in 
alcohol, and precipitable from this solution on addition of ether. 
It is only slightly soluble in water, but freely in an alkaline 
solution, from which an acid precipitates it in purple-red flocks. 
Strong sulphuric and nitric acids occasion the same colours as 
with polychroit, the former producing deep-blue, changing to 
violet and brown, and the latter green, yellow, and finally 
brown. It is remarkable that hydrocarbons of the benzol class 
do not dissolve the colouring matter of saffron. 

" The oil obtained by decomposing crocin is heavier than 
water ; it boils at about 209^0., and is easily altered, even by 
water. It is probably identical with the volatile oil obtainable 
to the extent of one per cent, from the drug itself, and to 
which its odour is due. 

"Saffron contains sugar (glucose?) besides that obtained by 
the decomposition of polychroit. It leaves after incineration 
5 to 6 per cent, of ash." (Phawiacographia^ p. 604.) 

The investigation of the characteristic constituents of saffron, 
which had previously occupied the attention of several chemists, 
has been taken up by Herr Kayser {Berlchte, xvii., 2228). Ey 
distilling saffron suspended in water in a current of carbonic 

460 IBIDEM. 

anhydride, shaking the distillate with ether, and evaporating 
the ether in a current of carbonic anhydride, the essential oil 
was obtained as a very mobile, scarcely yellowish coloured 


becoming thick and brown by absorption of oxygen from the 
atmosphere, and giving upon analysis figures correspondin 

with the formula C^°H^^. Crocin was obtained by treating 
an aqueous extract, made without heat from saffron previously 
exhausted with ether, with purified animal, charcoal, which 
removed all the colouring matter ; then filtering, washing and 
drying the charcoal, boiling it with 90 per cent, alcohol and 
filtering. Upon removal of the alcohol the crociu was left 
as a brittle yellow-browjti mass, yielding a pure yellow powder, 
freely soluble in water and dilute alcohol, less soluble in absolute 
alcohol, and giving up only traces to ether • With con- 
centrated sulphuric acid it gave a deep blue solution, passing 
to violet, cherry red, and finally to brown ; with nitric acid a 
deep blue, passing almost immediately to brown ; with hydro- 
chloric acid it underwent no change of colour. Acetate of lead 
produced no precipitate in a solution of crocin in the cold, but 
on warming the solution, decomposition at once took place, and 
the liquid then reduced Fehling's solution. As previous 
workers used lead acetate in the separation of crocin, Ilcrr 
Kayser supposes that their product always contained crocctin. 
He attributes to pure crocin the formula C^^H"^^0-«, and to 
crocctin C'^^H^'^O^, the decomposition being represented by 
the following equation : 

An ethereal extract of the residual saffron yielded a crystalbne 
bitter substance, freely soluble in water and alcohol, less easily 
in chloroform and ether, and melting at 75° This has been 
named '' picrocrocin/' and is represented by the formula 
(^301X61017^ It presents the interesting character that when 
warmed in aqueous solution with load acetate, lime or baryta 
water or acid, it splits up into sugar and an essential oil, 

which has a strong odour of saffron and the composition of a 

IBIDEM. , 461 

The following is the mean of two proximate analyses of 
saffron by G. Laube and Aldendroff, quoted by Konig: — 

Water 16'07 per cent 

Albuminoids 11*74 ,, 

Fluid oil -60 ,, 

Fat 3-22 „ 

Sugar - •• 15'33 ^, 

Non-nitrogenous extractive 44-67 „ 

Cellulose -... 4'37 ,, 

Ash 4-37 „ 

The anhydrous saffron contained nitrogen 2*24 per cent* 

and oil and fat 4"55 per cent. 

Commerce.^Sa&von is imported into Bombay from France, 
and occasionally from China. In 1882-83, the imports were 
226 cwts., yaluedat Rs. 4,25,124 ; in 1886-87, 268cwts.,Talued 
at Rs. 5,50,383. Most of it is adulterated ; a sample examined 
by Lyon (1875) gave water 9-48, organic matter 56'93, mine- 
ral matter (chiefly carb. of lime) 33-59. This adulteration is 
easily detected by placing a pinch of the saffron in water, 
when the viscid substance used to make the lime adhere to it 
dissolves, and the lime falls to the bottom of the glass. Similar 


adulteration with other heavy powders has been recorded, 
and vegetable substances, as florets of marigold and safflower, 
fragments of petals, and fibres of grass and rush, have been 
found. Pure saffron costs in India Bs. 20 to 22 per lb. Cash- 
mere saffron is exported to the Punjab, where it is much used 
as a dye, to the value of Es. 20,000 yearly. 

Pardanthus chinensis, Bot Mag, 171, Syn. liria 

chinensis, Linn., is the Balamcanda Schularmani of Eheede 
(HoH. Mai., xi., 37), and is a common garden plant in India, 
having flowers spotted like a leopard's skin. In Cochin-China, 
China, and the Doons of the Himalayas it grows wild. 
Loureiro states that the roots are used medicinally in Cochin- 
China, and that thev have aperient and resolvent properties and 

'ify the blood of gross humors 

Cynanche. According 
in Malabar, beinff s\\i 



III.— 58 t 




b A - » ' m t 

Fig.^Wight Ic, if. 2043; Bo^b. Cor. PI. u,t. 13; Bot 
Mag., t. 1076 ; Rheede, Hort. Mai xii.^ t. 59. 

Hab» — Hotter regions of India and Ceylon. The root. 
Vernacular. — MusaK, Musali-kand [Hind. ^ Mar. ^ G^^s.),Nella- 

> • T « i 

tadi ( Tel. ), N ela-pana-kelangu ( MaL ), Nila-panai-kizhangu 
{Tam.\ Tala-muli {Beng.)^ Nela-tali-gadde {Can.)y Hfn-bin-tal 
( CingJu ) . 

History, Uses, &C. — Both Hindu and Mahometan 

medical writers speak of a white and black Musali, which, from 
their descriptions^ appear to have been different varieties of the 
same plant. In the Raja Nirghanta it is stated — ^^rfi ^ f^^\ 

iffTfrr %^ ^TmsT^ ^ W ^\ Jj W^r ^WU =^ ^m^^\ ; the plant is 
described as Hemapushpi, "having golden flowers/' and is 
considered to be alterative, tonic^ restorative^ and useful in piles, 
debility and impotence. It enters into the composition of several 
medicines intended to act as aphrodisiacs and restoratives. At 


the present time we meet with a white and black Mdsali in the 
bazars, but derived from two entirely different plants, viz,, the 
white from an Asparagus, and the black from a Curouligo. We 
have been favoured with living specimens of the latter plant 
collected by Mr. B. B. Nen^ of Poena at Sitabaldi, and find 
that when cut and dried it exactly agrees with the bazar article 
which we have received from most parts of India. From 
Madras we have received a very small Curciiligo root, from 
C hrevifoUa, not more than an inch in length, whereas the root 


of the plant in general use is not less than 6 inches in length, 
and from ^ to | inch in diameter. Dutt states that Satavari, 
the root of Asparagus recemosus, is sometimes sold by the 
druggists as white Musali ; in Bombay the white Mdsali of the 
bazar is the root of Asparagus adscendetis. 

Native medical works give the following instructions for the 
collection of MusaU:— Two-year old plants are to be selected, 


and tlie roots having Leen washed and cleared of rootlets, are to 
be sliced with a wooden knife, threaded upon a string, and dried 
in the shade ; when dry they may be powdered. The dose is 
180 grains, to be beaten np with an equal quantity of sugar in 
a small glass of water or milk until it forms a thick mucilage. 
Treatment to be continued for forty days, abstinence from 
mental and physical exercise being enjoined. Mdsall is 
prescribed for asthma, piles, jaundice, diarrhoea, colic, and 
gonorrhoea ; it is considered to be demulcent, diuretic, tonic, and 
aphrodisiac, and is often combined with aromatics and bitters. 

Hakim Sharafeddin in his Mujarahat has the following humorous 
anecdote in illustration of its restorative effects : 

b'^J'^ iDJ ^'^y J^ J^ j^^. (S^^O^ h^^^ LS^:iu^^ ^J^'^J^ ^Wl^ij 

'^i UiV ^y u5a^ j J^yki i:^J r^ (^ d^O j^ ^jj J^^ 13 

The stor}?^ at once suggests to the reader that in such cases 
"^ JJJ ^t"^ is probably as good a tonic as Musali. 

Description. — Miisali occurs as short transverse sections 
of the root, half an inch or less in diameter, covered externally 
by a dark-brown bark ; the substance of the root is opaque and 
grc3'ish-brown ; portions of the characteristic, wrinkled, vermi- 
cular rootlets may usually be found attached to some of the 
pieces. The taste is mucilaginous and slightly bitter. 

Microscojnc structure. — The fresh root of 0. orchioides when 
cut across presents a firm milk-white, opaque surface, marked 
with numerous minute punctures. Thin sections show that it 
consists of a cortical and central portion, both composed mainly 
of a delicate parenchymatous tissue loaded with small starch 
granules, here and there a large cell contains a bimdle of needle- 
shaped crj'stals. The large open passages which can be been 


with the naked eye arc almost entirely confined to the cortical 
portion ; they are lined by the walls of the neiohbourino- cells. 

In the central column are numerous bundles of spiral vessels 
which are mostly situated near its junction with the cortical 
portion. Many of the starch granules are muller-shaped. 

Chemical composition,— A proximate analysis of the powdered 
roots was made with the following results : 

Ether ext. (fat, &c.) 1-28 

Alcoholic ext. (resin, tannin) 4-]4 

Water ext. (mucilage) 19-92 

Starch, &c., by difference 43-48 

Crude fibre 14-18 



Moisture 8"40 


The resin was soluble in spirit and alkaline solutions, and 
gave a fine red colour with strong sulphuric acid. The tannin 
gave a green colour with ferric salts, and when determined 
separately amounted to 4-15 per cent, of the root. Oxalate of 
calcium was present. 



Flg^—Bot. Mag., tt. 1073, 2908, 2239; Wight Ic, t. 2021 ; 

Mhecdc, Ilort. 2IuL xi., t. 38; BentL and. Trim., t. Tib. 

Hab — Concan. Cultivated throughout India. The bulb 

and leaves. 

r6T>;--f/^r.— Chindar, Kanwal, Sukhdarshan [Hind.), Nilga- 
davaiia [Mar.], Xagdamani {Gaz.), Nagdaun {Bcng.^, Kesar- 
chettu, Visha-manjili {Td), Yisha-manjil {Tarn.). 

History, Uses, &C.— This plant is not mentioned by 
b^usknt writers ou Materia Medica, but the juice of the leaves 
aiier Ihcy have bcuu slightly roasted is a popular remedy iu 


Hindustan for earache. The name Sukhdarshan, «* pleasant to 
the sight/' is loosely applied to several species of Crinum iu 
most parts of Northern India, In the Concan the leaves smeared 
with mustard oil or Miitel^ are warmed and bound round inflam- 
ed joints. Rheede says : — '^ Ex planta concisa et tosta bini sunt 
noduli, qui utrinque maxillae appositi, spasmum curantcynicum." 
Ainslie states that the natives of Southern India bruise the 
leaves and mix them with a little castor oil, so forming an ap- 
plication which they think useful for repelling whitlows and 
other inflammations that come at the ends of the toes and 
fingers ; also that the juice of the leaves is employed for earache 
in Upper India. Rumphius, who calls it Radix toMcavia, speaks 
highly of its virtues in curing the disease occasioned by the 
poisoned arrows of the Macassers in their wars; the root chewed 
is emetic, provided a little of the juice is swallowed, Crinum 
asiatieiun is the Man-sy-lan of the Cochin- Chinese, and its 
virtues are lauded by Loureiro. {Ainslie ^ Mat, Ind.^ YoL II., 
p. 464.) Sir W. O'Shaughnessy remarks (Bengal Bisj:)., p. 656) 
that this is the only indigenous and abundant emetic plant, of 
which he has experience, which acts without producing griping, 
purging, or other unpleasant symptoms. In the IViarmaoo2)CBia 
of India^ the root has been made ofiicial as an emetic, nauseant, 
and diaphoretic ; directions for making a juice and syrup are 
given : the former to be given in doses of 2 to 4 fluid drachms 
every 20 minutes until emesis is produced, the latter in doses 
of 2 fluid drachms as a nauseant and emetic for children. 

Description. — Caulescent or stemless ; leaves linear- 
lanceolate^ very smooth ; margins entire, striated beneath, 3 to 4 
feet long and 5 to 7 inches broad; scapes axillary, shorter than 
the leaves, a little compressed ; flowers numerous, 1 2 to 50 in 
an umbel, white, almost inodorous ; berries roundish, the size 
of a pigeon's ^g^. [Bomb. Flora, Pt. I., p. 257.) The root is 
bulbous, white, with a terminal stoloniferous fusiform portion 
issuing from the crown of the bulb; it varies greatly in size; 
odour narcotic and disagreeable. 

* The oil obtained from fresh rasped coeoaiiuts. 




Microscopic stmctiire, — The central portion of the bulb (stolo- 
niferous fusiform portion) consists of a parenchyma made up 
of polyhedral cells containing a little granular matter and some 
needle-shaped crystals ; it is traversed by numerous bundles of 
jointed and spiral vessels ; surrounding the central portion is a 
solid cortical layer less vascular than the central column ; from 
both of these spring the subterraneous white bases of the leaves 
which form the upper part of the bulb. 

Crinum zeylanicum, Linn., Wiglit Ic, 2019—20; 

Wiecde, HoH. Mai, m., f. 39 ; BoL Mag., 1171, 2217, 2292, and 
2466, h a very variable plant, plentiful in most parts of India. 
It is tlie Tullpa javanica of Eumpbius. Eheede states that the 
crushed and toasted bulb is applied to piles and abscesses to 
cause suppuration, and that if given to dogs it causes their teeth 
to fall out. According to Loureiro, it has the properties of squills. 
In the Concan a slice of the bulb is used for blistering cattle, and 
the roasted bulb is used as a rubefacient in rheumatism. The 
plant is called Sukhdarshan in Bengal and Hindustan, and 
Gadanikand or Gadtimbhikanda in Marathi. It has not been 
identified with any of the plants mentioned by Sanskrit writers. 
Its properties are similar to those of (7. asiaticum. 

Description. — Root a spherical^ tunicated bulb; leaves 

numerous, radical, lanceolate, waved, smooth, tapering slowly 

from within a few inches of the base to rather a broad and 

obtuse point ; margins scabrous with minute cartilaginous teeth, 

length 1 to 3 feet ; scapes from the axils of the decayed leaves, 

Bomewhat compressed, 1 to 2 feet long ; umbels with about 10 

flowers ; spathes two, of an ovate conic form, with many soft 

filaments among the flowers; flowers sessile, large, tube green, 

border very pale rose, almost white, faintly fragrant ; corol 

tube declinate, cylindric, obscurely 3-sided, about 4 inches long; 

border campanulate, horizontal, segments lanceolar, with rather 

soft subulate points ; length 3 to 4 inches ; filaments six, inserted 

in the mouth of the tube, declinate ; apices sharp and always 

erect ; anthers falcate, incumbent and tremulous, pale yellowish- 

grey ; germ inferior, oblong, 3-celled with several ovula in each. 


attacTied in two vertical rows to the two lobes of the thick fleshy 
receptacles ; style filiform, declinate, projecting beyond the 
stamina ; stigma small, 3-toothed ; pericarpium a soft somewhat 
fleshy perishable envelope which covers one, two, or three large 
fleshy bulbfform seeds. 


Fig. — Bot Mag,y 659G, Socotrine Aloe {Eng.) 
Hab. — Socotra, 


Fig. — Baker in Linn. Journal^ wviii., 174. Jaferabad Aloe 


Hab. — Africa, Coasts of India. 


Fig, — Flora Grmoa.y t. 341, cop. in Steph. Sf Ch.^ t 209, and 

Woodville^ vol. v. ; Nees, t, 50. Common or Barbadoes Aloe, 

Hab. — Africa, Arabia, India. The dried juice. 

Venia€uJm\ — G-hikunv^r, Kumari [Kind)^ Ghirta-kunvar, 
Komari [Beng.], Kora-kdnda, Koraphad (ilTar.), Kumara, 
Kuvdra {Gu%), Shottu-katrazhai, Kumari {Tarn.), Kalabanda 
{Tel), K^truvazha {Mai), Lola-sara {Can.). 

The drug u4/o(?s.— TLva, Yalva {Hind.), Moshabbar {Beng.), 
Eilya, Kala-bol (Jl/rrn), Karija-polam, Irakta-polam {Tam.)^ 
3Iusham-baram {Tel), Chenna-nayakam {Mai), Elio {Guz.), 
Musambra (Can,). 

History, Uses, &C. — The common Aloe (Grihakanya), 
if not a native of India, must have run wild in the country from 
a very remote period, as the Sanskrit BynonjmB do not in any 



way indicate a foreign origin. By the names Ghrita-kumari, 
Kum^ri, Matti, Kanyaka, Taruni, Savari, the plant is compared 
to a beautiful girl or to the virgin Durga. Many synonyms 
'are descriptive, such as Dirgha-pattrika " long-leaved," Sthale- 
ruha" growing in dry ground," Mridu ''soft," Bahu-pattra 
'' having numerous leaves," Kantaka-pattra " having prickly 
leaves," Vipula-srava ''juicy," Mandala ''scimitar-like," Ati- 
picchila " very slimy," &c. The juice is considered to be cathar- 
tic, cold, and useful for removing disease of the spleen, swellings, 
phlegm, carbuncles, and blood and skin diseases. The Hindus 
appear not to have been acquainted with ih.Q drug until it was 
introduced into India by the Arabs ; when this took place it is 
very difficult to decide, but it must have been at a very remote 
period if we are to believe Dioscorides, who says " the Aloe 
grows plentifully in India, whence also the juice is brought to 
us, also in Arabia and Asia (minor), and in certain maritime 
districts and islands, as Andros," On the other hand, Sanskrit 
writers do not mention the drug ; possibly the orthodox Hindu 
physicians of those days may have regarded it as an impure com- 
pound prepared by foreigners. Ehva or Aihca, the Hindi name 
for aloes, appears to be cognate to the Greek aXoT?, Aloes appears 
to have been first manufactured by Arabs or Abyssinians, 
through whom the Greeks obtained a knowledge of it. Hippo- 
crates and Theophrastus do not mention it, but Dioscorides and 
Pliny were evidently well acquainted with the drug and its 
uses, and also with the plant, which it appears had beeil intro- 
duced into the Cyclades. Abu Hanifeh in the 9th century 
describes aloes (Sabir) and the plant from which it is obtained 
as having a yellow flower and very thick leaves which are crushed 
and thrown into the presses, and trodden with the feet until 
their juice flows, when it is left until it thickens, and is then 
put into leathern bags and exposed to the sun until it dries. 
This method of preparation fully accounts for the inferiority 
of Arabian aloes. All the Arabian and Persian writers agree in 
stating that the best aloes is prepared in Socotra, and many relate 
that Alexander, on the recommendation of Ai-istotle, took 
possession of the island on that account and settled a colonv of 

LILIACEJi:. 409 

Greeks there to cultivate the plant more carefully. Schweinfurth 
has observed an appai*entlj Semitic type amongst the hill tribes 
of the island, which he thinks may be traced to a Greek source ; 
characterised by small head, with long nose and thick lips, 
straiglit hair, and lean limbs. In some hieroglyphics on the 
Kadhab plain he has also traced combinations of G^reek charac- 
ters. The Socotrian women are reputed to be sorceresses of the 
most dangerous kind^ who by the aid of a magic cup steal away 
the liver and lights of those against whom they bear malice ; 
a horrid suggestion to account for the excellence of their aloes. 
This story seems to support the derivation of the names Socotra 
and Socotrine suggested by Mr. Mowat in ^AlpJdta/ p, 67. He 
connects them with the Greek (tvkc»t6s =Lat. ficatus = It. fegato. 

This word ' originally seems to have denoted the liver of a 
goose fattened on figs, ' and the word socotrinum or saccotrinum 
applied to aloes would therefore be the equivalent of epaticum. 
(Cf. Trans. IIL Soc. Edinhnrghy xxxi., p. 444.) Burton says: 
" The aloe^ according to Burckhardt, is planted in grave- 
yards as a lesson of patience : it is also slung, like the dried 
crocodile, over house-doors to prevent evil spirits entering : 
* thus hung without earth and water/ says Lane {Mod. Egypty 
Chapt. XI,), *it will live for several years and even blossom. 
Hence (?) it is called 8ah}\ which signifies patience/ But 
8ibr as well as Sahr (a root) means * long-sufferance / I hold 
the practice to be one of the many Inner African superstitions. 
The wild Gallas to the present day plant aloes on graves, and 
suppose that when the plant sprouts the deceased has been ad- 
mitted to the gardens of Wak^ the Creator.'' {Arab. Nights^ i-, 
138.) Mahometan physicians describe aloes as aperient, de- 
obstruent, depurative, anthelmintic and tonic ; as a collyrium 
they consider that it strengthens the sight and removes styes 
of the lids ; it is often applied for the dispersion of swellings 
and the promotion of graniiations. They direct it to be puri- 
fied in the following manner :— Take Socotrine Aloes 1 lb., 
powder and sift, then take wormwood, Jatamdsi, Chiretta, 
Cinnamon, Cassia, wood of the Balsam tree, Herba Schocnanthi, 
Asarum, Mastich^ of each 3 dirhems, boil in 2 lbs. of water 


down to one pound and strain. Put tlie aloes into a mortar, 
rub it down with part of the ahoA^e decoction and strain, repeat 
the process with the remainder of the decoction and any aloes 
remaining on the strainer, let the strained liquors subside, draw 
off the supernatant fluid, mix the aloes with 3 dirhems of 
saffron and preserve for use. In Anthony Colin^s translation 
of Clusius, the following notice of aloes by Garcia d'Orta 
occurs : — " Les Indiens s'en servent en leurs coUyres et aux 
medicamens purgatifs comme aussi es playes, lesquelles ils 
Yeulent rempKr de chair pour lequel usage ils ont le plus 
souvent dedans leur boutiques un medicament compose do 
myrrhe et aloes apelle par eux Mocebar (mussabar)- J'ai vue 
un mcdecin du grand Sultan Badur Roy de Cambaya lequel 
usoit de Therbe d^aloes pour medicament familier en ceste fagon. 
II faisoit cuire avec du sel les fueilles de Fherbe couppees, de 
telle decoction il en faisoit prendre huict onces lesquelles faiso- 
yent vuider le ventre fort benignement et sans aucune extorsiou 
quatre ou cinq fois. En ceste ville de Goa ils donnent en 
breuvage a ceux qui ont des ulceres aux reins ou en la vescie 
de Taloe bien pulverise et mesle avec du laict qui a si heureux 
succes et profit que les malades en sont incontinent gueris. lis 
s'en servent aux Indes pour faire meurir les flegmons." In 
the same work there is a prescription for the use of fresh aloe 
leaves by Christophe de la Coste. Take of aloe leaves sliced 
3 ozs., salt 3 drms., heat to boiling over a gentle fire^ strain 
and add 1 oz. of sugar. Let the liquid cool, and take it cold 
early in the morning. The patient should be directed to keep 
moving about to promote the action of the medicine, and four 
Kours after taking it some chicken broth may be given. The 
leaves and flower stalks of the aloe are pickled by Banians 
of Guzerat after having been soaked in salt and water, and 
it is a general practice among Hindus to give a little of 
the juice of the plant with honey in a golden spoon to 
new-born children; it is supposed to hasten the expulsion of the 
meconium. The dose must be administered by the father of 

the child, or by the nearest male relative in the absence of 
the father. 


Prof. Bayley Balfour, wlio visited Socotra on a botanical 
expedition in 1880, has given tlie following account of the 
manner in which aloes is prepared: — "The gum is known as 
tdyefhj the natives'. The collector scrapes a slight hollow on 
the surface of the ground in the vicinity of an aloe plants into 
which he depresses the centre of a small portion of goat-skin 
spread over the ground. The leaves of the aloe are cut and 
laid in a circle on the skin, with the cut ends projecting over 
the central hollow. Two or three layers are arranged. The 
juice, which is of a pale amber colour, with a slight mawkish 
odour and taste, trickles from the leaves upon the goat-skin. 
After about three hours the leaves are exhausted; the skin con- 
taining the juice is then removed from beneath them, and the 
juice is transferred to a bag made of skin. Only the older 
leaves are used. The juice thus collected is of a thin watery 
character, and is known as tayef rhiho, or watery aloes. In 
this condition it is exported to Muscat and Arabia, and sells 
for three dollars the skin of 30 lbs. By keeping, however, the 
aloes changes in character. After a month the juice, by loss 
of water, becomes denser and more viscid ; it is then known 
as tayef gesheeshah^ and is more valuble, a skin of 30 lbs. fetching 
five dollars; whilst in about fifteen days more— that is, about 
si.x weeks after collection — it gets into a tolerably hard solid 
mass, and is then tayef kamJiuI, and is worth seven dollars a 
skin of 30 lbs. In this last condition it is commonly exi>orted. 
{Trans. EL Soe. of Edinhuygh, xxxi.. Introductory Chapter, 
p. xxxviii.). 

Description. — Socotrine aloes is imported into Bombay 
tiii Zanzibar and the Red Sea ports. It is packed in skins, the 
packages varying much in size and shape, and often contammg 
a large proportion of rubbish, such as pieces of hide, stones, 
&c. In Bombay the skins are opened, and the aloes repacked 
in boxes for exportation to Europe- The best Socotrine aloes 
is of a golden-brown colour, hard externally, soft internally : 
the odour ia aromatic and peculiar; when powdered or in 
tliin fragments it is orange-brown, sometimes it is almost 

472 - LI LI AC EM 

Jaferabad Aloes Is made at Jaferabad, a town on the coast of 
Kathiawar, belonging to the Ilubshis of Jinjira, a family of 
African origin. The drug in mass is black ; it has a glassy 
fracture ; thin pieces are yellowish-brown and translucent ; the 
powder is of a dull yellow ; the odour powerfully aloetic, with 
an aroma like Socotrine aloes ; when brought in contact with 
nitric acid it does not turn red- Its reaction is then the same 
as Socaloin- Jaferabad Aloes is generally in the form of flat 
circular cakes. From Zanzibar an aloe is imported which very 
closely resembles Jaferabad; it gives the same reaction with 
nitric acid. 

Yamani or Moka Aloes, also called Aden Aloes, is 
imported from Arabia, and is the kind most in use among the 
natives of India. It varies much in quality. It is of a black 
colour in mass, and somewhat porous, but thin fragments are 
translucent and yellowish-brown j the odour is powerfully 
aloetic, without the aroma of Socotrine or Jaferabad Aloes ; 
medicinally it appears to be sufficiently active. With nitric 
acid it gives a deep red colour, like Barbadocs ; the solution in 
sxili)huric acid is not affected by nitric acid fumes. 

Mysore aloes is made in Mysore from a plant which is pro- 
bably only a variety of A. vera. It is called Musambra in 
Southern India, and is used in the arts in preparing a false 

jnldinj? for decorations. 

Chemical comjyosltion. — All kinds of aloes have an odour of 
the same character and a bitter disagreeable taste. The odour, 
which is often not unpleasant, especially in Socotrine Aloes, is 
due to a volatile oil, which the drug contains only in minute 
proportion. The oil is a mobile pale yellow liquid, of sp. gr. 

0-8G3, with a boiling point of 266^ to 271^0. 

" Pure aloes dissolves easily in spirit of wine with the excep- 
tion of a few flocculi ; it is insoluble in chloroform and bisul- 
phide of carbon, as well as in petroleum ether. The specific 
gravity of fine transparent fragments of aloes, dried at lOO'^C, 
and weighed in the last-natned fluid at IG^C, has been found to 
be 1*3G4, showing that aloes is much more ponderous than most 

LILLICEA^, ■ 473 

of the resins, which seldom have a higher specific gravity than 
1 00 to 1*10. In water, aloes dissolves completely only when 
heated. On cooling the aqueous solution, whether concentrated 
or dihite, becomes turbid by the separations of resinous drops, 
which unite into a brown mass, the so-called resin of aloes. The 
clear solution, after separation of this substance, has a slightly 

acid reaction ; it is coloured dark-brown by alkalies, black by 
ferric chloride, and is precipitated yellowish- grey by neutral 
lead acetate. Cold water dissolves about half its weight of 
aloes, forming an acid liquid which exhibits similar reactions. 
The solution of aloes in potash or ammonia is precipitated by 
acids, but not by water. {P/iarmaco(/raphia, p. 686.) 

The most intei'csting constituents of aloes are the substances 
\ known as Aloln. The Aloiu of Jafarabad Aloes has been 
examined by AT. A, Shcnstone. About 1| lb. of the powdered 
aloes was treated with enough proof-spirit to make a thin paste, 
aud after stauding for a few hours was enveloped in folds of 
stout calico and submitted to powerful pressure, by which means 
about 28 per cent, of crude Aloin was obtained. This was 
purified by twice crystallizing from water, then by crystallizing 
several times from dilute spirit, and finally by crystallizing 
twice or thrice from rectified spirit. Portions of the crops of 
crystals thus obtained were burnt with the following results ; 

I- •1104 gram of aloin which had been once crystallixod 
from rectified spirit and dried in vacuo over sulphuric acid ^^.i\c 
'^138 gram of CO^ and -0561 gram of H'^0. 

II. "1380 gram of aloin which had been twice crystallized 
from rectified spirit and dried in vacuo over sulphuric acid gave 
'301:2 gram of CO^ and '0696 gram of II-O. Corresponding to 

Carbon. Hydrogen. Oxygen. 

1 6022 5-64 34-14 

II GOll 5-60 34-29 

The aloin therefore was evidently in a pure state. l'2'^7^} 
gram of pure air-dried aloin dried over sulj)huric acid in a 
vacuum lost '1987 gram of water, corresponding to lu-0 per 





When bromine water was added in excess to an aqueous 
solution of the aloin, a copious yellow precipitate fell. This was 
collected after having been in contact with excess of bromine 
water for an hour, washed, dried, and crystallized three times 
from spirit. The brominated aloin was in beautiful yellow 
crystals, which were rather soluble in cold alcohol, and were 
somewhat more stable than the aloin itself. It retained only a 
trace of water when dried in a yacuum over sulphuric acid, 
which was given off on heating to 100^ C. to 1 W C. -2526 
gram of the perfectly dry substance gave '2539 gram of silver 
bromide, corresponding to 42*75 per cent, of bromine. 

In 1875, Dr. Tilden proposed, as the result of the consider- 
ation of a number of analyses of aloins and their derivatives 
made by himself and others, that the aloins obtained from Bar- 
badoes and Zanzibar aloes might be considered isomeric bodies, 
with the empirical formula C^^H'^0^, which also agrees closely 
with his analysis of nataloin* This formula requires 59'6 
per cent, of carbon and 5 '59 per cent, of hydrogen. Its 
tribromo-derivative requires 42'93 per cent, of bromine. 

It will be seen that of the numbers obtained in Mr- Shen- 
stone's analysis, those for the hydrogen and bromine agree very 
closely with these, and that the proportion of carbon, though a 
little high, also agrees fairly welL 

The water of crystallization found, 16 per cent., is rather 
more than the amount which would correspond to three mole- 
cules, ix.9 14*3 per cent. The difficulty of getting air-dried aloin 
of constant composition, however, is so great that the result is 
not of much value. 

The following comparative observations with Jafarabad aloin 
and Br, Tilden's zanaloin were made: 

There is no distinguivshable difference in the crystalKne form 
of the two aloins. 

Ts either of them gives any change of colour in the cold when 
moistened with ordinary strong nitric acid ; both of them are 
reddened by fuming nitric acid. And the Jafarabad aloin, by 

L1LIACE2E. 475 

prolonged treatment with nitric acid, yields chrysammicj aloe- 
tic, picric, and oxalic acids as zanaloin and barbaloin do. 

Jafarabad aloin, wben treated with potassium chlorate in a 
hydrochloric acid solution, yields a chloro-body resembling 
that given by zanaloin, and when heated with acetic anhydride 
gives an acetyl compound sin^ilar to acetyl -zanalqin. 

-Both of them, when treated with strong sulphuric acid and 
potassium bichromate, give a violet coloration closely resem- 
bling that given by strychnia, but c^uickly fading to green. 

Those r-esults seem to leave no doubt that the aloin of 
Jaf^raba^ aloes is identical witl^ that from Zanzibar aloes, 
tliQugh the colour of the former is distinctly a lighter shade of 
yellow than that of the latter. 

The main points of difference among the aloins may be tabu- 
lated thus : 

1, Nataloin obtained fron; Natal aloes, yields only picric and 
oxalic acids by treatment with nitric acid. Is not reddened, 
even on heating, by that re-agent. 

9. Barbaloins yield cl^rysamaiic, aloetic, picric, and oxalic 
acids by treatment with nitric acid. They may be divided into 

(A) ^"barbaloin, obtained from Barbadoes or Moka aloes. Is 
reddened in the cold by ordinary strong nitric acid. 

(B) 6-barbaloin, obtained from Socotrine, Zanzibar, and 

Jafarabad aloes. Is not coloured bv cold nitric acid, but 

gives an orange 

in the cold with fuming nitric acid. {Shen- 
stone in Phar. Joiirn., Dec, 1882.) 

Conwierce. — Bombay is the centre of the Aloes trade in the 
East and imports from Arabia (and Socqtra through Aden) 
yearly about 1,500 cwts. of the drug valued at about Bs. 30,000, 
Of this quantity from 300 to 400 cwts. (chiefly Socotrine) are 
re-exported to Europe, and 200 to 300 cwts. to Eastern ports, 
the remainder being consumed in India. 

Madras and Sind occasionally export small quantities of 
Indian aloes to Eastern ports. 


The Indian varieties of the drug are manufactured in Kattia- 
war ( Jafarabad) and in Mysore^ and are consumed locally. It 
is imi)ossible to form a correct estimate of the quantity pro- 
duced, but we do not think it can be very great^ as the Arabian 
aloes is the drug mot with in most parts of India. 



Tig.— .Wight Jc.,t 2063, Indian Squill (^^^i/.) • 

Hab.— India. The bulb. 

Vernacular — Kanda, Jaugli-piyaj {Jlind^ ^^^^ff-), Kol-kanda, 
Kochinda {Mar.), Nari-vengayara [Tarn.), I^akka-vulli-gadda 
(TeL), Kattulli (MaL), AdavwruUi ((7w.), Jangli-kunda 


History, Uses, &C. — This plant is not mentioned in the 
Nighantas, but the bulb is used in the preparation of Chandi- 
bhasma or ** ashes of silver *' which is used medicinally by the 
Hindus. Indian Mahometan writers consider the Indian squill 
to be identical in medicinal j>roperties with the sqnill of Europe, 
which was used by the Greeks, who prescribed it combined with 
vinegar and honey much as we do at tho present time {Dhsc. 
ii., 1 G2) ; they prescribe it in paralytic affections, also as an ex- 
pectorant, digestive, diuretic^ and doobstruont in many diseases, 
more especially in asthma, dropsy, rheumatism, calculous 
affections, leprosy, and skin diseases ; it is also coiisidcred to be 
emmenagogue. In the West Urgiiiea SciIIa has been used in 
medicine from the time of Hippocrates ; in Egypt it was sacred 
to the godTj^honaud atPelusium there was a temple dedicated 
to it; it was thought to have the power of driving away evil 
spirits, and to be symbolic of perpetual generation. The Arabs, 
who followed the Greeks in their estimation of its medicinal 
value, call it Basal-el-unsal ^'sea onion,'' or Basal-el-far *'rat's 
onion,'' and the Persians, Piyaz-i-dashti'Vild onion/' European 
physicians in India have expressed various opinions as to the 
modicinal activity of Urrjinea indiea (confer. Phar. of ImUa, 
p. 241), but there would appear to be no doubt that the voung 
freshly-dritd bulbs are sufficiently actiAe, as^ they havJ beta 

LI LI AC E^. 477 


used for iiiaiiy years at certain of the Government Medical 
Store Depots for making the various preparations of the drut?-. 

In India the squill is always kept by native druggists in the 
entire state, this form being preferred by the hakims to the 
sliced and dried bulb. They follow the Greeks and Eomans in 
their method of baking squills (cf. Bioso. loc. cit. and 8crib. 
Larg. Comp. 76). 

Description. — Jlrginea indka is very abundant in sandy 

ground near the sea; the dirty white spike of flowers appears 
lo]ig before the leaves. The bulb is tunioatod, consisting of 
fleshy coats, which enclose each other completely, generally 
about ih(^ size of a common onion ; colour white ; taste bitter 
and acrid. 

Microscopic structure, — Each scale or modified leaf is made 
up of polyhedral cells covered on both sides by an epidermis 
provided with stomata ; like a leaf, it has vascular bundles. 
Tlio cells of the parenchyma are loaded with mucilage, and 
contain an enormous quantity of needle-shaped crystals and a 
few large sqnare or oblong prisms. The presence of the former 
accounts for the itching of the hands experienced by those 
employed to slice the bulb. 

Chemical composition, — The sample dried at ] 00^ C. was examin- 
ed by Dragcndorff's method, with the following results: 

Petroleum ether extract '036 per cent. 

Ether extract. .*... *028 „ 

Absolute alcohol extract • 152 „ 

Aqueous extract 77*30 „ 

Ash • 


The petroleum ether extract was a greasy white residue and 
uon-crystallino. The ether extract contained no alkaloidal 
principle; under the microscope a few imperfect four- side plates 
were visible. 

The alcoholic extract from 9 grams of the anhydrous 
squills injected into a cat's stomach caused vomiting in 20 
JBiuutt^s. and thn T^nftsap-e of a solid stool about au hour after 


the injection; no blood in vomit or stool; the cat was not 
othenvise afEected in any way. The aqueous extract consisted 
chiefly of gum. 

The fresh squill iu slices distilled with water afforded a 
distillate possessing an aromatic odour, but in which no 
appreciable amount of oil was visible. The distillate was agitated 
with ether 3 on spontaneous evaporation of the other, a minute 
trace of a white greasy residue was left, possessing an aroinatic 
odour— applied to the skin no irritation was induced, "We ar^ 
indebted to Assistant Surgeon C. L. Bose for the above 
analysis, which was conducted in the Chemical Examiner's 
Laboratory, Calcutta. 

Substitutes for Sqiiills.—The bulbs of different species of 
Ledebouria (Scilla, Lmn,) are sold in the Indian bazars under 
vernacular names which are equivalent to "small squill," 
L. hyacinthoidesh said by Ainslie to be used by farriers in South- 
ern India for the relief of strangury and in fevers occurring in 
horses. {Mat. Ind., {., p. 402.) From Dr. Hovd we learn 
that the bulbs were used in the Colaba Hospital, Bombay, by 
Mr. Guise, the Surgeon of the island in 1787, instead of squills. 
For many years they were issued from the Bombay Medical 
Stores in lieu of squills {Indian Joiirn. of Med. Phys. 8d.^ Jan, 
18th, 1838, p. 9), but of late years Urginea indica has been in 
use ; both appear to be equally satisfactory substitutes for 

squills • 

X. hyacinthoides has a scaly bulb, about the size and shape of 
a small pear, composed of very smooth and fleshy scales, which 

are so 1 

miffht be mistaken 

if not carefully examined; the exterior scales are dry and 
whitey-brown, the interior fleshy and oream-coloured ; the 
odour is nauseous ; the taste bitter and acrid. 

Bulbs, the size of a large nut, purchased by one of us in the 
Bombay shops, which we have cultivated, proved to be those of 
Ledebouria maculatay Dalz. The leaves were obovate, glabrous, 
wedge-shaped, attenuated into the petiole, purple spotted, and 
never bearing bulbs ; scapes bearinsr a manv-flowered raceme 

LILIAOE^. 479 

of small asphodel-like flowers having a delicate purplish-blue 
tinge, and a bloom like that of the Auricula. This plant is 
very common in the Concan, and comes into blosaom in June, 
immediately after the first fall of rain* 


'Pig.— -Wight Ic, t. 2062; SiUh. FL Gt\, t. 335. 

Hab. — Kortliern India> Afglianistaiik The seeds. 
Vernacular. — Piazi, Bokhat, Binghar-bij {Punjab^ Sind). 

History, Uses, &C. — TheplanthasareputationinSind 
and the Punjab as a diuretic, and the seeds are sold in the shops ; 

•-• -. -•.* ■»- - -IT .TIT T» 



Southern Afghanistan. (Murray.) Sibthorp describes it as 
common near Athens. In Northern India and Afghanistan it is 
eaten as a vegetable. Hesiod, who wrote about 800 B. C.^ 
when he enjoins temperance and simplicity of living in his 
"Works and Days/' says (ver. 30) : 

vf}7noi. ovbi X(Taa'ti>j o&<o ttK^ov ^fiKTV Travroff 
ovS' b&ov iv iiakaxT] re via\ d(7^oS/ Xcouey &P€tap, 

How much is the half better than the whole ! How great a 
blessing is there in Mallows and Asphodel ! Theophrastus, 
in his History of Plants (vii., 11), tells us that Asphodel 
roots were eaten by the Greeks, and an Asphodel is described 
by Dioscorides* as a medicinal plant having diuretic and 
deobstruent properties when given internally, and being useful 
as an external application to ulcers and inflamed parts, &c. The 
Romans called the same plant ^Jlastida re(jla^ or king*s spear, 
and used it as a remedy for morbus regiils or Urepos (cl JTy^j?. de 
MorhiSy ii., 35). Arabic and Persian writers on Materia Medica 
describe an Asphodel with white flowers under the name of 
Khunsa (^^ii^), the same, or a very similar plant, is called 

' Diosc, ii., 159. The Anthericoa of Theophrastus was probably the 
Yellow Asphodel, In Western and Qo\xt\iQni\nAiVi Aidhericum tuberosum, 
Roxb-, is in common use as a vegetable, boiling appears to remove the acrid 
properties of these plants. 


Ashrash, or Sarcsli in Persian; Ibn Sina says (^Avi-'t J^t 
* I JiJI U, To this plant they attribute the same properties as 



^iii.). The root of AspJiodelus hulhosiis under the name of 
Teinisse is used in the East to prepare mucilage and adulterate 


Description- — Annual, stem naked, ramous; leaves erect, 
linear, cylindric, fistulous, tapering to a point; scape erect, 
hranched; flowers small, white with a brownish line running 
along the centre; filaments ciliate, contracted; corol 6-partite; 
stigma capitate ; ovary 3-celled. 


Fig.SoL Reg., t 77 ; Wight Ic, U 20-i7 ; Rheede, Hort. 
Mai uL, t. 57. Superb Lily [Eng.). 

J^ab. Throughout India. The tubers. 

r^r;2,^c?f/4>\— Kalihari, Languli {RincL), Bisha-hinguli 
{Z?^>^i7.), N^ga-karia, Indai, KaKvi [Mar.), Kalaipai-kizhangu 
(rt/»^.)> Kalappa-gadda, Adavi-nabhi {TeL), Radagari (C^;?.), 

Khadya-nuga, Nagli, Kalalavi {Gm.). 

History, Uses, &C. — This very ornamental creeper is 
common on hedges during the rainy season, and its flowers are 
used by the Hindus in the worship of Siva and the Lingam. 
It is one of the seven minor poisons of Sanskrit writers, and is 
described in the Raja Nirghanta under the name of Kalikari. 
The synonyms are numerous ; amongst those which are 
descriptive we may mention Chihna-mukhi *^ having a spotted 
mouth/' Sakra-pushpika " having splendid flowers,'^ Agni-sikha 
" having a crest of fire," and Langalika ''plough-like,'' in 
allusion to the shape of the root. 

Other synonjTns, auch as Garbha-ghatini, Garbha-patani, 
Garbha-iiud, allude to the use of a paste of the root as an 
application to the lower part of the abdomen for the purpose of 
promoting labour pains. In retained placenta a paste of the 
root is applied to the palms of the hands and soles of the feet, 

LILIACE^. 481 

whilst powdered KigcUa seeds and long popiDcr are given 
internally with wine. According to the Nighantas, the root is 
purgative, hot, light, and pungent ; it increases the secretion 
of hile, and is useful in leprosy^ piles, colic, boils, and to expel 
intestinal worms. The. starch obtained from the root by 
washing is given internally in gonorrhoea. 


Moodeen Sheriff, who has experimented with the root, states 
that it is not so poisonous as is generally supposed ; he has 
taken it in small quantities, gradually increasing the dose to 15 
grains. There were no bad effects, but on the contrary he 
found his appetite improved and felt more active and stronger. 
He has also used it in his practice for many years, and considers 
it to be a tonic and stomachic in doses of from 5 to 12 grains 
given three times a day. In the Concan it is given to cattle to 
expel worms, and in Madras it is believed to be a specific against 
the bites of poisonous snakes, and the stings of scorpions, and 
is also used as an external application in parasitical skin 
affections. Surgeon-Major Thomson states that before being 



by which process its poisonous properties are supposed to be 
removed. He also says that the natives select those roots 
which are dichotomous and which they suppose to be those of 
the male plant, whilst single roots, which they suppose to be 
those of the female plant, are rejected. {Diet Ecoii. ProcL 
Indui, iii., p. 507.) 


Description, — Root tuberous, cylindrical or flattened, 
often 7 to 8 inches in length, and about one inch in diameter ; 
when fully grown it consists of two tubers which unite at a right 
angle, one being much shorter than the other ; at the point of 
union may be seen, on the upper surface, a circular scar marking 
the attachment of the stem, and on the under surface imme- 
diately beneath it another, to which a tuft of their rootlets is 
often attached. The tubers arc covered with a brown epider- 
mis, except at their points, which are tailoring and nearly white ,* 
internally they are juicy, white, and farinaceous, and have a 

— (31 

482 LIU AC E^. 

faint acrid odour. ■ The taste is mucilaginous, feebly bitter, and 
has an acid taste. The starch granules are mostly ovoid, 
the vascular bundles few, consisting of spiral and jointed 
vessels. The root is figured by Lyon. {Med. Juris, for Irdia^ 

p. 210.) 

Chemical composition. — The root has been examined by War- 
den, who obtained from it two resins, a tannin, and a bitter 
principle which he has provisionally named Superbiue. He 
considers that the bitter principle is closely allied to, if not 
identical with that of squills. It was found to be very 
poisonous, 0'047 gram injected into the stomach being 
sufficient to kill a full-grown cat, (Inch Med. Gaz., Oct. 


Toxicology. — Ainslie and others speak of the root as violently 
poisonous, and it finds a place in the list of Indian poisons 
published by Chevers. {Indian Ann. of Med. Set., ii^ 

p. 147.) 


following case : — A female, aet. 18, swallowed a quantity of the 
powdered root. Symptoms of poisoning appeared in half an 
hour, and were : retching, violent vomiting, spasms and con- 
tortions of the body, with fearful racking pain ; from time to 
time there were short intervals of relief, followed by a 
recurrence of the same symptoms. Death took place in four 
hours. The post^morfem appearances were congestion of the 
brain and its membranes, with extravasations of blood. The 
lungs, Hver, and kidneys were all deeply congested. The 
gastric mucous membrane showed signs of inflammation. The 
peritoneal covering of the fundus of the uterus (unimpregnated) 
was also found inflamed. 


Yig.^Wight, Ic, t 1056. 
Hab*— Throuo^hout India. 

MLIACEM ■ 483 


Fig. — Ehcede, HorL MaL cr., t. 10. 


Hab. — Upper India, Concan, and Deccan. The roots. 

Vernacular. — Satawar, Satavari [Ilind., Gnz., Mar.), Satamuli 
{Beng.), Shatavali {MaL), Kilavari [Tarn.), Shatavari {T(L)y 

Shipari {Can.), 


History, Uses, &C.— These two plants appear to be 



synonyms of the first, we find Dvipika, Dvipa-satru, Yara- 
ghantika, Narayani, and Sata-padi ; the synonyms of the second 
are very similar, amongst them we note Bahu-puttrika, Dagdha, 
and Bhasma-roha. Both plants are considered to be heavy 
and cold, sweet, demulcent, galactogogue, tonic, and strengthen- 
ing, and to remove bilious and rheumatic humors, blood diseases, 
and swellings ; they are used .both internally and in the pre- 
paration of several medicated oils. The tubers are candied and 
eaten as a sweetmeat. The fresh juice of the root is given 
with honey as a demulcent in bilious dyspepsia or diarrhoea 
iSdrangadhara). As an aphrodisiac, Chakradatta directs four 
sers of the juice of the roots and four sers of (/hi to be 
boiled in forty sirs of milk, and to be flavoured with sugar or 
honey, and long pepper. 

The chief use of the drug, however, is in the preparation of 
medicated oils for external application in nervous and rheumatic 
affections and uriaary disorders. The Naraijana taila, a 
popular remedy of this kind, contains the barks of JEgle 
Marmelos, Premna integrifoUa, Oroxylum indimm, Erythrina 
indica, Stcreo^penmim suaveolens, and F(Bderia fa^tida ; the roots 
of WUhania somnifera and Boerlumvia repens, the fruit of 
Trihulm terrestris, and the leaves of Solanum . xa nt hocarjmm , 
Solanum indicum' Sida cordifolia and Sidu rhombifolia, of each 
twenty tolas. The whole collection is boiled in 64 sers of 
water down to one-fourth and strained. To the strained decoc- 
tion is added four sers each of the juice of Satavari and 


prepared sesamum oil, sixteen scrs of cows' or goats'milk, and a 
paste prepared with four tolas of eacli of the following drugs 
Fennel seeds, wood of Cedrus 'Deodara, root of Nardostachy^ 
Jatamansi, liquid storax, Acorus root, sandalwood, herb of 
Linmanthenium cristatitm, costus, cardamoms, leaves of Desmodium 
gangetimm, of Uraria lagopoides, of Phaseohis tvilohus^ and of 
TerrmDius lahialis, roots of Withania somnifera^ Vanda Itoxhtirghn, 
and BoerJiaavia repens^ rock salt. The whole is then rehoiled 
and perfumed, {Chahradatta,) 

■ r 


Description. — Both plants are scandent woody shrubs, 
the roots of which consist of numerous fusiform, smooth, per- 
ennial tubers, 6 to 8 inches long and \ inch in diameter. They 
have a light brown^ silicious external covering which is removed 
before they are used. The substance of the fresh tubers is 
mucilaginous, white, and somewhat translucent, and has a 
mawkish, insipid flavour. 

Chemical composition. — The powdered roots were separated 


Water extract 52-43 

Crude fibre 33-65 

Moisture 9*46 





The amount of saccharine matter, estimated as glucose, in the 
water extract was 7-14 per cent. Some of this extract was 
boiled and filtered and evaporated down to a soft consistence 
and allowed to remain for three months under a bell jar. At 
the end of that time no crystalline substances had formed, 
indicating the probable absence of crystalline sugars, mannite, 
and asparagin. 

Asparagus adscendens, Roxb., is an herbaceous, erect, 
ilioruy plant growin«- in Iloliilkliaud, Guzerat, and other parts 

LIU ACE IE. 485 

of Central India. Thougli not mentioned in tlic Ni«rliantus^ the 

tuberous root^ decorticated and dried, is in general use in India 
under the names of Suffed-musli, Dholi-musali, or Ujli-musali. 
The commercial article consists of shrivelled decorticated tubers, 
from 2 to 2^ inches lonff, the lar^^est bein? about \ inch in 

diameter ; they are of an ivory white colour, often twisted, hard 
and brittle ; adhering to some of the pieces may be seen portions 
of a yellowish epidermis; when soaked in water they swell up 
and become spindle-shaped, the thickest part being about the 
size of a lead pencil. Under the microscope these tubers present 
a delicate cellular structure, the cells of which contain nothing 
but a little fine granular matter and mucilage ; this surrounds 
a central vascular column, the middle part of which is entirely 
occupied by jointed vessels, the outer portions consisting of 
scalariform ] the portions of adherent epidermis already men- 
tioned are silicious. Sufled-musli has an agreeable mucilaginous 
taste ; w^e have used it largely as an article of diet ; it is far 
nicer than Salep, and is generally relished by Europeans. To 
prepare it, take 200 grs. of the powder, 200 grs. of sugar, pour 
upon them slowly a large teacupful of boiling milk, stirrin 
constantly all the time. The best white picked roots are worth 
I^s. 25 per maund of 37^ lbs. 

Chemical composition. — The powdered roots were examined 
as those of the previous article, and were found to contain- — 

Water extract — . 77